By the end of this course, students will be able to do the following:
(1) Discuss the process of excitation/contraction coupling in cardiac muscle, including the pathway of excitation and the timing of contraction of the different heart chambers.
(2) Draw, in correct temporal relationship, the pressure, volume, heart sound, and ECG changes in the cardiac cycle. Identify the intervals of isovolumic contraction, rapid ejection, reduced ejection, isovolumic relaxation, rapid ventricle filling, reduced ventricular filling and atrial contraction.
(3) Evaluate the effects of changes to resistance, compliance, and conductance on overall hemodynamics at different blood vessel levels, including the endocrine and neural regulation of such parameters.
(4) Understand normal pulmonary mechanics and how pathological conditions alter these parameters.
(5) Evaluate changes to ventilation and perfusion to describe the integration of blood flow and oxygen flow through the body.
(6) Discuss the mechanisms of neural control of breathing and the mechanisms of reflexes triggered in response to changes in blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels.
(7) Demonstrate knowledge of the anatomy of the kidney and nephron, including the flow of materials across epithelia at each nephron segment.
(8) Explain the clearance principle and give examples of how clearance changes indicate pathological conditions.
(9) Outline the role of the kidney in body fluid and pH regulation, including the endocrine and neural regulatory effects on the kidney.
(10) Integrate knowledge of the functions of cardiovascular, respiratory, and renal conditions to describe how these systems work together to maintain homeostasis in the body (e.g. blood pressure, chemistry, and volume).