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Viewing: PB 345 : Economic Botany

Last approved: Tue, 14 Apr 2015 09:15:27 GMT

Last edit: Mon, 13 Apr 2015 12:38:24 GMT

Catalog Pages referencing this course
Change Type
PB (Plant Biology)
345
032155
Dual-Level Course
Cross-listed Course
No
Economic Botany
Economic Botany
College of Agriculture and Life Sciences
Plant Biology (11PB)
Term Offering
Spring Only
Offered Every Year
Fall 2014
Previously taught as Special Topics?
Yes
1
 
Course Prefix/NumberSemester/Term OfferedEnrollment
PB 495Spring 201414
Course Delivery
Face-to-Face (On Campus)
Distance Education (DELTA)

Grading Method
Graded with S/U option
3
16
Contact Hours
(Per Week)
Component TypeContact Hours
Lecture3.0
Course Attribute(s)


If your course includes any of the following competencies, check all that apply.
University Competencies

Course Is Repeatable for Credit
No
 
 
Jillian De Gezelle
Teaching Assistant Professor

Open when course_delivery = campus OR course_delivery = blended OR course_delivery = flip
Enrollment ComponentPer SemesterPer SectionMultiple Sections?Comments
Lecture5025Yesn/a
Open when course_delivery = distance OR course_delivery = online OR course_delivery = remote
Delivery FormatPer SemesterPer SectionMultiple Sections?Comments
LEC5025Yesn/a
Prerequisite: BIO 181 or PB 200 or PB 250
Is the course required or an elective for a Curriculum?
Yes
SIS Program CodeProgram TitleRequired or Elective?
11PBBSPlant BiologyElective
This course covers plants of economic importance that have been valued by societies regionally, nationally and globally from the modern era to the present day. Topics include, but are not limited to, plant species used as food, spices, beverages, oils, fibers, paper, dyes, perfumes, body care, construction materials, fuels and ornamentals. Aspects related to the botany and ethnobotany of economically important plant species will be discussed including taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, ecology, conservation, human uses, social and environmental issues, and roles in the economy.

The Economic Botany course is pati of the Plant and Microbial Biology department's ethnobotany offerings. Ethnobotany is the interdisciplinary study of the relationship between plants and people. Economic botany is an accepted sub-disciplinary area of study within ethnobotany that is interested in plants of economic importance. The course name is consistent with a well-known scientific society and scholarly journal by the same name, Economic Botany. This course covers plants of economic importance that have been valued by societies regionally, nationally and globally from the modem era to the present day. Topics include, but are not limited to, plant species used as food, spices, beverages, oils, fibers, paper, dyes, perfumes, body care, construction materials, fuels and ornamentals. Aspects related to the botany and ethnobotany of economically important plant species will be discussed including taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, ecology, conservation, human uses, social and environmental issues, and roles in the economy.




Through the study of plants and plant products used cross-culturally, students learn that the earth's botanical diversity has provided for a vast array of human needs, and continues to today. Lectures and readings cover topics related to the modern history of plant use, the cultural value and traditional knowledge associated with plant-based products, the advancements in processing and production, synthesis and replacement of products originally derived from nature, the importance of plant products in the global and local market, and the social and ecological implications for the exploitation of these natural resources. The course has been offered once in the Plant and Microbial Biology department as an upper level Special Topics course, had good enrollment for its first offering, and was very well received by the students. This course makes a substantial contribution to the departmental initiative to expand the ethnobotany emphasis within the undergraduate Plant Biology program. This is the first upper level undergraduate ethnobotany course to be offered in the department. The course is open to all interested NCSU students who have taken one of the prerequisite introductory Biology or Plant Biology courses.


No

Is this a GEP Course?
No
GEP Categories

Humanities Open when gep_category = HUM
Each course in the Humanities category of the General Education Program will provide instruction and guidance that help students to:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Mathematical Sciences Open when gep_category = MATH
Each course in the Mathematial Sciences category of the General Education Program will provide instruction and guidance that help students to:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Natural Sciences Open when gep_category = NATSCI
Each course in the Natural Sciences category of the General Education Program will provide instruction and guidance that help students to:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Social Sciences Open when gep_category = SOCSCI
Each course in the Social Sciences category of the General Education Program will provide instruction and guidance that help students to:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Interdisciplinary Perspectives Open when gep_category = INTERDISC
Each course in the Interdisciplinary Perspectives category of the General Education Program will provide instruction and guidance that help students to:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Visual & Performing Arts Open when gep_category = VPA
Each course in the Visual and Performing Arts category of the General Education Program will provide instruction and guidance that help students to:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Health and Exercise Studies Open when gep_category = HES
Each course in the Health and Exercise Studies category of the General Education Program will provide instruction and guidance that help students to:
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
&
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Global Knowledge Open when gep_category = GLOBAL
Each course in the Global Knowledge category of the General Education Program will provide instruction and guidance that help students to achieve objective #1 plus at least one of objectives 2, 3, and 4:
 
 

 
 

 
Please complete at least 1 of the following student objectives.
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

US Diversity Open when gep_category = USDIV
Each course in the US Diversity category of the General Education Program will provide instruction and guidance that help students to achieve at least 2 of the following objectives:
Please complete at least 2 of the following student objectives.
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 

Requisites and Scheduling
 
a. If seats are restricted, describe the restrictions being applied.
 

 
b. Is this restriction listed in the course catalog description for the course?
 

 
List all course pre-requisites, co-requisites, and restrictive statements (ex: Jr standing; Chemistry majors only). If none, state none.
 

 
List any discipline specific background or skills that a student is expected to have prior to taking this course. If none, state none. (ex: ability to analyze historical text; prepare a lesson plan)
 

Additional Information
Complete the following 3 questions or attach a syllabus that includes this information. If a 400-level or dual level course, a syllabus is required.
 
Title and author of any required text or publications.
 

 
Major topics to be covered and required readings including laboratory and studio topics.
 

 
List any required field trips, out of class activities, and/or guest speakers.
 

This lecture course will not require additional resources. The course is part of the faculty member's regular teaching load.

Student Learning Outcomes

At the conclusion of the semester, students in Economic Botany should be able to:


1. Describe the taxonomic diversity of economically important plants.


2. Explain the impact that plants and plant products have on various aspects of human life.


3. Identify the aspects of plant anatomy and physiology that make them valuable to humans.


4. Discuss the origins of agriculture and origins of modern food crops.


5. Describe the importance of maintaining plant genetic diversity.


6. Relate the uses of economically important plants to social and environmental issues.


Evaluation MethodWeighting/Points for EachDetails
Participation10%Participation:
Weekly participation in group discussions related to the assigned reading is required. Full credit will be given to students who come to each class prepared, having read the assigned readings, who contribute insightful and constructive comments to the discussion each week.
Quiz10%Taxonomy Quizzes:
Weekly quizzes on plant nomenclature, testing students on Latin names and families of plants species covered in lecture.
Exam20%Midterm Exam:
Exam with short answer questions, covering material from the first half of the semester.
Other20%Research Paper:
Research paper on plant species of economic importance, covering botany, cultural uses, bioactivity or other characteristics that determine its uses, history of use, and any Paper related social or environmental issues. The paper should be 8- 12 pages in length, and incorporate a minimum of 6 scholarly references, 4 of which must be journal articles.
presentation20%Research Presentation:
Presentation on plant species of economic importance that was chosen for the research paper. PowerPoint presentations should be 10 minutes in length and cover the botany, cultural uses, bioactivity or other characteristics that determine its uses, history of use, and any related social or environmental issues.
Final Exam20%The final is not cumulative, though does include essay questions that address overarching themes from the entire semester, along with short answer questions covering the second half of the semester.
TopicTime Devoted to Each TopicActivity
Course Introduction1 day
Introduction to Economic Botany, Origins and Future of Agriculture2 daysIntroduction to Economic Botany, Origins and Future of Agriculture.
This module covers topics including: plants and human needs, field of economic botany, importance of economic botany collections, review of botanical nomenclature, estimates of numbers of edible and useful plant species, plants and human nutrition, prehistoric plant use, use of underground plant parts for carbohydrates, fruit and dispersal types, fleshy fruits' preadaptation to serve as food, seeds as highly caloric food source, evidence of early agriculture, pollen grains and phytoliths as evidence, theories on why and how humans developed agriculture, plant domestication, Vavilov's centers of origins, crops of the fertile crescent, artificial selection, mutation breeding, colchicine and polyploidy.

Readings:
Textbook Chapters
1. Piants in Our World
2. 0rigins of an Agricultural Way of Life
3.Human Manipulation of Plants

Meyer1 R. S., A. E. DuVal & H. R. Jensen. 2012. Patterns and Processes in Crop Domestication: An Historical Review and Quantitative Analysis of 203 Global Food Crops. New Phytologist 196(1):29-48.
Fruits and Nuts1 dayFruits and Nuts
This module covers topics including: fruit types and edible examples, fruit layers, agamospermy and parthenocarpy. fruits of the Rosaceae family1 apple domestication, stone fruits, fruits of the Ericaceae family, grapes and wine, olives and olive processing, tropical fruit diversity/ tropical fruits as temperate annuals, tomato domestication and history, chile pepper diversity, fruits of the Cucurbitaceae family, botanical characteristics of citrus species, likely coevolution of avocados and extinct megafauna, figs and symbiotic relationship with fig wasps, enzymes from pineapple and papaya, coconut uses, irritants from mango and cashew, cashew processing.

Readings:
Textbook Chapters 4.Fruits and Nuts of Temperate Regions
5.Fruits and Nuts of Warm Regions
Grains and Legumes2 daysGrains and Legumes
This module covers topics including: global grain production and consumption figures, cereal grains of the Poaceae family, non-cereal grains amaranth and quinoa, wild ancestors of grains and grain domestication, grass anatomyr grass plant inflorescence types, vegetative reproduction in grasses, grain fruit anatomy and nutrient content, grain polishing, human selection for non shattering mutants, grain threshing and winnowing, African rice and Asian rice, genetically engineered golden rice, gluten and celiac disease, teff, teosinte and morphological differences from corn, nixtamalizationr Fabaceae subfamilies, nitrogen cycle, peanuts and geocarpy, George Washington Carver, soybeans and soy products1 fava beans and MAOis, favism1 tamarind and carob.

Readings:
Textbook Chapters
6. 01d World Grains
7.New World Grains and Forage Grasses
8.Legumes
Edible Roots and Shoots2 daysEdible Roots and Shoots
This module covers topics including: root and tuber anatomy, bitter and sweet cassava varieties, cyanogenic glycosides and cassava processing, cassava bread, onions and other alliums, corms and rhizomes, potato diversity, Irish potato blight, oca, taro, yams and sweet potatoes, shoot anatomy, stem vegetables, lettuce domestication, edible plants from Brassicaceae family, moringa uses and phytonutrients, foraged greens.

Reading:
Textbook Chapters
9.Foods from Stems and Leaves
10.Foods from Roots, Tubers, and Rhizomes
Culinary Herbs and Spices2 daysCulinary Herbs and Spices
This module covers topics including: global centers of spice production, why humans have spiced food, distinction between herbs and spices, olfactory receptors and system, taste and smell, umami and MSG, volatile compounds, terpenes, phenols, herbs of the Lamiaceae family, antimicrobial activity of oregano, antiseptic and fungicidal properties of thyme, herbs and spices of the Apiaceae family, uses of saffron, types of pepper, cinnamon and cassia, nutmeg and mace, ginger as antiemetic, ginger and turmeric as treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, vanilla and semi-synthetic vanillin.

Readings:
Textbook Chapter 13.Herbs, Spices, and Perfumes

Basker D. and M. Negbi. 1983. Uses of Saffron. Economic Botany 37(2):228- 236.
Stimulating and Alcoholic Beverages2 daysStimulating and Alcoholic Beverages
This module covers topics including: plant derived stimulant compounds, global use of stimulants, caffeine and action on the body, theobromine and action on the body, coffee's position in the international market, tea varieties, tea processing techniques, kola nut, original coca-cola recipe, mate and guayusa, 1-theanine and stress reduction, cacao and botanical relatives, cacao varieties and geographic origins, cauliflory, cacao floral anatomy and phenology, cacao pollination and fruit development, diseases and pests of cacao, alcohol and the human body, fermentation process, agave plants, aguamiel and pulque, mezcal and tequila, Caribbean fruit wines, absinthe history and production.

Readings:
Textbook Chapters
16.Stimulating Beverages
17 .Alcoholic Beverages

Ahmed et al. 2013. Biodiversity and phytochemical quality in indigenous and state-supported tea management systems of Yunnan, China . Conservation Letters 6:28-36.
Oils and Exudates2 daysMonday, 2/23
Midterm Exam

Oils and Exudates
This module covers topics including: oils and nutritional qualities, oils and human disease, seeds oils, fruit pulp oils, triglycerides and fatty acids, oil classifications, flax oil history and uses, soybean oil uses, sunflower as only oilseed crop native to the Americas, coconut oil qualities, coconut oil production process, major palm oil producing countries, palm oil plantations and conservation concerns.

Readings:
Textbook Chapters
11.Vegetable Oils and Waxes
12.Hydrocolloids, Elastic Latexes, and Resins

Meneley, A. 2007. Like an Extra Virgin. American Anthropologist 109(4) :678- 687
Fibers and Dyes2 daysFibers and Dyes
This module covers topics including : early history of fiber use, plant vs. animal fiber characteristics, bast fibers from stems, hard leaf fibers, seed and fruit fibers, fiber extraction techniques including decorticating and retting, historical uses of kapok fibers, bast fiber species, historical uses of linen, hemp fiber uses, ancient history of hemp use for paper and cordage, sisal and henequen leaf fibers, pita plant leaf fiber, pita fiber production and uses, natural dyes, indigo production process.

Readings:
Textbook Chapter 18.Fibers, Dyes, and Tannins

Mati E. and H. de Boer. 2010. Contemporary Knowledge of Dye Plant Species and Natural Dye Use in Kurdish Autonomous Region, Iraq. Economic Botany 64(2): 137-148.

Lincoln, K. and B. Orr. 2011. The Use and Cultural Significance of the Pita Plant (Aechmea magdalenae) among Ngobe Women of Chalite, Panama. Economic Botany 65(1) : 13-26.
Products from Trees and Forests2 daysProducts from Trees and Forests
This module covers topics including: hardwoods and softwoods, wood anatomy, lumber preparation, charcoal production, particle board and plywood, paper from cotton rags, development of paper industry, paper production process, paper recycling process, cork harvesting and processing, deforestation rates and causes, non-timber forest products (NTFPs), NTFPs and conservation, NTFPs and livelihoods, brazil nut harvesting.

Readings :
Textbook Chapter 19.Wood, Cork, and Bamboo
Perfumes and Body Care2 daysPerfumes and Body Care
This module covers topics including: early history of perfume, European perfumery, plant-derived scents and synthetic replacements, distillation process, rose oil and rose water, ylang ylang and aphrodisiac qualities, ylang ylang cultural value, cultural value of jasmine flowers, jasmine tea, lavender, clary sage uses and production, vanilla, shea tree, shea butter production process.

Readings:
Textbook Chapter 13.Herbs, Spices, and Perfumes

Lubbe, A. and R. Verpoorte. 2011. Cu ltivation of medicinal and aromatic plants for specialty industrial materials. Industrial Crops and Products 34: 785-801.

Aburjai, T. and F. M. Natsheh. 2003. Plants Used in Cosmetics. Phytotherapy Research 17:987-1000.
Artisans' Plants and Ornamentals2 daysArtisans' Plants and Ornamentals
This module covers topics including: Panama hat plant history and uses, plants used in basketry, utilitarian and ornamental uses of calabash fruits, vegetable ivory source and uses, seeds as beads, John Crow beads uses and associations, varieties and uses of Job's tears, palm leaf manuscripts, mulberry paper manuscripts, Thai bamboo casts, Buddhist floral offerings, lotus flowers, Thai leaf folding, mulberry paper lanterns.

Reading :
Textbook Chapter 20. 0rnamental Plants
Medicinal Plant Industry2 daysMedicinal Plant Industry
This module covers topics including: complementary and alternative medicine, dietary supplement health and education act, dietary supplement industry, genetic engineering of medicinal plants, phytochemical analysis, natural products research, traditional medical systems, doctrine of signatures, hormone-mimicking plant compounds, nutraceuticals, bioavailability and the microbiome, plant t issue culture techniques, tissue culture and conservation, taxol (paclitaxel) discovery and production.

Readings :
Textbook Chapter 14.Medicinal Plants

Fabricant, D. S. and N. R. Farnsworth. 2001. The Value of Plants Used in Traditional Medicine for Drug Discovery. Environmental Health Perspectives 109(Supp. 1):69-75.
Psychoactive and Poisonous Plants2 daysPsychoactive and Poisonous Plants
This module covers topics including: psychoactive plant compounds and the central nervous system, neurotransmitters and the synapse, alkaloids and the human body, tobacco and cannabis industries, traditional Andean uses of the coca plant, opiate drugs derived from the opium poppy, traditional West African uses of iboga, iboga as an addiction disruptor, ibogaine research and treatment centers, cultural value of khat, stages of khat experience, khat in the Yemeni economy, the dose makes the poison, hemlock and poisons from history, medicines from arrow poisons.

Reading:
Textbook Chapter lS.Psychoactive Drugs and Poisons from Plants
Student Presentations2 daysStudent Presentations
Research Papers are Due at the Time of Presentation
Final Exam1 dayFinal Exam
This course was approved pending by UCCC 9.24.2014.Revisions were reviewed and approved. Because portions were approved as the old CAF, this form was filled out by OUCC, with syllabus, CAF, and consults attached. Approval memos sent via email to Registration & Records and college liaisons.GMN 3.9.2015
Key: 7188