|Topic||Time Devoted to Each Topic||Activity|
|Course Introduction||1 day|
|Introduction to Economic Botany, Origins and Future of Agriculture||2 days||Introduction to Economic Botany, Origins and Future of Agriculture. |
This module covers topics including: plants and human needs, field of economic botany, importance of economic botany collections, review of botanical nomenclature, estimates of numbers of edible and useful plant species, plants and human nutrition, prehistoric plant use, use of underground plant parts for carbohydrates, fruit and dispersal types, fleshy fruits' preadaptation to serve as food, seeds as highly caloric food source, evidence of early agriculture, pollen grains and phytoliths as evidence, theories on why and how humans developed agriculture, plant domestication, Vavilov's centers of origins, crops of the fertile crescent, artificial selection, mutation breeding, colchicine and polyploidy.
1. Piants in Our World
2. 0rigins of an Agricultural Way of Life
3.Human Manipulation of Plants
Meyer1 R. S., A. E. DuVal & H. R. Jensen. 2012. Patterns and Processes in Crop Domestication: An Historical Review and Quantitative Analysis of 203 Global Food Crops. New Phytologist 196(1):29-48.
|Fruits and Nuts||1 day||Fruits and Nuts|
This module covers topics including: fruit types and edible examples, fruit layers, agamospermy and parthenocarpy. fruits of the Rosaceae family1 apple domestication, stone fruits, fruits of the Ericaceae family, grapes and wine, olives and olive processing, tropical fruit diversity/ tropical fruits as temperate annuals, tomato domestication and history, chile pepper diversity, fruits of the Cucurbitaceae family, botanical characteristics of citrus species, likely coevolution of avocados and extinct megafauna, figs and symbiotic relationship with fig wasps, enzymes from pineapple and papaya, coconut uses, irritants from mango and cashew, cashew processing.
Textbook Chapters 4.Fruits and Nuts of Temperate Regions
5.Fruits and Nuts of Warm Regions
|Grains and Legumes||2 days||Grains and Legumes|
This module covers topics including: global grain production and consumption figures, cereal grains of the Poaceae family, non-cereal grains amaranth and quinoa, wild ancestors of grains and grain domestication, grass anatomyr grass plant inflorescence types, vegetative reproduction in grasses, grain fruit anatomy and nutrient content, grain polishing, human selection for non shattering mutants, grain threshing and winnowing, African rice and Asian rice, genetically engineered golden rice, gluten and celiac disease, teff, teosinte and morphological differences from corn, nixtamalizationr Fabaceae subfamilies, nitrogen cycle, peanuts and geocarpy, George Washington Carver, soybeans and soy products1 fava beans and MAOis, favism1 tamarind and carob.
6. 01d World Grains
7.New World Grains and Forage Grasses
|Edible Roots and Shoots||2 days||Edible Roots and Shoots|
This module covers topics including: root and tuber anatomy, bitter and sweet cassava varieties, cyanogenic glycosides and cassava processing, cassava bread, onions and other alliums, corms and rhizomes, potato diversity, Irish potato blight, oca, taro, yams and sweet potatoes, shoot anatomy, stem vegetables, lettuce domestication, edible plants from Brassicaceae family, moringa uses and phytonutrients, foraged greens.
9.Foods from Stems and Leaves
10.Foods from Roots, Tubers, and Rhizomes
|Culinary Herbs and Spices||2 days||Culinary Herbs and Spices|
This module covers topics including: global centers of spice production, why humans have spiced food, distinction between herbs and spices, olfactory receptors and system, taste and smell, umami and MSG, volatile compounds, terpenes, phenols, herbs of the Lamiaceae family, antimicrobial activity of oregano, antiseptic and fungicidal properties of thyme, herbs and spices of the Apiaceae family, uses of saffron, types of pepper, cinnamon and cassia, nutmeg and mace, ginger as antiemetic, ginger and turmeric as treatments for rheumatoid arthritis, vanilla and semi-synthetic vanillin.
Textbook Chapter 13.Herbs, Spices, and Perfumes
Basker D. and M. Negbi. 1983. Uses of Saffron. Economic Botany 37(2):228- 236.
|Stimulating and Alcoholic Beverages||2 days||Stimulating and Alcoholic Beverages|
This module covers topics including: plant derived stimulant compounds, global use of stimulants, caffeine and action on the body, theobromine and action on the body, coffee's position in the international market, tea varieties, tea processing techniques, kola nut, original coca-cola recipe, mate and guayusa, 1-theanine and stress reduction, cacao and botanical relatives, cacao varieties and geographic origins, cauliflory, cacao floral anatomy and phenology, cacao pollination and fruit development, diseases and pests of cacao, alcohol and the human body, fermentation process, agave plants, aguamiel and pulque, mezcal and tequila, Caribbean fruit wines, absinthe history and production.
17 .Alcoholic Beverages
Ahmed et al. 2013. Biodiversity and phytochemical quality in indigenous and state-supported tea management systems of Yunnan, China . Conservation Letters 6:28-36.
|Oils and Exudates||2 days||Monday, 2/23|
Oils and Exudates
This module covers topics including: oils and nutritional qualities, oils and human disease, seeds oils, fruit pulp oils, triglycerides and fatty acids, oil classifications, flax oil history and uses, soybean oil uses, sunflower as only oilseed crop native to the Americas, coconut oil qualities, coconut oil production process, major palm oil producing countries, palm oil plantations and conservation concerns.
11.Vegetable Oils and Waxes
12.Hydrocolloids, Elastic Latexes, and Resins
Meneley, A. 2007. Like an Extra Virgin. American Anthropologist 109(4) :678- 687
|Fibers and Dyes||2 days||Fibers and Dyes|
This module covers topics including : early history of fiber use, plant vs. animal fiber characteristics, bast fibers from stems, hard leaf fibers, seed and fruit fibers, fiber extraction techniques including decorticating and retting, historical uses of kapok fibers, bast fiber species, historical uses of linen, hemp fiber uses, ancient history of hemp use for paper and cordage, sisal and henequen leaf fibers, pita plant leaf fiber, pita fiber production and uses, natural dyes, indigo production process.
Textbook Chapter 18.Fibers, Dyes, and Tannins
Mati E. and H. de Boer. 2010. Contemporary Knowledge of Dye Plant Species and Natural Dye Use in Kurdish Autonomous Region, Iraq. Economic Botany 64(2): 137-148.
Lincoln, K. and B. Orr. 2011. The Use and Cultural Significance of the Pita Plant (Aechmea magdalenae) among Ngobe Women of Chalite, Panama. Economic Botany 65(1) : 13-26.
|Products from Trees and Forests||2 days||Products from Trees and Forests|
This module covers topics including: hardwoods and softwoods, wood anatomy, lumber preparation, charcoal production, particle board and plywood, paper from cotton rags, development of paper industry, paper production process, paper recycling process, cork harvesting and processing, deforestation rates and causes, non-timber forest products (NTFPs), NTFPs and conservation, NTFPs and livelihoods, brazil nut harvesting.
Textbook Chapter 19.Wood, Cork, and Bamboo
|Perfumes and Body Care||2 days||Perfumes and Body Care|
This module covers topics including: early history of perfume, European perfumery, plant-derived scents and synthetic replacements, distillation process, rose oil and rose water, ylang ylang and aphrodisiac qualities, ylang ylang cultural value, cultural value of jasmine flowers, jasmine tea, lavender, clary sage uses and production, vanilla, shea tree, shea butter production process.
Textbook Chapter 13.Herbs, Spices, and Perfumes
Lubbe, A. and R. Verpoorte. 2011. Cu ltivation of medicinal and aromatic plants for specialty industrial materials. Industrial Crops and Products 34: 785-801.
Aburjai, T. and F. M. Natsheh. 2003. Plants Used in Cosmetics. Phytotherapy Research 17:987-1000.
|Artisans' Plants and Ornamentals||2 days||Artisans' Plants and Ornamentals|
This module covers topics including: Panama hat plant history and uses, plants used in basketry, utilitarian and ornamental uses of calabash fruits, vegetable ivory source and uses, seeds as beads, John Crow beads uses and associations, varieties and uses of Job's tears, palm leaf manuscripts, mulberry paper manuscripts, Thai bamboo casts, Buddhist floral offerings, lotus flowers, Thai leaf folding, mulberry paper lanterns.
Textbook Chapter 20. 0rnamental Plants
|Medicinal Plant Industry||2 days||Medicinal Plant Industry|
This module covers topics including: complementary and alternative medicine, dietary supplement health and education act, dietary supplement industry, genetic engineering of medicinal plants, phytochemical analysis, natural products research, traditional medical systems, doctrine of signatures, hormone-mimicking plant compounds, nutraceuticals, bioavailability and the microbiome, plant t issue culture techniques, tissue culture and conservation, taxol (paclitaxel) discovery and production.
Textbook Chapter 14.Medicinal Plants
Fabricant, D. S. and N. R. Farnsworth. 2001. The Value of Plants Used in Traditional Medicine for Drug Discovery. Environmental Health Perspectives 109(Supp. 1):69-75.
|Psychoactive and Poisonous Plants||2 days||Psychoactive and Poisonous Plants|
This module covers topics including: psychoactive plant compounds and the central nervous system, neurotransmitters and the synapse, alkaloids and the human body, tobacco and cannabis industries, traditional Andean uses of the coca plant, opiate drugs derived from the opium poppy, traditional West African uses of iboga, iboga as an addiction disruptor, ibogaine research and treatment centers, cultural value of khat, stages of khat experience, khat in the Yemeni economy, the dose makes the poison, hemlock and poisons from history, medicines from arrow poisons.
Textbook Chapter lS.Psychoactive Drugs and Poisons from Plants
|Student Presentations||2 days||Student Presentations|
Research Papers are Due at the Time of Presentation
|Final Exam||1 day||Final Exam|