PY 208 Learning Objectives
The student shall demonstrate, through performance in homework assignments, in-class assessments, tests and a final exam, the ability to do the following:
Electric Charge and Electric Field
21.1 Explain how atoms are sources of “charge”; state the SI unit of charge; give the charge of an electron, a proton, and a neutron. Explain the meaning of conservation of charge and quantization of charge.
21.2 Contrast conductors and insulators; sketch conductors with excess charge and neutral conductors with charge induced by external point charge(s) of either sign; explain the origin of the net force on a neutral insulator produced by a point charge; describe the process of discharging a conductor by grounding.
21.3 Explain charging by friction, charging by conduction, and charging by induction.
21.4 State Coulomb’s law and the law of superposition.
21.5 Calculate the net force on a point charge which is one of a system of point charges.
22.1 State and use the definition of electric field; give the SI units of electric field.
22.2 Draw electric field lines for systems of one or two point charges.
22.3 Calculate the electric field at a point due to a collection of point charges.
22.4 Calculate the electric field at a point due to a continuous distribution of charge; sketch electric field lines; set up and evaluate the integrals needed in the case of a line of charge and a disk of charge.
22.5 Describe the properties of the electric field inside and just outside a charged conductor.
22.6 Describe the motion of a point charge in a uniform electric field; calculate the components of acceleration and velocity and determine the charge’s trajectory; compare to the 2D motion of a projectile.
23.1 State and apply the definition of electric flux through a plane surface in a uniform electric field and its generalization to the flux through an arbitrary surface in a variable field.
23.2 State Gauss’ law and explain its connection to Coulomb’s law.
23.3 Give examples of Gauss’ law applied to various closed surfaces in a region of space occupied only by point charges.
23.4 Use Gauss’ law to derive properties of the electric field just outside an arbitrarily shaped charged conductor in electrostatic equilibrium.
23.5 Apply Gauss’ law to continuous charge distributions of the following symmetry types: cylindrical, planar, and spherical.
24.1 State and use the definition of electric potential difference (PD); give the SI units of PD.
24.2 State and use the definition of electric potential at a point when zero potential is taken to be at infinity.
24.3 Sketch equipotential surfaces for various situations; describe the variation of the electric potential within, on the surface of an isolated charged conductor.
24.4 Calculate the electric potential at various points in a system of point charges.
24.5 Describe the electric potential (V) of a charged spherical conductor; calculate V at various points.
24.6 Sketch some field lines and equipotentials of an arbitrarily shaped charged conductor; what happens to the surface charge density and electric field a sharp points on the surface?
24.7 Calculate the electric potential for continuous charge distributions of various symmetry types.
24.8 Use differentiation to determine the electric field from expressions for the electric potential.
24.9 Calculate the potential energy of a system of point charges; define the electron-volt (eV).
Capacitance, Dielectrics, Electric Energy Storage
25.1 State and use the definition of capacitance; give the SI unit of capacitance.
25.2 Apply the formula for parallel-plate capacitance.
25.3 Define “series”, “parallel” and “equivalent” in the context of combinations of capacitors.
25.4 Calculate the equivalent capacitance when two or more capacitors are connected in series.
25.5 Calculate the equivalent capacitance when two or more capacitors are connected in parallel.
25.6 Determine the charge and voltage of each capacitor in a circuit containing several capacitors.
25.7 Calculate the electrostatic energy stored in a capacitor.
25.8 Explain why capacitance increases when parallel plates are filled with an insulating material; calculate parallel plate capacitance including the dielectric constant. What changes occur when a dielectric is added to a parallel plate capacitor if (a) the capacitor voltage is kept constant or (b) the charge is kept constant.
Electric Current and Resistance
26.1 Define electric current and state the convention for its direction; give the SI unit of current.
26.2 State and use Ohm’s law. What does the IV curve look like for a conductor obeying Ohm’s law?
26.3 Use the formula for resistance of a conductor in terms of resistivity, length, and cross sectional area to compute resistance or to determine the variation of resistance with these parameters.
26.4 Calculate the power dissipated in a resistor; calculate the resistance of a hot plate of a given wattage and line voltage.
27.1 Describe the function of an emf in a simple circuit. How is the terminal voltage of a battery related to its emf?
27.2 Describe the functioning of a simple circuit consisting of a resistor and a battery using the analogy to fluid flow.
27.3 Define series and parallel connections of resistors; use these rules to reduce a resistor circuit to a single resistor and battery (if possible); determine the current and voltage of each resistor in such a circuit.
27.4 State Kirchhoff’s two rules for circuits; apply to various circuits.
27.5 Describe qualitatively and quantitatively the charging and discharging of a capacitor in various circuit configurations of battery, capacitor, resistor(s), and switches; determine the time constant for these configurations.
28.1 Sketch the magnetic field lines of a bar magnet; label its N and S poles; explain why magnetic field lines are closed on themselves.
28.2 State and use the expression of magnetic force on a current segment.
28.3 State and use the expression for magnetic force on a moving charge.
28.4 Apply the magnetic force on a point charge to determine the orbit of a charged particle moving perpendicular to a uniform magnetic field.
28.5 Apply the magnetic force law to calculate the torque on a rectangular current loop in a uniform magnetic field.
Sources of Magnetic Field
29.1 State the Biot-Savart law; apply it to calculate the magnetic field at special points in space due to straight segments and circular arcs.
29.2 Calculate the magnetic field produced by a straight wire; sketch magnetic field lines.
29.3 Calculate the force parallel wires exert on one another giving both magnitude and direction.
29.4 Calculate the net magnetic field at various points in space due to parallel wires.
29.5 State and use Ampere’s law; apply it to the situations with symmetry to obtain expressions for the magnetic field.
29.6 Calculate the magnetic field inside a solenoid or a toroid from Ampere’s law.
Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday’s law
30.1 State and apply the definition of magnetic flux through a plane surface in a uniform magnetic field and its generalization to the flux through an arbitrary surface in a variable magnetic field (compare 23.1); explain why the magnetic flux through any closed surface always zero.
30.2 State and use Faraday’s law in various problems.
30.3 State and use Lenz’s law in various situations.
30.4 Calculate the emf generated by a rotating N turn coil (generator).
30.5 Sketch the eddy currents generated by a metal plate entering or leaving the field of a magnet; sketch the force on the plate.
30.6 Define the self-inductance of a coil of N identical turns in terms of the magnetic flux through each turn and the current.
30.7 State and use the expression for emf induced in an inductor; determine the polarity of the emf in particular cases.
30.8 Describe qualitatively and quantitatively the buildup and decay of current in various circuit configurations of a battery, an inductor, resistor(s), and switches (LR circuit); determine the time constant for these configurations.
30.9 Calculate the energy stored in the magnetic field of an inductor.
30.10 Define the magnetic energy density.
31.1 describe quantitatively how the energy flows in an LC oscillator.
31.2 calculate the resonance frequency of an LC oscillator given the inductance and the capacitance.
31.3 Define capacitive and inductive reactance and explain how they are related to current and emf.
31.4 Describe the phase differences within a series RLC circuit driven by a sinusoidal voltage source.
31.5 Define the impedance of an RLC circuit and use it to relate the current and voltage amplitudes.
31.6 Define the phase constant and give its physical interpretation.
31.7 Define “rms” in the context of an RLC circuit carrying an ac current.
31.8 Calculate the power dissipated in an RLC circuit and explain where the energy is lost.
32.1 Define “displacement current”.
32.2 Describe qualitatively the relation between magnetic flux and displacement current.
32.3 State the Ampere-Maxwell Law.
32.4 Use the Ampere-Maxwell Law to calculate the magnetic field inside a capacitor that’s in an ac circuit.
33.1 Define all the parameters found in the mathematical description of a traveling EM wave.
33.2 State the relation between wavelength, frequency, and wave speed for an EM wave.
33.3 Define the “Poynting Vector”; describe how it is related to the energy carried by and EM wave.
33.4 Define the momentum of an EM wave and use it to explain radiation pressure.
33.5 Define “polarization” as it applies to an EM wave.
33.6 Describe how unpolarized light is polarized by passing through a Polaroid film. Calculate the intensity of a light beam after passing through one or more Polaroid films (the incident beam can be unpolarized or linearly polarized).
33.7 Sketch the path of light rays associated with a beam of light in air incident at an arbitrary angle on an air-glass boundary.
33.8 State and use the laws of reflection and refraction at a plane surface.
33.9 Define the index of refraction of a transparent medium; calculate the speed of light and wavelength in various media.
33.10 Give examples of total internal reflection; calculate the critical angle at various boundaries between transparent media.
33.11 Describe how light becomes polarized on reflection and how Polaroid sunglasses are used to prevent glare.
Image Formation; Optical Instruments
34.1 Sketch rays to locate the image of an object in front of a plane mirror; determine image distance from object distance and characterize the image (real or virtual; upright or inverted; image magnification).
34.2 Sketch rays to locate the image of an object in front of a spherical mirror; calculate the focal length including sign; determine image distance from object distance and characterize the image (real or virtual; upright or inverted; image magnification).
34.3 Sketch rays to locate the image of an object in front of a thin lens; calculate the focal length including sign; determine image distance from object distance and characterize the image (real or virtual; upright or inverted; image magnification).
34.4 Sketch rays to locate the image of an object in front of two thin lenses; determine the final image distance from the original object distance and characterize the final image (real or virtual; upright or inverted).
34.5 Describe the optics of a simple magnifier, a microscope, and a telescope.
34.6 Calculate the magnification of a simple magnifier, a microscope, and a telescope.
Wave Nature of Light: Interference
35.1 Explain the terms “constructive” and “destructive” interference with regard to light waves or other types of waves.
35.2 Sketch Young’s double slit arrangement; determine the position and spacing of either bright or dark fringes on the viewing screen.
35.4 Sketch rays reflected from a thin film and determine whether there is an extra ? (180 degree) phase change or not; calculate the thickness of the film at various bright or dark fringes seen in reflected light.
Wave Nature of Light: Diffraction
36.1 Sketch wave fronts propagating through a single slit.
36.2 Locate the minima and determine the angular width of the single slit diffraction pattern.
36.3 Describe quantitatively how the diffraction pattern changes as the wavelength or slit width increases.
Early Quantum Physics
38.1 Describe the photo-electric effect (PE effect).
38.2 Define work function and stopping potential.
38.3 Explain why there is a cutoff frequency in the PE effect.
38.4 Explain why photo-electrons have a maximum kinetic energy.
38.5 State the relation between intensity, photon number density, and photon frequency.
38.6 Define the de Broglie wavelength.
38.7 Calculate the de Broglie wavelength of a particle, given its momentum or kinetic energy.
39.1 Explain how confinement of a particle leads to quantization of the particle’s energy.
39.2 Calculate the possible energies for a particle of a given mass that is confined inside a box of a given size.
39.3 Calculate the energy of the photon given off when a confined particle makes a transition to a lower energy state.