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ANS 571 Regulation of Metabolism 3. Prerequisite: BCH 451, GN 311, a course in physiology, cell biology.

Study of hormonal, enzymatic and molecular-genetic regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; emphasis on mammalian species.

MB 555 Microbial Biotechnology 3. Prerequisite: Undergraduate microbiology, genetics, and biochemistry course: MB351, BCH 351, and GN 311.

Overview of industrial microbiology focusing on current biotechnology methods (bacteria, yeast, fungi) employing rDNA, optimization of heterologous gene expression, microbial metabolic pathway engineering, metabolomics, protein engineering and recombinant antibodies. Genetic and pathway engineering strategies for developing new microbes to screen for new therapeutic compounds or overproduce: primary metabolites, antibiotics, biotherapeutic proteins, industrially useful enzymes, medical diagnostics, recombinant vaccines, biopolymers. Utilization of biofilms, methods to immobilize biocatalysts, and microbial kinetics are also covered. Field trip to local biotechnology company. Students cannot receive credit for both 455 and 555.

MB 451 Microbial Diversity 3. Prerequisite: MB 411 and (GN 311 or BCH 351 or BCH 451).

Molecular, biochemical, and evolutionary diversity of the microbial world, including Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryotes. Evolutionary perspective on microbial relationships, molecular methods of study and classical and modern biotechnological methods utilizing this genetic diversity to explore the microbial world and use the resulting insight to meet the needs of our own species.

MB 455 Microbial Biotechnology 3. Prerequisite: MB 351 and GN 311.

Introduction to industrial microbiology with focus on biotechnology including developments employing recombinant nucleic acid and monoclonal antibody techniques. Bioremediation, industrial enzymes, transgenic plants, biopesticides, medical diagnostics, recombinant vaccines production of important secondary metabolites, and other topics. Field trips to local biotechnology companies.

GN 725 Forest Genetics 3. Prerequisite: GN 311.

Application of genetic principles to silviculture, management and wood utilization. Emphasis on variation in wild populations, the bases for selection of desirable qualities and fundamentals of controlled breeding.

GN 311 Principles of Genetics 4. Prerequisite: BIO 183 or ZO 160.

Basic concepts and principles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genetics. Mendelian inheritance, polygenic inheritance, linkage and mapping, chromosome aberrations, population genetics, evolution, DNA structure and replication, gene expression, mutation, gene regulation, extranuclear inheritance, bacterial and viral genetics, and recombinant DNA technology.

GN 701 Molecular Genetics 3. Prerequisite: GN 311.

A discussion of the structure and function of genetic material at a molecular level. Consideration of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. The aim to describe genetics in terms of chemical principles.

GN 703 Population and Quantitative Genetics 3. Prerequisite: GN 311 and ST 512.

Mutation and origin of genetic variation. Measuring genetic variation in natural populations. Gene and genotype frequencies. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Values, means, genetic and environmental variance, heritability of quantitative traits. Random genetic drift and inbreeding. Natural and artifical selection. Theory and tests of models of maintenance of genetic variation. Molecular evolution of genes and proteins. Genome evolution.

GN 721 Genetic Data Analysis 3. Prerequisite: ST 430 and GN 311.

Analysis of discrete data, illustrated with genetic data on morphological characters allozymes, restriction fragment length polymorphisms and DNA sequences. Maximum likelihood estimation, including iterative procedures. Numerical resampling. Development of statistical techniques for characterizing genetic disequilibrium and diversity. Measures of population structure and genetic distance. Construction of phylogenetic trees. Finding alignments and similarities between DNA sequences. Locating genes with markers.

GN 756 Computational Molecular Evolution 3. Prerequisite: GN 311 and ST 511.

Phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide and protein sequence data. Sequence alignment, phylogeny reconstruction and relevant computer software. Prediction of protein secondary structure, database searching, bioinformatics and related topics. Project required.

GN 423 Population, Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics 3. Prerequisite: GN 311 and (MA 131 or MA 141).

This course is an introduction to population, quantitative and evolutionary genetics. This course will acquaint students with basic population genetics models. The course will cover genetic variation; measures of genetic variation; basic and advanced topics of selection; ecological genetics; inbreeding; genetic drift and effective population size; mutation; neutral theory and coalescence; gene flow and population structure; linkage disequilibrium and recombination; quantitative genetics; heritability;' quantitative trait loci; molecular population genetics and evolution.

GN 312 Elementary Genetics Laboratory 1. Corequisite: GN 311.

Genetic experiments and demonstrations using a variety of bacterial, plant and animal organisms. Mendelian inheritance, linkage analysis, population genetics, cytogenetics, biochemical genetics, DNA isolation, electrophoresis, and Southern blotting.

GN 461 Advanced Bioinformatics 3. Prerequisite:GN 427 and ST 311 with grades of C- or better.

This course provides in-depth experience in applying bioinformatic computing techniques to experimental data with a focus on the genetic and biological sciences. The course will provide experience in genome sequence analysis and assembly, extracting, manipulating and visualizing genetic and molecular data, analysis of macromolecular sequences, and generating and visualizing phylogenetic date. Laptop required.

BIO 483 Capstone Course in Integrative Physiology and Neurobiology 3. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 424, BIO 488, and one of the following: BIO/PB 414 or BCH 351 or BCH 451 or GN 311 or ST 311..

Topical problems in integrative physiology and neurobiology. BIO 483 provides a challenging opportunity for students to integrate and apply knowledge and skills gained from their major studies. Emphasis will be placed on collaborative learning and on effective, professional communication. Topics and instructors will vary from semester to semester. Priority will initially be given to seniors in the IPN curriculum; other students with the necessary prerequisites will be admitted on a space available basis.

BIO 485 Capstone Course in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology 3. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO/PB 330, BIO/PB 360, and one of the following: BIO 460 or GN 311 or NR 406 or ST 311..

Topical problems in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. BIO 485 provides a challenging opportunity for students to integrate and apply knowledge and skills gained from their major studies. Emphasis will be placed on collaborative learning and on effective, professional communication. Topics and instructors will vary from semester to semester. Priority will initially be given to seniors in the EEC curriculum; other students with the necessary prerequisites will be admitted on a space available basis.

BIO 484 Capstone Course in Human Biology 3. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 421, MB 351 and one of the following: BCH 351 or BCH 451 or GN 311 or ST 311..

Topical problems in human biology. BIO 484 provides a challenging opportunity for students to integrate and apply knowledge and skills gained from their major studies. Emphasis will be placed on collaborative learning and on effective, professional communication. Topics and instructors will vary from semester to semester. Priority will initially be given to seniors in the HB curriculum; other students with the necessary prerequisites will be admitted on a space available basis.

ANS 708 Genetics of Animal Improvement 3. Prerequisite: GN 311 and ST 512.

Emphasis on the utilization of basic principles of population and quantitative genetics in animal improvement. Factors affecting genic and genotypic frequencies and methods of estimating genetic and nongenetic variance, heritabilities and breeding values. The roles of mating systems and selection procedures in producing superior genetic populations.

GN 708 Genetics of Animal Improvement 3. Prerequisite: GN 311, ST 512.

Emphasis on the utilization of basic principles of population and quantitative genetics in animal improvement. Factors affecting genic and genotypic frequencies and methods of estimating genetic and nongenetic variance, heritabilities and breeding values. The roles of mating systems and selection procedures in producing superior genetic populations.

GN 730 Fungal Genetics and Physiology 3. Prerequisite: BCH 451, BO 775, GN 311 or PP 501.

Basic concepts of genetics and physiology of fungi, with emphasis on saprophytic and plant pathogenic mycelial fungi. Current literature on evolution, cell structure, growth and development, gene expression, metabolism, sexual and asexual reproduction and incompatibility systems. Laboratory exercises on mutant isolation, sexual and parasexual analysis, genetic transformation, and RFLP and isozyme analysis.

GN 758 Microbial Genetics & Genomics 3. Prerequisite: BCH 451 or GN 311.

Structure and function in microbial genetics, with emphasis on microbial genome organization, stable maintenance and evolution. DNA mutation and repair pathways, transcriptional and translational regulation, DNA replication and recombination and characterization of recombinant DNA molecules. Applications of genetic and genomic analysis methods to microbial processes, including strain construction, genome manipulation, and enhancement of gene expression.

GN 427 Introductory Bioinformatics 3. Prerequisite: GN 311 and (MA 131 or MA 141) with grades of C- or better.

This course is an introduction to bioinformatics for genetic and biological sciences. The course will provide a foundation in biological computing that includes command line interfaces, reformatting data, creating and editing graphics, automating analyses and database access, and scripting in biological programming languages used for bioinformatics such as Python, Perl, and R. Laptop required.

BIO 444 The Biology of Love and Sex 3. P: C- or better in two of the following: BIO 330, BIO 410, BIO 424, BIO 488, GN 311; R: Junior or Senior Standing.

The need to find and seduce a mate is one of the most powerful forces in biology. In this course, we will examine the biological factors that contribute to love and sex. We will adopt a broad evolutionarily-based perspective, examining a variety of strategies in both human and animal systems. Our readings and discussions will cover current hypotheses and experimental methodologies spanning genetics, neuroscience, and endocrinology.

BIO 482 Capstone Course in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology 3. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 361, BIO/PB 414, and one of the following: BCH 351 or BCH 451 or BIT 410 or GN 311..

Topical problems in molecular, cellular, and developmental biology. BIO 482 provides a challenging opportunity for students to integrate and apply knowledge and skills gained from their major studies. Emphasis will be placed on collaborative learning and on effective, professional communication. Topics and instructors will vary from semester to semester. Priority will initially be given to seniors in the MCD curriculum; other students with the necessary prerequisites will be admitted on a space available basis.

GN 451 Genome Science 3. Prerequisite: C- or better in GN 311.

Genomic approaches with a foundation in classical and molecular genetics, including both historical strategies used in early major genome projects, and cutting edge contemporary methods for genomics and systems biology; the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of genomes and transcriptomes; use of genomic methods to tackle problems in epigenetics, metagenomics, and proteomics; application to a wide variety of species and biological questions, including evolution and human health; reading, discussion, and presentation of current scientific literature.

GN 434 Genes and Development 3. Prerequisite: C- or better in GN 311.

Overview of pivotal experiments in embryology and developmental genetics; genes and genetic pathways that control development in animal model systems and humans; focus on the application of molecular genetic approaches to the study of genes and development; reading and discussion of primary scientific literature.Cannot receive credit for both GN 434 and BIO 361.

AEC 450 Conservation Genetics 3. Prerequisite: GN 311.

The main objective of this course is to expose upper division undergraduate students and graduate students to conservation genetic tools and applications. Students will learn the genetic and genomic theory and methods commonly used in conservation and management of species. In addition, the course will provide hands-on experience working on current conservation projects here at North Carolina State University. Working in groups, the students will collect, run, and analyze those data for a scientific paper. The final project for all students will be a conservation genetic grant proposal.

AEC 550 Conservation Genetics 3. Prerequisite: GN 311.

The main objective of this course is to expose upper division undergraduate students and graduate students to conservation genetic tools and applications. Students will learn the genetic and genomic theory and methods commonly used in conservation and management of species. In addition, the course will provide hands-on experience working on current conservation projects here at North Carolina State University. Working in groups, the students will collect, run, and analyze those data for a scientific paper. The final project for all students will be a conservation genetic grant proposal.

BIT 476 Applied Bioinformatics 2. Prerequisite: BIT 410 or BCH 454 or GN 311.

The haploid human genome occupies a total of just over 3 billion DNA base pairs. This information is not contained in books, but stored in electronic databases. Computational biology utilizes infer function by comparative analysis. This course is designed for life scientists from all fields to introduce them to the power of bioinformatics and enable them to access and utilize biological information in databases for their own research.

BIT 510 Core Technologies in Molecular and Cellular Biology 4. Prerequisite: Equivalent of CH 223 and (MB 351 or GN 311).

Basic technologies of recombinant DNA procedures, gene expression, isolation and identification of nucleic acids and proteins.

BCH 453 Biochemistry of Gene Expression 3. Prerequisite: BCH 451, Corequisite: GN 311, MB 351.

Structure and function of nucleic acids and proteins. Synthesis of DNA, RNA, and proteins. Gene expression and Regulation. Methodologies of recombinant DNA research. Credit is not allowed for both BCH 453 and BCH 553.

BCH 553 Biochemistry of Gene Expression 3. Prerequisite: BCH 451, Corequisite: GN 311, MB 351.

Structure and function of nucleic acids and proteins. Synthesis of DNA, RNA, and proteins. Gene expression and Regulation. Methodologies of recombinant DNA research. Credit is not allowed for both BCH 453 and BCH 553.

GN 421 Molecular Genetics 3. Prerequisite: C- or better in GN 311.

Biological macromolecules and their interactions, DNA topology, eukaryotic genome structure, chromatin and chromosome structure, transcription and transcription regulation, epigenetics, RNAi and RNA processing, recombinant DNA technology, genetic transformation and cloning of plants and animals. Bacteria, viruses, plants, animals and fungi as genetic systems. Students cannot receive credit for both GN 421 and GN 521.

GN 521 Molecular Genetics 3. Prerequisite: GN 311.

Biological macromolecules and their interactions, DNA topology, eukaryotic genome structure, chromatin and chromosome structure, transcription and transcription regulation, epigenetics, RNAi and RNA processing, recombinant DNA technology, genetic transformation and cloning of plants and animals. Bacteria, viruses, plants, animals and fungi as genetic systems. Students cannot receive credit for both GN 421 and GN 521.

PB 480 Introduction to Plant Biotechnology 3. Prerequisite: BCH 454 or BIT 410 or CS 211 or GN 311 or PB/BIO 414 or PB 421..

Introduction to gene cloning, plant tissue culture and transformation, and the development of agriculturally important transgenic traits. Critical thinking, case studies, and discussions are used to examine global approaches to the regulation and risks of genetically-modified organisms, plant and gene patents, and the consequences of these factors on food soverienty and trade. Students cannot receive credit for both PB 480 and PB 580.

PB 580 Introduction to Plant Biotechnology 3. Prerequisite: BCH 454 or BIT 410 or CS 211 or GN 311 or PB/BIO 414 or PB 421.

Introduction to gene cloning, plant tissue culture and transformation, and the development of agriculturally important transgenic traits. Critical thinking, case studies, and discussions are used to examine global approaches to the regulation and risks of genetically-modified organisms, plant and gene patents, and the consequences of these factors on food soverienty and trade. Students cannot receive credit for both PB 480 and PB 580.

GN 456 Epigenetics, Development, and Disease 3. Prerequisite: B or better in GN 311.

Scientists are just beginning to fully appreciate how our genes and the environment interact to influence human development and disease. The emerging field of epigenetics offers new insights into these complex connections. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression and phenotypes caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. Topics may include imprinting, mechanisms driving epigenetic modifications, how environmental exposures may influence your grandchildren's health, why identical twins exhibit differences in behavior or disease susceptibility, and epigenetic and environmental bases of diverse diseases. We will also discuss experimental strategies for studying epigenetics.JR standing.

ZO 486 Capstone Course in Zoology 3. Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 250, BIO/PB 360, and one of the following: BIO 350 or BIO 402/403 or GN 311 or ST 311..

Topical problems in zoology. BIO 486 provides a challenging opportunity for students to integrate and apply knowledge and skills gained from their major studies. Emphasis will be placed on collaborative learning and effective, professional communication. Topics and instructors will vary from semester to semester. Priority will initially be given to seniors in the SZO curriculum; other students with the necessary prerequisites will be admitted on a space available basis.

BIO 432 Evolutionary Medicine 3. R: Junior or Senior standing; Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 181 or BIO 183 or GN 311..

This course introduces the rapidly emerging field of evolutionary medicine as one approach to appreciating evolution as a unifying principle of biology. The primary goal is for students to better understand the evolutionary nature of many issues connected to human health and to better understand the field of evolution via examples that are medically relevant. The course will require reading and discussing scientific literature. Credit is not allowed for both BIO 432 and BIO 330.