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Department of Animal Science

http://ans.cals.ncsu.edu/

Animal Science is a broad field centered on the biology, production, management, and care of domestic animals. Throughout history, animals have provided humans with a major source of food, fiber, pleasure, and companionship. Undergraduate students study subjects related to various phases of animal science. Courses are offered in anatomy, physiology, nutrition, genetics, reproduction, and management, and there are opportunities for the application of basic scientific training in animal care and well-being areas. Use of animals and animal specimens is critical to our educational program. To obtain full credit for Animal Science courses, students are required to participate in laboratory procedures involving animals and animal specimens. The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) approves all activities with live animals. Many lectures also incorporate animals or animal specimens into the course. Animal Science students gain valuable hands-on experience in our on-campus teaching labs as well as at the five nearby teaching farms (horse, small ruminant, swine, beef, dairy).

Opportunities

Animal science graduates are qualified for positions in a wide variety of areas such as research and development at pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies; livestock, horse, or companion animal management; animal breeding and production; feed and animal healthcare product sales and service; livestock marketing; consulting; state and federal departments of agriculture; breed associations; educational and financial institutions; livestock, horse, and companion animal publications and other media; animal technical services; extension services; and public relations. Animal scientists can be found across the nation and around the world in all phases of production, research, sales, service, business, health, and education. Many students in pre-veterinary medicine obtain degrees in animal science, as do other pre-professional students including pre-medical and pre-dental before attending veterinary school, medical school or dental school. Students may elect graduate study, after which they will find opportunities in teaching, research, and extension. Advanced undergraduates have the opportunity to complete the Accelerated Bachelor's/Master's degrees, which allows students to earn both the B.S. and the Master of Animal Science degrees within five years. See listing of graduate degrees offered in the Graduate Catalog. The Accelerated B.S./DVM for Animal Science Majors (3+1 Advising Guide) is a pathway for students admitted early to a College of Veterinary Medicine to complete the BS in Animal Science degree by transferring back 12 credits after one year in vet school.

Curricula

The degree of Bachelor of Science in Animal Science may be obtained by selecting one of three concentrations offered by the Animal Science Department in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences. The veterinary bioscience concentration is for students who are interested in advanced study in DVM programs and has all veterinary school prerequisite courses built into the concentration. Students in this concentration must maintain an overall GPA of 3.0 or higher. The science concentration is designed for students with an interest in advanced study, such as MS and PhD programs, in disciplines such as physiology,  nutrition, or genetics. This concentration gives students more flexibility to select courses that fit their disciplinary interests.The industry/business concentration is for students who are more interested in the business or production aspects of animal science. It offers flexibility in complementing animal science courses with business, marketing, economics, and applied science course work. There are many opportunities to gain undergraduate research experience with an Animal Science faculty member, to participate in one of the animal-related clubs, and to engage globally by participating in one of our Animal Science Study Abroad experiences. 

Specific curriculum requirements are available on the Registration and Records website

Minor in Animal Science

A minor in Animal Science is open to all interested baccalaureate students who are not majoring in Animal Science. Students completing a minor in Animal Science will become familiar with animal production and its related industries. The minor requires a minimum of 15 credit hours with a grade of “C-” or better, including Introduction to Animal Science, Animal Nutrition, and the student’s choice of Animal Science elective courses. The program is flexible so students may emphasize the discipline or species of their interest.

See the full listing of minors for more information. 

Department Head

M. Todd See


Undergraduate Coordinators

Melissa S. Merrill

Jeannette A. Moore


Director of Graduate Programs

Joan H. Eisemann


Departmental Extension Leader

M.H. Poore


William Neal Reynolds Professor

W.L. Flowers

J. Odle


Alumni Distinguished Professors

K.L. Esbenshade

W.L. Flowers

J.A. Moore


Professors

J.H. Eisemann

K. Esbenshade

C.E. Farin

V. Fellner

W.L. Flowers

E. van Heugten

S.W. Kim

H.C. Liu

M.S. Merrill

J.A. Moore

J. Odle

M.H. Poore

M.T. See

P.D. Siciliano


Adjunct Professors

D. Boyd

M.T. Coffey

J. Cole

W.O. Herring

T.A. Van Kempen


William Neal Reynolds Professor Emeritus

G.J. Eisen


Professors Emeriti

B.P. Alston-Mills

D.G. Braund

L.S. Bull

K.R. Butcher

E.B. Caruolo

J.C. Cornwell

R.G. Crickenberger

R.W. Harvey

B.A. Hopkins

G.B. Huntington

W.L. Johnson

J.R. Jones

F.N. Knott

C.A. Lassiter

R.L. McCraw

R.D. Mochrie

M. Morrow

R.A. Mowrey

R.M. Myers

G.S. Parsons

J.W. Patterson

R.M. Petters

B.R. Poulton

A.H. Rakes

O.W. Robison

F.D. Sargent

J.W. Spears

S. Washburn

L.W. Whitlow

J.C. Wilk


Associate Professors

C. Maltecca

S.E. Pratt-Phillips

S. Trivedi

L. Xi


Adjunct Associate Professors

D. Hansen

J. Holl


Associate Professors Emeriti

E.U. Dillard

R.E. Lichtenwalner

J.J. McNeil


Assistant Professors

K.D. Ange-van Heugten

M.T. Knauer

C. Nestor

C. Pickworth

D.H. Poole

S. Ward


Adjunct Assistant Professors

D.S. Casey

K. Gray

R. Harrell

D. Newcom


Extension Specialists

J.S. Clay

P.A. Dukas

M. Knauer

M.H. Poore

S. Washburn


Extension Associates

A. Cross

S. Davidson

G. Gregory

B. Jennings


Extension Specialists Emeriti

B.C. Allison

B. Hopkins

J. Luginbuhl

D. Miller

J.W. Parker

R.W. Swain


Research Associates

S. Pietrosemoli


Associate Members of the Faculty

G.W. Almond
Population Health and Pathobiolgy, College of Veterinary Medicine

W.M. Hagler
Plant Pathology, Poultry Science

D.K. Larick
Graduate School

J. Piedrahita
Molecular Biomedical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine

M.D. Whitacre
Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine

ANS - Animal Science Courses

ANS 101 Introduction to Livestock and Poultry Industries 3.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

General introduction to nutrition, reproduction, breeding, management and description of marketing channels of animals and poultry. Equates live animal and carcass characteristics with market specifications. Factors of pre- and post-slaughter treatment are related to the shelf life of fresh and processed meats. MCCRAW/GREGORY.

ANS 102 Animal Feeds and Nutrition 3.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Basics of animal nutrition and feeding. Identification and classification of common feedstuffs, including relative nutritional value for livestock and poultry. General nutrition and changes in requirements as influenced by production and the animal's life cycle. Applied aspects of feeding and nutrition of livestock and poultry. Agricultural Institute Students Only (Class= 01 or 02).

ANS 103 Beef Production 3.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Genetics, reproduction, nutrition, animal health, forage management and marketing channels as related to beef cattle enterprises.

ANS 104 Swine Production 4.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Management principles associated with swine production. Primary emphasis on interactions of health, equipment, nutrition, reproduction and genetics during nursery, finishing, farrowing and breeding phases of production. Management of farrowing, finishing and farrow to finish operations. Emphasis on management kills, computer applications and economics.

ANS 105 Introduction to Companion Animal Science 3.
Restriction: Freshmen & Sophomores only.

Companion animals are often considered family members. This course surveys the variation available in companion animals (dog breeds, cat breeds, fish, reptiles, amphibians, rabbits, pet pigs, ferrets, hamsters, gerbils, mice, rats, birds & newer pets such as hedgehogs, prairie dogs & sugar gliders) and then examines related human and animal issues in more depth. Biological explanations are stressed for understanding disease states and normal behaviors of companion animals. These explanations are discussed from the point of view of problem behaviors in the average home housing these animals. This course will help educate the students about companion animals so that both the animals and their human families will be happier and more productive members of society. ANS 105 will enable students to pick the pet or specific breed that is best for them so that pets and owners stay together. Restricted to Freshmen and Sophomores.

ANS 110 Introduction to Equine Science 3.
Prerequisite: Freshman standing or Sophomore standing.

Introduction to Equine Science is a course designed for Freshmen and Sophomores of any major. There are no pre-requisites for this course. We will discuss terminology, impact of horses on history and society, breeds, uses, management, genetics, reproduction, health, nutrition, behavior, and business aspects of the horse industry. Restricted to Freshmen and Sophomores.

ANS 150 Introduction to Animal Science 3.

Introduction to the principles and physiology of animal management, the contributions of animals and animal products to humanity, the application of science to to animal production, and issues regarding animal production. The course includes biological aspects of animal science such as animal behavior, anatomical and physiological aspects of reproduction and nutrition, animal breeding and genetics, and human/animal interactions. Normal management and production techniques (including proper terminology) as well as social issues and current events related to livestock, equines, and companion mammals are discussed. Prerequisite: None. Course is 3 credits. Class meets Monday, Wednesday, and Friday 8:30 to 9:20 a/m/ in 201 Riddick Hall. Fall semesters are restricted to new incoming Animal Science Freshmen. Open to all students in Spring and Summer.

ANS 151 Introduction to Animal Science Lab 1.
Corequisite: ANS 150; R: Animal Science or Ag Extension or Ag Science or Ag Education majors.

Hands-on experience and demonstrations with livestock and horses; identification of common management equipment and knowledge of proper use; animal tracts, organs, skulls, feeds, breeds, and other animal-related items or topics. The lecture (ANS 150) must be taken concurrently or have been passed previously with a C-minus or higher. This lab course is restricted to the following majors: Animal Science, Ag Extension, Ag Science, and Ag Education. Transportation is provided to the off-campus labs, and students will be returned to campus prior to the end of the scheduled lab period.

ANS 201 Techniques of Animal Care 2.
Prerequisite: ANS 150 (all ANS Majors) or ANS 101 (Ag Institute Livestock, Poultry Mgmt Program).

A laboratory course in the applied management of beef cattle, dairy cattle, swine and small ruminants with participatory assignments of common techniques utilized in livestock production.

ANS 205 Physiology of Domestic Animals 3.
Prerequisite: (BIO 181 or BIO 183) and Sophomore standing.

This course is designed to introduce students to mammalian physiology (structure and function) with emphasis on livestock species. Students will gain a basic understanding of body systems including circulatory, muscular, skeletal, digestive, and reproductive systems and functions of those systems with relevance to the whole animal and maintenance of homeostasis.

ANS 206 Anatomy of Domestic Animals Lab 1.
Corequisite: ANS 205.

This lab course is designed for Animal Science majors to take with the ANS 205 lectures (Physiology of Domestic Animals). Students will learn to identify major anatomical and cellular structures from domestic animal (livestock) specimens through examination of gross and microscopic anatomy. SAS and IAS majors only.

ANS 208 Agricultural Biotechnology: Issues and Implications 3.

Trends and issues of agricultural biotechnology in today's society are addressed while covering the basic biological science behind the technology. Applications of and policy issues associated with plant, animal, and environmental biotechnology used in the agricultural industry are examined from an interdisciplinary approach.

ANS 215 Agricultural Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 183 or equivalent or instructor's consent.

To provide an introduction to the science of genetics as applied to agriculture. Emphasis is given to qualitative and quantitative genetics. By the end of this course, students should be able to apply genetic concepts to efficiently solve problems and make predictions necessary for "real-life" agricultural situations.

ANS 220 Reproductive Physiology 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 205 or BIO 250.

Biological processes in reproduction and lactation with emphasis on domestic mammals such as cattle, sheep, goats, horses, swine, dogs, cand cats. Environmental and genetic factors that affect these processes. Identification, evaluation and solutions of problems in these physiological areas.

ANS 221 Reproductive Physiology Lab 1.
Corequisite of ANS 220.

ANS 221 is a laboratory course that introduces students to the application of principles of reproduction and lactation in domestic mammals. Students must have either completed or concurrently be enrolled in ANS 220. This course is restricted to Animal Science majors (SAS, IAS).

ANS 225 Principles of Animal Nutrition 3.

This online Principles of Animal Nutrition course is designed for non-Animal Science majors and off-campus students. It includes: feed classification, gastrointestinal tract anatomy of domestic mammals, nutrients and their functions, digestion and metabolism, feed regulations, and feeding/nutrition of cattle, small ruminants, horses, swine, poultry, dogs, cats, and rabbits. For on-campus students, ANS 225 counts toward the Animal Science minor but only counts as a Free Elective for Animal Science majors.

ANS 230 Animal Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 150 or BIO 183; ANS 205 is also recommended..

Introduction to nutrition, digestion, and absorption in domestic mammals. Major nutrient classes and their functions in the body, feed classification and chemical analysis, feed processing, and nutrient requirements.

ANS 231 Animal Nutrition Lab 1.
Corequisite: ANS 230.

ANS 231 is a laboratory course that introduces students to the application of principles of nutrition and applied feeding of domestic mammals. Students must have either completed or concurrently be enrolled in ANS 230. This course is restricted to Animal Science Majors (SAS, IAS).

ANS 240 Livestock Merchandising 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 150; Restrictive Statement: Students must be Juniors or Seniors.

This course is designed to acquaint students with different methods for merchandising livestock and with strategies for adding value to products produced from livestock. Students will learn new ways to promote a farming operation. Required visits to Animal Educational Units outside of normal class time and student must provide own transportation. Two required mandatory Saturday events. The animal auction held on the 2nd Saturday of April and the Open House held either one or two Saturdays (varies depending on the Spring Holiday) prior to the animal auction.

ANS 240A Livestock Merchandising 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 101; Restrictive Statement: AGI Students Only.

This course is designed to acquaint students with different methods for merchandising livestock and with strategies for adding value to products produced from livestock. Students will learn new ways to promote a farming operation. Required visits to Animal Educational Units outside of normal class time and student must provide own transportation. Two required mandatory Saturday events. The animal auction held on the 2nd Saturday of April and the Open House held either one or two Saturdays (varies depending on the Spring Holiday) prior to the animal auction.

ANS 260 Basic Swine Science 2.
Restriction: Non-ANS (Animal Science) students only. ANS students cannot take this course for credit..

Basic disciplines and concepts involved in swine production including: industry structure, trends and statistics; production phases and buildings; genetic improvement; reproduction; nutrition; health and biosecurity; nutrient management; marketing, meat quality, and career opportunities in the swine industry. .

ANS 261 Swine Health and Biosecurity 1.
Prerequisite: ANS 150 or equivalent.

Introduction and basic overview of the immune system, swine disease transmission and pathobiology, standard biosecurity protocols, identification of disease in pigs, basic treatment administration, and disease prevention.

ANS 262 Swine Breeding and Gestation Management 1.
Prerequisite: ANS 150 or equivalent.

Management principles associated with breeding and gestation in swine. Emphasis on reproductive anatomy and physiology of boars and sows, development of replacement animals, semen production and evaluation, artificial insemination, and use of reproductive records. Extensive use of reproductive case studies.

ANS 263 Farrowing Management 1.
Prerequisite: ANS 150 or equivalent.

Advanced integration and application of factors important in the proper care and management of swine during farrowing and lactation.

ANS 264 Swine Nursery and Finishing Management 1.
Prerequisite: ANS 150 or equivalent.

Overview of the critical management, housing, and financial considerations relevant to the successful operation of a swine nursery, grow-finish, or wean to finish enterprise.

ANS 265 Contemporary Issues in the Swine Industry 1.
Prerequisite: ANS 150 or equivalent.

Overview of current issues affecting pork production in the United States, including, but not limited to: environment, Swine welfare and profitability/market issues. Development of skills to promote animal agriculture when dealing with the media and general public.

ANS 266 Swine Environment Management 1.
Prerequisite: ANS 150 or equivalent.

Course includes response of swine to thermal environment ventilation system design and analysis, heating and cooling, systems and examples of various designs for all phases of production. Troubleshooting and energy analysis will be included as well.

ANS 267 Swine Manure and Nutrient Management 1.
Prerequisite: ANS 150 or equivalent.

Course includes manure production rates, manure handling systems, storage and manure management planning for land applications. Some odor mitigation technologies will be covered.

ANS 268 Employee Management for the Swine Industry 1.
Prerequisite: ANS 150 or equivalent.

Effective employee management in swine production units. Principles, policies, and practices related to hiring, development and retention of employees, as well as fundamental organizational management.

ANS 269 Internship in the Swine Industry 1.
Prerequisite: ANS 150 or equivalent.

Experiential learning in the swine industry through opportunities that provide hands-on experience and exposure to the scope of pork enterprises. Students can expect to apply principles and practices already learned, and add practical experience to their skill sets and knowledge base. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

ANS 270 Pork Export Markets from a Swine Production Perspective 1.
Prerequisite: ANS 150 or equivalent.

Introduction to global markets; cultural preferences and customs associated with the global swine industry. International trade regulations and potential impact of foreign animal diseases and bioterrorism affecting the U.S. swine industry.

ANS 271 Swine Nutrition 1.
Prerequisite: ANS 150 or ANS 260 or EquivalentRestriction: Restricted to non-ANS (Animal Science) students. ANS students cannot take the course for credit..

Principles involved with developing and implementing a swine feeding program, including fundamentals of feeding pigs, understanding nutrients used in pig diets, factors affecting nutrient recommendations, feeding systems for pigs, feed ingredients, and formulation of swine diets.

ANS 281 Professional Development of PreVeterinary Track Students 1.
Prerequisite: ZO 160 or BIO 125 or BIO 181 or BIO 183.

This course introduces PreVeterinary track students to the scope of the veterinary profession and to current issues affecting veterinary professionals. The course will help students gain an understanding of the professional requirement of the veterinary school applications. Students will be expected to discuss current animal and public health issues as well as areas of national shortage in the veterinary profession. One Saturday at the NCSU vet school Open House is required (first Saturday in April).

ANS 291 Animal Science Study Abroad 1-6.

Course sections offered as needed for international learning experiences in Animal Science involving international travel and N.C. State University Faculty-supervised learning in the non-U.S. location. A maximum of one credit hour per week of supervised study will be assigned, and the faculty member will provide students with a syllabus outlining the requirements for successful completion (grade of "S"). This course counts as a free elective. All expenses including travel, are the responsibility of the student. The student is also responsible for obtaining a valid passport.

ANS 292 Australian Animal Agriculture 3.
Prerequisite: Cumulative GPA greater than 2.0..

This course involves travel to Australia through N.C. State University's Study Abroad Program. Participants will have the opportunity to increase their knowledge and understanding in the principle areas of animal and veterinary sciences and Australian studies. Species studied include cattle (beef and dairy), sheep, goats, pigs, native Australian animals, and non-native feral animals (such as rabbits). All expenses, including the Study Abroad fee and airline travel, are the responsibility of the student. The student is also responsible for obtaining a valid passport.

ANS 303 Principles of Equine Evaluation 2.
Prerequisite: ANS 110.

Conformation and function, performance, and soundness of the horse. Breed standards, rules, and regulations for evaluation, selection, and performance. Field trips.

ANS 304 Dairy Cattle Evaluation 2.
Prerequisite: ANS 150.

The first half of this course covers basic aspects of dairy cattle breeds, dairy character, form and function including type traits and linear scoring of dairy cattle, interpreting and using judging scorecards, comparing/evaluating dairy cattle, andplacing animals in a class. The second half of the course develops the student's ability to correctly evaluate dairy cattle classes, but more importantly to support their opinions through oral communication.

ANS 309 Livestock Evaluation 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 150.

Students will be exposed to basic concepts associated with growth, development and value determination of livestock. Familiarization with official USDA grading standards for cattle, sheep, swine and goats is emphasized. Introduction to judging terminology, placing classes of livestock and justification through oral reasons.

ANS 322 Muscle Foods and Eggs 3.
Prerequisite: ZO 160, BIO 181 or BIO 183.

Processing and preserving fresh poultry, red meats, seafood, and eggs. Ante- and post-mortem events as they affect quality, yield, and compositional characteristics of muscle foods. Principles and procedures involved in the production of processedmeat items.

ANS 324 Milk and Dairy Products 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 181 or 183, CH 101.

Introduction to the manufacture of dairy products. Dairy processing procedures from the farm, through the dairy plant, and to the consumer are studied. The course consists of 15 learning modules, three exams, and a project.

ANS 330 Laboratory Animal Science 3.

A sophomore to senior level course designed to cover the basics of laboratory animal science, a specialty dealing with the use of vertebrate animal species in intensive research. Some topics to be covered are: husbandry, facility management, animalhealth and welfare, diagnostics, surgical area management, research methods and administrative duties. Students will use the material for studying for the certification as a Laboratory Animal Technician via the American Association For Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS). A separate fee is required for certification; this fee is not covered by tuition for ANS 330. Must hold sophomore standing or higher.

ANS 400 Companion Animal Management 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 105 and Junior standing.

Anatomy, physiology, nutrition, genetics, and health of companion animals including cats, dogs, rabbits, rats, mice, reptiles, amphibians, and fish. Problem solving and enterprise management skills in laboratories.

ANS 402 Beef Cattle Management 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 150, Junior standing.

ANS 402 integrates technical information from nutrition, reproduction, genetics, physiology, and animal welfare into management decisions that will enhance a beef cattle operation. Students will engage in beef cattle and environmental management and varied communication formats to explore relationships between sectors of the beef industry from cow-calf to the consumer.

ANS 403 Swine Management 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 150; Restrictive Statement: Students must be Juniors or Seniors.

Management principles associated with swine production. Emphasis on interactions of health, equipment, nutrition, reproduction and genetics during nursery, finishing, farrowing and breeding phases of production. Waste management practices and alternatives, development of marketing strategies and economic evaluation of management practices.

ANS 404 Dairy Cattle Management 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 150, Junior standing.

In ANS 404, students will develop a better understanding of dairy cattle management with an emphasis on the impact of decisions on productivity, health, profitability, and the future of the dairy enterprise.

ANS 408 Small Ruminant Management 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 150, Junior standing.

Principles and practices of production, management, and marketing of sheep and goats. Role of genetics, nutrition, reproduction and animal health. Hands-on experience and field trips during labs.

ANS 410 Equine Breeding Farm Management 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 110 and Junior standing.

Equine anatomy, physiology, nutrition, genetics and health. Laboratory emphasis on reproductive management, breeding, problem solving, and management skills. Field trips required.

ANS 411 Management of Growing and Performance Horses 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 110.

This course is an overview of scientific applications used in management of growing and performance horses. Topics include: nutrition and feeding, disease prevention, exercise conditioning, and methods of evaluation and selection. Students required to provide their own transportation to labs. Must hold junior or senior standing.

ANS 415 Comparative Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 225 or ANS 230 or CH 220 or CH 223 or CH 227.

Principles of nutrition, including the classification of nutrients and the nutrient requirements of and metabolism by different species for health, growth, maintenance and productive functions.

ANS 425 Feed Manufacturing Technology 3.
Prerequisite: ANS(NTR,PO) 415 or ANS 230 or ANS 225.

Feed mill management, feed ingredient purchasing, inventory, storage, and quality evaluation, computerized feed formulation, feeding programs for poultry and swine, feed mill design, equipment, maintenance, operation, safety, state and federal regulations pertaining to feed manufacture.

ANS 440 Animal Genetic Improvement 3.

Modern evaluation and selection procedures for domestic animals; selection goals, estimation of breeding values and performance testing; their impact on genetic changes.

ANS 452 Comparative Reproductive Physiology and Biotechnology 3.

Comparative approach to examining aspects of reproductive physiology in selected vertebrate species. Detailed examination of current reproductive biotechnologies and ethical issues associated with the application of reproductive biotechnologies. Credit will not be given for both ANS 452 and ANS (PHY) 552.

ANS 453 Physiology and Genetics of Growth and Development 3.

Introduction to the basic concepts of growth with emphasis on domestic mammals. Growth of the major classes of animal tissues and regulation by endogenous and exogenous factors. Relationship to efficiency of animal production. Credit will not be given for both ANS 453 and 553.

ANS 454 Lactation, Milk and Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 230 or FS/NTR 400; BCH 451 or ZO 421.

Nutritional properties of milk as a high-quality food with nutritional diversity. Principles of physiology, biochemistry and cell biology in the mammary gland. Procedures of milk production and milk collection for milk quality and nutrition. Human lactation vs. that of domestic animals. Impacts of biotechnology and food safety on dairy production. Credit will not be given for both ANS 454 and 554.

ANS 480 Judging Team 1.
Prerequisite: ANS 303 or ANS 304 or ANS 309.

Students practice judging techniques for livestock, horses, or dairy animals, including ranking animals and providing oral reasons to defend the rankings. Students meet weekly with a coach to practice locally and will also travel to compete in one or two regional or national competitions. Each team (livestock, horse, dairy) is expected to raise funds to finance the trips. Students earn 1 credit for being on a team, and can earn up to 3 credits of Free Elective for ANS 480 by serving on the judging team for different species. Field trips that last several days are required. Departmental Approval Required. Course may be taken up to 3 times (once per species).

ANS 492 Professional Internship Experience in the Animal Sciences 1-3.

This course provides an opportunity for students to gain real-world experience relevant to their academic and career goals. A minimum of 45 hours must be completed for each credit hour earned, with 3 credit hours maximum for each experience. The experience must be arranged by the student and approved by the Department of Animal Science prior to the start of the experience. To gain approval, a student must submit the completed ANS 492 contract and have it approved by his/her experience supervisor, academic advisor and the ANS 492 coordinator. In addition to the work described in the contract, a student will complete a series of reflective assignments during and at the end of the experience.

ANS 493 Research Experience in the Animal Sciences 1-3.

This course provides an opportunity for students to gain real-world experience in a scientific research program. A minimum of 45 hours must be completed for each credit hour earned, with 3 credit hours maximum for each experience. The experience must be arranged by the student and approved by the Department of Animal Science prior to the start of the experience. To gain approval, a student must submit the completed ANS 493 contract and have it approved by his/her research supervisor, academic advisor and the ANS 493 coordinator. In addition to the work described in the contract, a student will complete a series of reflective assignments during and at the end of the experience.

ANS 494 Teaching Experience in the Animal Sciences 1-3.

This course provides an opportunity for students to gain experience with some aspect of teaching, including: leading or facilitating lessons, producing educational resources, or education research. A minimum of 45 hours must be completed for each credit hour earned, with 3 credit hours maximum for each experience. The experience must be arranged by the student and approved by the Animal Science Department prior to the start of the experience. To gain approval, a student must submit the completed ANS 494 contract and have it approved by his/her research supervisor, academic advisor and the ANS 494 coordinator. If the experience involves education research, the research mentor is encouraged to require a research paper or poster presentation as part of the work expectations when appropriate. In addition to the work described in the contract, a student will complete a series of reflective assignments during and at the end of the experience.

ANS 495 Special Topics in Animal Science 1-3.

Offered as needed to present material not normally available in regular course offerings or for offering of new courses on a trial basis.

ANS 515 Comparative Nutrition 3.

Principles of nutrition, including the classification of nutrients and the nutrient requirements of and metabolism by different species for health, growth, maintenance and productive functions.

ANS 525 Feed Manufacturing Technology 3.

Feed mill management, feed ingredient purchasing, inventory, storage, and quality evaluation, computerized feed formulation, feeding programs for poultry and swine, feed mill design, equipment, maintenance, operation, safety, state and federal regulations pertaining to feed manufacture.

ANS 530 Advanced Applied Animal Reproduction 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 220.

Current reproductive management techniques for each of the major mammalian livestock species. Enable students to develop reproductive decision making skills. Must hold graduate status.

ANS 531 Advanced Applied Animal Reproduction Lab 1.
Prerequisite: ANS 220, Corequisite: ANS 530.

Practical experience in routine reproductive management techniques discussed in ANS 530. Must hold graduate status.

ANS 540 Animal Genetic Improvement 3.

Modern evaluation and selection procedures for domestic animals; selection goals, estimation of breeding values and performance testing; their impact on genetic changes.

ANS 550 Applied Ruminant Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 230 or ANS(NTR,PO) 415. Permission given to undergraduates.

Applied concepts in ruminant nutrition for the practicing agricultural professional. Protein, energy, vitamin and mineral nutrition in relation to the nutritional needs and practical feeding of beef cattle, dairy cattle, sheep, and goats. New developments in feeding systems, feed additives and the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders. Emphasis on solving problems in case studies. Permission given to undergraduates.

ANS 552 Comparative Reproductive Physiology and Biotechnology 3.

Comparative approach to examining aspects of reproductive physiology in selected vertebrate species. Detailed examination of current reproductive biotechnologies and ethical issues associated with the application of reproductive biotechnologies. Credit will not be given for both ANS 452 and ANS (PHY) 552.

ANS 553 Physiology and Genetics of Growth and Development 3.

Introduction to the basic concepts of growth with emphasis on domestic mammals. Growth of the major classes of animal tissues and regulation by endogenous and exogenous factors. Relationship to efficiency of animal production. Credit will not be given for both ANS 453 and 553.

ANS 554 Lactation, Milk and Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 230 or FS/NTR 400; BCH 451 or ZO 421.

Nutritional properties of milk as a high-quality food with nutritional diversity. Principles of physiology, biochemistry and cell biology in the mammary gland. Procedures of milk production and milk collection for milk quality and nutrition. Human lactation vs. that of domestic animals. Impacts of biotechnology and food safety on dairy production. Credit will not be given for both ANS 454 and 554.

ANS 561 Equine Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite:NTR 500 or NTR/FS 501 or NTR/PO 515.

This course explores concepts in equine nutrition including digestive physiology of horses, nutrient requirements for different classes of horses and feed management. Ration evaluation and balancing, as well as problem solving will be a core component to this course.

ANS 571 Regulation of Metabolism 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 451, GN 311, a course in physiology, cell biology.

Study of hormonal, enzymatic and molecular-genetic regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism; emphasis on mammalian species.

ANS 575 Current Topics in Genomics and Proteomics in Animal Science 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 215 or GN 411.

The objective of this course is to provide students with an integrated exposure to the major current concepts in genomics and proteomics. Genomic and proteomic methods will be covered at a level that will allow students to read and comprehend articles dealing with animal genome research.

ANS 590 Topical Problems in Animal Science 1-3.

Selection or assignment of special problems in various phases of animal science.

ANS 601 Animal Science Seminar 1.

ANS 603 Reproductive Physiology Seminar 1.

ANS 604 Animal Breeding and Genetics Seminar 1.

ANS 610 Topical Problems in Animal Science 1-6.

Selection or assignment of special problems in various phases of animal science.

ANS 641 Practicum in Animal Science 1-3.

ANS 685 Master's Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

ANS 690 Master's Exam 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all other requirements of the degree except preparing for and taking the final master's exam.

ANS 693 Master's Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

ANS 695 Master's Thesis Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Thesis research.

ANS 696 Summer Thesis Research 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

ANS 699 Master's Thesis Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements and full-time enrollment for the master's degree and are writing and defending their thesis.

ANS 701 Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism 3.
Prerequisite: ANS/BCH 571 and ZO 421 and a 400-level nutrition course, such as NTR 400, 415, or 419, or equivalent type course numbers here..

Study of protein and amino acid metabolism, regulation, dietary requirements and techniques for their investigation in human and other animals.

ANS 702 Reproductive Physiology of Mammals 3.
Prerequisite: ZO 421.

Survey of reproductive strategies among vertebrates; in-depth coverage of mammalian reproductive physiology; gametogenesis, fertilization, embryonic and fetal development, parturition, puberty, neuroendrocrine control mechanisms in male and female mammals.

ANS 708 Genetics of Animal Improvement 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311 and ST 512.

Emphasis on the utilization of basic principles of population and quantitative genetics in animal improvement. Factors affecting genic and genotypic frequencies and methods of estimating genetic and nongenetic variance, heritabilities and breeding values. The roles of mating systems and selection procedures in producing superior genetic populations.

ANS 709 Energy Metabolism 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 553.

Relationship of biochemical and physiological events within cell, tissue, organ and system with nutrient needs as sources of energy for productive animal life. Digestion, absorption and metabolism of energy sources. Processes of energy transformations within the body in relation to energetics, biological oxidation, anabolic and catabolic systems, metabolic control, partitioning and efficiency.

ANS 713 Quantitative Genetics and Breeding 3.
Prerequisite: GN 509, ST 512.

Quantitative and population genetic theory of breeding problems; partitioning of genetic variance, maternal effects, genotype by environment interaction and genetic correlation; selection indexes; design and analysis of selection experiments; marker-assisted selection.

ANS 726 Advanced Topics In Quantitative Genetics and Breeding 3.
Prerequisite: ST 511, Corequisite: ST 512.

Advanced topics in quantitative genetics pertinent to population improvement for quantitative and categorical traits with special applications to plant and animal breeding. DNA markers - phenotype associations. The theory and application of linear mixed models, BLUP and genomic selection using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Pedigree and construction of genomic relationships matrices from DNA markers and application in breeding.

ANS 780 Mammalian Endocrinology 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 451, ZO 421.

Mammalian endocrine system with emphasis on ontogeny and anatomy of key organs; synthesis and action of hormones. Role of hormones in regulation of physiological processes such as metabolism, exocrine function, digestion, ion balance, behavior, lactation, growth and reproduction.

ANS 803 Reproductive Physiology Seminar 1.

ANS 804 Animal Breeding and Genetics Seminar 1.

ANS 810 Topical Problems in Animal Science 1-6.

Selection or assignment of special problems in various phases of animal science.

ANS 841 Practicum in Animal Science 1-3.

ANS 885 Doctoral Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

ANS 890 Doctoral Preliminary Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who are preparing for and taking written and/or oral preliminary exams.

ANS 893 Doctoral Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

ANS 895 Doctoral Dissertation Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Dissertation research.

ANS 896 Summer Thesis Research 1.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

ANS 899 Doctoral Dissertation Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who have completed all credit hours, full-time enrollment, preliminary examination, and residency requirements for the doctoral degree, and are writing and defending their dissertations.