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Department of Crop and Soil Sciences

https://cropsoil.ncsu.edu/

We roll up our sleeves and get our hands dirty to accomplish great things in the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences.  Our world-class undergraduate programs prepare students to answer environmental and agricultural challenges, building on our rich history of growing agricultural and environmental sciences in North Carolina and around the globe. But our focus is on the future, because the solutions for feeding a growing population, conserving natural resources and dealing with climate change are rooted in crop and soil sciences.

We conduct research that drives innovation and new technology, expands understanding and provides science-based information to solve problems, but we don’t stop there. We make sure our graduates, stakeholders and partners put their gained knowledge and innovation to work for a better tomorrow.

Dig in and learn more about us at go.ncsu.edu/CropAndSoil. See how we can help you achieve your goals.

Career Opportunities

The breadth and depth of education and experiences you will gain from our department will set you on a path toward a rewarding career in one of the following specialties:

  • Agronomist
  • Agronomy Sales and Management
  • Athletic Turf Manager
  • Crop Advisor
  • Conservationist
  • Crops Systems Specialist
  • Ecologist
  • Environmental Scientist and Specialist
  • Extension Agent
  • Golf Course Superintendent
  • Hydrologist
  • Nutrient Management/ Waste Management Specialist 
  • Plant Breeder
  • Precision Agriculture Specialist
  • Real Estate Manager
  • Research Station Manager
  • Restoration Specialist
  • Seed Production Agronomist
  • Soil Scientist 

Learn more about future job prospects, representative salaries, and major employers for each of the above listed careers at go.ncsu.edu/careers

Educational Opportunities

In the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, we teach students to be stewards of our natural resources and effective managers of land. Whether your interest is in sustainable agriculture, crop biotechnology, agronomic business, land development, turfgrass management or wetland science, we have a degree that is perfect for you.  Whether you are interested in a Bachelor of Science degree, an associate degree, an undergraduate certificate or a minor, we have a program that will start you on your way toward a rewarding career.

Bachelor of Science

We offer eleven academic concentrations spanning four Bachelor of Science degrees.

Bachelor of Science in Plant and Soil Sciences degree is a flexible program that allows students to choose from a wide range of programs, based on their personal interests and career goals. Students can select a concentration from six areas of study including Agroecology, Agronomic Business, Agronomic Science, Crop Biotechnology, Crop Production, and Soil Science. Each concentration provides a strong science-based foundation as well as technical and supporting courses related to each individual discipline.

Bachelor of Science in Soil and Land Development degree prepares students for careers in the real estate industry. It offers the business-oriented Land Development concentration as well as the science-oriented Soil Science Concentration. Students completing a degree in Soil and Land Development can use their knowledge of business and science to make land use decisions that are both economically and environmentally sound.

Bachelor of Science in Turfgrass Science degree has been voted #1 in the US by TurfNet Magazine. Why? Because we have the best turfgrass scientists and extension specialists teaching our classes, because we have a state of the art teaching field lab for hands-on learning, and because our program has classes that cover the basics of environmentally sound turfgrass management. Our graduates find great careers in golf course and athletic field management, home and industrial lawn businesses, sod production, recreational park turf management, agri-business management and agri-business sales.

Bachelor of Science in Natural Resources degree encompasses the study of soil, water, air, minerals, flora, fauna and people. This curriculum offers a broad base in resource management with an opportunity to select one of several specializations. Two of these specifically address soil science: Soil Resources and Soil and Water Systems. The soil resource concentration prepares students to understand basic soil properties and to relate soil capabilities to a broad spectrum of land uses. The soil and water systems concentration integrates the role of soil with the importance of surface and groundwater hydrology.

Learn more about our Bachelor of Science degrees at go.ncsu.edu/degrees   

Associate Degrees

Associate of Applied Science Field Crop Technology
The world’s population is growing and our farmland is shrinking. So how are we going to feed and clothe everyone? How are we going to provide enough grain for food, fuel and feed? North Carolina and the world need professionals trained in the production and management of food, feed, fiber and fuel crops and that is just what the Field Crops Technology program does. The Field Crops Technology curriculum provides a basic understanding of how field crops grow, how yield is influenced by management decisions, how proper soil management enhances farm profits, and how farm profits are tied to marketing decisions. We provide a curriculum that gives students an understanding of how they can reduce farm inputs and at the same time maximize crop yields, while protecting the environment and natural resources around them. The strength of our program lies in our teachers. Commodity and production courses are taught by Crop and Soil Sciences Extension Specialists. These faculty members are the same ones who conduct applied research and on-farm tests, and provide production information across the state. This gives students a chance to learn the most recent recommendations directly from the experts.

Associate of Applied Science Turfgrass Management
Students who have an appreciation for working outdoors or the challenge of creating and maintaining beautiful surroundings may be interested in a career in Turfgrass Management. Turfgrass managers establish and maintain grasses for functional (erosion control), recreational and ornamental purposes. They manage people and budgets,  and use their knowledge of plants and soils to produce high-quality, visually appealing turfgrass areas. There are ample employment opportunities for well-trained managers in this industry.

Learn more about our associate degrees at go.ncsu.edu/associate-degrees

Undergraduate Minors

We offer four different minors: Crop Science, Soil Science, Turfgrass Science and Agroecology. Each offers students the opportunity to specialize in areas of personal interest.

Agroecology Minor
Agroecology is the science behind sustainable agriculture, linking social, environmental and economic perspectives in agriculture. Students completing this program gain understanding of sustainable agricultural systems from local and global farming examples, obtain new skills in analyzing agricultural systems from a multidisciplinary, integrated approach to developing creative and sustainable solutions for food systems, and enhance their ability to obtain new and diverse sustainable careers in food and agricultural systems. The Agroecology minor is open to all baccalaureate students. It is designed for students majoring in Biological Sciences, Plant & Soil Sciences, Horticultural Science and Animal Science, but is of interest to a wide array of students, as agriculture has broad implications in the life sciences, economics and sociology.

Crop Science Minor
This minor is a great selection for students majoring in Agricultural Business Management, Agriculture and Extension Education, Agricultural Sciences and Environmental Sciences. The required and elective courses provide a strong background in crop science for the variety of disciplines which interact in some way with field crop production. Classes are designed to clarify the role that crop species and rotational sequences play in the agricultural enterprises (United States and global) which improve our quality of life. They also identify strategies that are in use or being researched which will increase crop species/environment compatibility in order to achieve yield stability, suitable quality of product, and sustainability of the production enterprise. The minor is open to all baccalaureate students except those majoring in Plant and Soil Sciences.

Soil Science Minor
The minor in Soil Science is offered to students desiring a strong knowledge of the principles of soil science to complement their major. It is intended to strengthen the understanding of basic physical, chemical, and microbiological soil properties that would be relevant to a student’s particular land management interest. These interests may include (but are not limited to) Forestry, Geology, Natural Resources, Environmental Science, Plant and Soil Sciences, Landscape Architecture, Horticulture, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural Business Management, or Agricultural Education.

Turfgrass Science Minor
Turfgrass Science is a great minor for students in Horticultural Science, Parks and Recreation, and Agricultural Business Management. Students enrolled in this program learn to identify and select commonly used turfgrasses for most appropriate use in various environments including golf courses, athletic fields, home lawns, sod production and highway roadsides. They also design management programs which optimize the performance of turfgrass species for a particular use while minimizing potential adverse environmental impacts, and apply knowledge of turfgrass systems to solve practical establishment and maintenance challenges in their career activities. The minor is open to all baccalaureate students except those majoring in Turfgrass Science.

Learn more about our undergraduate minors at go.ncsu.edu/minors

Undergraduate Certificates

Interested in returning to school to continue your education as a non-degree studies student? We offer two undergraduate certificate programs that allows participants to focus their attention on the core courses of our undergraduate degree programs. Both the Crop Science Certificate and Soil Science Certificate can be completed through distance education (online). 

Learn more about our distance education programs at go.ncsu.edu/online-programs

For Additional Information

If you need additional information, or have questions about the undergraduate programs in the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences, you can contact the Undergraduate Programs Office at 919.515.5820 or by email at cropsoil-undergraduate-office@ncsu.edu

 

Department Head

Jeff Mullahey


Undergraduate Coordinator for Crop and Soil Sciences

David A. Crouse


Director of Graduate Programs for Crop Science

D.C. Bowman


Director of Graduate Programs for Soil Science

T.J. Smyth


Department Extension Leader

Deanna L. Osmond


Distinguished University Professor

M.M. Goodman


Alumni Distinguished Undergraduate Professor

D.A. Crouse

R.P. Patterson


William Neal Reynolds Professors

M.M. Goodman

D.L. Hesterberg

D.L. Jordan

M.J. Vepraskas


William Neal Reynolds Professor Emeritus

E.A. Wernsman

A.C. York


Professors

A. Amoozegar

D.C. Bowman

S.W. Broome

G. Brown-Guedira
USDA

K.O. Burkey
USDA

T.E. Carter, Jr.
(USDA)

R.J. Cooper

C.R. Crozier

R.E. Dewey

E.J. Dunphy

K.L. Edmisten

L.R. Fisher

C.H. Haigler

J.L. Havlin

R.W. Heiniger

D.L. Hesterberg

J.B. Holland
(USDA)

T.G. Isleib

R.S. Lewis

D.P. Livingston
USDA

J.M. Luginbuhl

D.S. Marshall
(USDA)

R.A. McLaughlin

G.L. Miller

M.D. Mullen

J.P. Murphy

D.L. Osmond

C.H. Peacock

R. Qu

T.W. Rufty, Jr.

R.J. Richardson

W.P. Robarge

W. Shi

T.J. Smyth

H.T. Stalker

M.G. Wagger

G.G. Wilkerson

F.H. Yelverton


Professors Emeriti

D.T. Bowman

S.W. Buol

J.C. Burns

J.W. Burton

B.E. Caldwell

D.K. Cassel

D.S. Chamblee

H.D. Coble

W.K. Collins

M.G. Cook

F.T. Corbin

F.R. Cox

G.A. Cummings

J.W. Gilliam

D.W. Israel

J.T. Green, Jr.

H.D. Gross

G.R. Gwynn

R.E. Jarrett

G.L. Jones

L.D. King

H.J. Kleiss

J.A. Lee

W.H. Lewis

H.M. Linker

R.C. Long

G.S. Miner

J.P. Mueller

G.F. Peedin

L.L. Phillips

C.D. Raper

G.A. Sullivan

D.L. Thompson

R.J. Volk

J.B. Weber

S.B. Weed

A.K. Weissinger

P.R. Weisz

A.G. Wollum

A.D. Worsham


Associate Professors

A.J. Cardinal

O. Duckworth

A.K. Graves

J.L. Heitman

V. Kuraparthy

S.R. Milla-Lewis

S.C. Reberg-Horton

M.S. Schroeder-Moreno

L.J. Unruh Snyder

J.G. White


Associate Professors Emeriti

D.A. Danehower

R.L. Davis

J.P. Lilly

G.C. Naderman


Assistant Professors

W.J. Everman

T.G. Gardner

M.L. Polizzotto

E. Taliercio
(USDA)


Adjunct Professors

T.M. Crosbie

D.C. Drehmel

K.D. Getsinger

E.B. Godshalk

P.G. Hunt

R. Liebl

J.A. Ryals

T. Sinclair


Adjunct Associate Professor

B.T. Campbell

M.D. Netherland


Adjunct Assistant Professor

D. Hardy

D.M. Lawson

J.T. Walker


Associate Members of the Faculty

R.L. Beckmann
(Biological Sciences)

P. Balint-Kurti
(Plant Pathology)

J. Mickle
(Biological Sciences)

L. Parks
(Lecturer)

W.F. Thomson
(Food Science)

CS - Crop Science Courses

CS 101 Field Crop and Turfgrass Management Orientation 1.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Introduction to NCSU and the Agricultural Institute with an emphasis on areas related to Field Crops Technology and Turfgrass Management. Students will explore university, college, and departmental resources, academic policies and procedures, career opportunities, and current trends and issues in our related disciplines. Students cannot receive credit for both CS 10 and AGI 10. FCT or TGM only.

CS 103 Introductory Topics in Crop, Soil and Turfgrass Sciences 1.

Introduction to the scope, purpose, and objectives of a university education with an emphasis on areas related to Crop, Soil and Turfgrass Sciences. Students will explore university, college and departmental resources, academic policies and procedures, opportunities for minors, career opportunities, and current trends and issues in our related disciplines. Students cannot receive credit for both CS 103 and ALS 103. Freshman Only; PAA, PAB, PAC, PAE, PCB, SST, TFG.

CS 111 Field Crop Production 4.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Management of field crops, including growth and development, establishment, pest management, environmental considerations, rotations of crops and chemicals, harvesting, storage and marketing. SPEARS.

CS 121 Turfgrasses and Their Uses 3.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

An introduction to turfgrass species and their uses. Emphasis on: size and scope of the turfgrass industry, basic concepts of grass growth and development, characteristics of cool- and warm-season turfgrasses and their use for golf courses, lawns, athletic fields, and other applications. Techniques for successful establishment and maintenance of turfgrass areas.

CS 122 Principles of Turfgrass Management 3.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

An examination of cultural practices essential for management of high quality turfgrass areas. Topics include: function of plant nutrients, fertilizer characteristics and application techniques, irrigation programming, construction of high use turfgrass areas, calibration of spreaders and sprayers, aerification, pesticide fate and developing effective management systems. ERICKSON.

CS 124 Agriculture and Seeds 2.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

This course will explore seeds, their importance in local and global agriculture, new biotechnology applications for agriculture, how biotechnology has changed the seed industry and agriculture, how seeds deliver new AG biotechnology discoveries and how seeds and biotechnology are addressing world hunger issues. Field trip is required.

CS 151 Forage Production 3.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Characteristics of major forage crops and their response to agronomic and animal management factors. Utilization methods, growth and quality characteristics related to animal performance. GREEN.

CS 152 Weed Control in Field Crops 3.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Principles involved in development of weed control programs and practical application of weed management techniques for major North Carolina cropping systems. Emphasis on proper use of herbicides. Laboratory includes weed identification and herbicide application methods. JORDAN.

CS 153 Turfgrass and Ornamental Weed Control 3.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

General principles in development of turfgrass and ornamental weed prevention and management programs. Different weeds and their life cycles and management techniques and factors affecting herbicide performance. Laboratory includes weed identification and herbicide application methods. YELVERTON.

CS 154 Turf Weed and Disease Management 3.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

General principles in turfgrass weed and disease development and management programs. Different weeds, their life cycles, management techniques, and factors affecting herbicide application performance will be covered. Students will learn the causes, development, identification and management of turfgrass diseases. Laboratory includes weed identification and herbicide application methods. Certain laboratory exercises will require personal transportation to Lake Wheeler Road Turf Field Lab unless otherwise specified by the lab instructors. The course is restricted to AGI students only.

CS 155 Advanced Turf Management 3.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Turfgrass management covering mineral nutrition, water relations, environmental stress responses and management regimes for low maintenance turf, golf courses, athletic fields and other turf settings. PEACOCK.

CS 162 Flue-Cured Tobacco Production 1.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Flue-cured tobacco production, with empasis on crop management practices, variety selection, transplant production, integrated pest management, fertilization, harvesting and curing, competitiveness in the world market, product needs of the tobacco manufacturing industry, and the role of climate and soil on yield and quality. FISHER.

CS 163 Peanut Production 1.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Principles of modern peanut production. Emphasis on the history and dispersal of peanuts, supply management programs, physiology of peanut growth and development, weed, disease, and insect management, fertility practices, recommended cultural practices including IPM, methods of maturity determination, recommended harvesting, curing, and handling practices. JORDAN.

CS 164 Soybean Production 1.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Introduction to the production of soybeans in North Carolina and the southeastern United States. Growth and development, tillage, fertility, varieties, seed quality, planting decision, pest management, harvesting, production economics, marketing, environmental quality, and social responsibility. DUNPHY.

CS 165 Cotton Production 1.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Cotton production, marketing, and improvement. Emphasis on current information regarding varieties, fertilization, disease, insect and weed control, cultural practices, equipment, harvesting and marketing. EDMISTEN.

CS 166 Corn Production 1.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Growth, management, and markets for corn in North Carolina.

CS 167 Wheat Production 1.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Practical approach to growing wheat and other small grain crops. Topics will include growth, management, and markets for small grains in North Carolina.

CS 190 Turf Seminar 1.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Discussions of the operations, opportunities, and problems existing in various phases of the turf industry by leaders in the various facets of the industry.

CS 191 Field Crops Seminar 2.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Guest speakers, students presentations, and outside assignments will address professionalism; professional development; and current challenges, issues, and opportunities facing profitable and sustainable agronomic crop production. A grade of C or better is required. FCT Only.

CS 200 Introduction to Turfgrass Management 4.
Prerequisite: BIO 181(preferred) or ZO 160(alternate) BO 200, or CS 213.

Turfgrass selection, establishment, maintenance, and pest management in lawns, golf courses, athletic fields, and roadside care; Emphasis on understanding the impact of the environment on management practices and turfgrass performance. Field trips in laboratory.

CS 210 Lawns and Sports Turf 3.

Utilization of turfgrasses for lawns and recreational areas. Emphasis on: the cultural and environmental benefits of grassed areas, concepts of grass growth and development, selecting adapted grasses for proper use, techniques for successful establishment and management of cool-and-warm-season turfgrasses, fertilization, irrigation, aeration, and pest management. The history and benefit of natural and artificial sports fields will also be discussed. Credit will not be awarded for both CS 200 and CS 210.

CS 211 Plant Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 183 or ZO 160.

Fundaments of plant genetics. Genetic basis for plant improvement. Genetic analysis of Mendelian traits, molecular structure and organization of genetic material, crop biotechnology, distribution and behavior of genes in populations.

CS 213 Crop Science 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 181 or BIO 183 or PB 200 or PB 250.

Our basic premise is that to produce field crops successfully we must know how our crops grow and develop and what they require from the production environment - including the farmer - for satisfactory management of the relevant environment, and finally to successful yield and quality of commercially important product. Especially important is to understand the various ways in which producers must respond to ever-changing circumstances on the farm, at the bank (credit), and in the marketplace. A solid understanding of the impact of cropping history on the soil and entire ecosystem to be used for the next crop also is vitally important.

CS 214 Crop Science Laboratory 1.
Prerequisite: BIO 181 or BIO 183 or PB 200 or PB 250;Co-requisite: CS 213.

The laboratory's intent is to provide students enrolled in the CS 213 lecture course opportunity to apply under field and controlled environmental conditions the crop production principles introduced in the lecture course. Using a hands-on approach targeting a variety of crop management approaches, students will examine the growth and development characteristics that relate most directly to final yield and quality of the marketed product. Students will employ a spectrum of treatment combinations aimed at strengthening understanding of the interaction of genotype, environment, and management, with the goal of identifying influential factors of crop yield and quality.

CS 216 Oilseed Crop Production 3.

Fundamental agronomic practices associated with the production of oilseed crops (soybean, peanuts and cotton). Discussions will include crop growth and development stages, variety characteristics, planting strategies, fertility and pest management programs, harvest and storage options, and the use of technologies associated with the production and maintenance of quality oilseed crops.

CS 218 Cereal Grain Crop Production 2.

Fundamental agronomic practices associated with the productio of cereal grain crops (corn and small grains). Discussions will include crop growth and development stages, how to choose the best varities and hybrids, planting strategies, fertility and pest management programs, harvest and t=storage options, and the use of technologies associated with the production and maintenance of quality grain.

CS 224 Seeds, Biotechnology and Societies 3.

An exploration of seeds, how seeds are the delivery system for crop biotechnology and how a specific culture's perception of science and agriculture influence the acceptance or rejections of modern genetic technologies. Topics include seed germination, survival and preservation; seed industry influence on societies and how societies are influencing the seed industry; seed production - commercially and at home; how our diverse genetic resources are preserved; how biotechnology is applied to agriculture and delivered through seeds; the impact biotech is having on the seed industry and subsequently on us and global agriculture; concerns and potential benefits of biotechnology application to crops.

CS 230 Introduction to Agroecology 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 105 or BIO 181 or BIO/ZO 160 or BO 200 or BO 250 or HS 201 or CS 213.

This course will examine the biological and physical attributes of farming systems and their associated ecological and social impacts in temperate and tropical regions. It will address the ecological consequences of indigenous food and fiber production systems, conventional agricultural systems and "alternative" systems that incorporate biological pest control and natural nutrient inputs. Students will examine several case studies that integrate their understanding of concepts.

CS 290 Professional Development in Plant & Soil Sciences 1.

This course is designed to prepare students for careers in Plant and Soil Sciences. Student discussions with faculty and industry professionals will center on structure and requirements for internship and jobs, research and extension opportunities,resume building and writing, professionalism and professional development, interpersonal skills, undergraduate program management, and career planning. Student development of an e-portfolio is required. Must hold sophomore or junior standing in: TAA, TAB, TAC, TSS, TFG.

CS 312 Grassland Management for Natural Resources Conservation 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 181(preferred) or ZO 160(alternate) CS 213, SSC 200.

Basic principles and practices of production and utilization of pasture and forage crops; impact on developing sustainable systems for livestock feed, soil and water conservation; use of computers to assist in whole farm planning and information retrieval.

CS 400 Turf Cultural Systems 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in CS 200.

Topics include: golf course design considerations, fertilizer characteristics and application techniques, irrigation programming, construction of high use turfgrass areas, calibration of spreaders and sprayers, aerification, pesticide fate and development of effective management systems.

CS 410 Community Food Systems 3.
Prerequisite:Junior or senior standing.

This course explores the economic, socio-cultural, policy and health perspectives of community food systems using a multidisciplinary and systems-level framework. Students will use a systems framework to critically examine local and global food challenges related to food insecurity, food justice and food sovereignty, food waste and sustainable approaches to addressing food challenges. Novel aspects of this course include student experiential learning opportunities that include service learning with community partners addressing local food challenges, team building through group work and in-class discussion and development of personal food ethic provocative proposition.

CS 411 Crop Ecology 3.
Prerequisite: PB 321 or PB 421.

Ecology and production of major agronomic crops of economic importance. Impact of key environmental stress factors on production processes and management strategies. Environmental issues pertaining to sustainable cropping systems. Manipulation of canopy climate and rooting environment for enhanced crop performance in the context of global climate change. Ecological analysis of abiotic - and biotic-derived crop disorders.

CS 413 Plant Breeding 2.
Prerequisite: GN 411 or ANS 215.

Discussion of reproductive systems of higher plants; the genetic basis for plant improvement and the selection, evaluation, and utilization of crop varieties.

CS 414 Weed Science 4.
Prerequisite: CH 220.

History, current status and fundamentals of weed biology and cultural, biological, and chemical weed control; properties and uses of herbicides; weed identification; proper use of herbicide application equipment; current weed management practices incrops and non-cropland situations.

CS 415 Integrated Pest Management 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 181(preferred) or ZO 160(alternate) or BO 200 or BO 250.

History, principles, and application of techniques for managing plant pests. Theory and practice of integrating pest control tactics to manage pests within economic, environmental, and sociological constraints. Topics include pest monitoring methodology, economic aesthetic thresholds, biological control, efficient pesticide use, biotechnology, and global positioning systems.

CS 424 Seed Physiology 3.
Prerequisite: PB 321 or PB 421 or FOR 303.

This course will explore the physiological processes associated with seed formation, development, maturation, germination, and deterioration of agronomic and horticultural species. We will also study the physiological aspects of seed dormancy, how dormancy is manifested and overcome in cultivated and noncultivated systems and dormancy's impact on weed seedbank ecology.

CS 430 Advanced Agroecology 4.
P: CS 230.

This course applies agroecological principles introduced in CS 230 and critical thinking to evaluate various agroecosystems. Students will examine food, fiber, and other commodity production systems for security, productivity, and sustainability and address the simultaneous need to protect natural environments and the biodiversity on which agroecosystems depend. Topics include discussion of national and international government policies, research programs, and education programs that influence the future application of agroecosystem principles.

CS 462 Soil-Crop Management Systems 3.
Prerequisite: CS 213, CS 414, SSC 342, SSC 452, Senior standing.

Unites principles of soil science and crop science with those of allied areas into realistic agronomic applications; practical studies in planning and evaluation of soil and crop management systems.

CS 465 Turf Management Systems and Environmental Quality 3.
Prerequisite: CS 400 and Senior standing.

Integration of turfgrass management systems and the use of BMPs and IPM to protect environmental quality. Examination of water quality issues relative to turf. Application of Best Management Practice and Integrated Pest Management strategies. Credit cannot be received for both CS 465 and CS 565. Senior standing.

CS 470 Advanced Turfgrass Pest Management 2.
Prerequisite: C- or better in CS 200.

Characteristics and ecology of turfgrass weed, insect, and disease pests; identification and diagnosis of turfgrass pests, strategies for managing pests including cultural, mechanical, biological, and chemical methods; development of integrated pestmanagement programs, characteristics and modes of action for herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and plant growth regulators; behavior and fate of pesticides in soil; and the development and management of pesticide resistant pest populations.

CS 480 Sustainable Food Production (capstone) 1.
Prerequisites: Senior standing and CS 430.

This course introduces students to the process of developing a project for presentation in the area of sustainable food production and food systems. Students are to synthesize and integrate knowledge acquired in previous course work and other learning experiences and to apply theory and principles in a situation that approximates some aspect of professional practice. Students are expected to present their projects at the end of the semester in a PowerPoint style format to faculty and student peers.

CS 490 Senior Seminar in Crop Science and Soil Science 1.
Prerequisite: Senior standing in Agronomy, Plant and Soil Sciences, or Turfgrass Science.

Review and discussion of current topics in crop science, soil science, agronomy and natural resource management. Preparation and presentation of scientific information in written and oral format. Senior standing in Agronomy, Plant and Soil Sciences, or Turfgrass Science.

CS 492 External Learning Experience 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes facilities and resources which are external to the campus. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience.

CS 493 Special Problems in Crop Science 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes campus facilities and resources. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience.

CS 495 Special Topics in Crop Science 1-6.

Offered as needed to present materials not normally available in regular course offerings or for offering of new courses on a trial basis.

CS 502 Plant Disease: Methods & Diagnosis 2.
Prerequisite: PP 315.

Introduction to the basic principles of disease causality in plants and the methodology for the study and diagnosis of plant diseases caused by fungi. Identification of plant-pathogenic fungi. Research project, disease profiles and field trips arerequired.

CS 524 Seed Physiology 3.
Prerequisite: (CH 220 or CH 221 or CH 225) and (PB 321 or PB 421 or FOR 303).

This course will explore the physiological processes associated with seed formation, development, maturation, germination, and deterioration of agronomic and horticultural species. We will also study the physiological aspects of seed dormancy, how dormancy is manifested and overcome in cultivated and noncultivated systems and dormancy's impact on weed seedbank ecology.

CS 541 Plant Breeding Methods 3.
Prerequisite: ST 511, Corequisite: ST 512.

Overview of plant breeding methods for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Covers principles and concepts of inheritance, germplasm resources, pollen control, measurement of genetic variances, and heterosis. Special topics include heritability, genotype-environment interaction, disease resistance, and polyploidy. In-depth coverage on methods for breeding cross-pollinated and self-pollinated crops. Prepares students for advanced plant breeding courses.

CS 565 Turf Management Systems and Environmental Quality 3.
Prerequisite: CS 400.

Integration of turfgrass management systems and the use of BMPs and IPM to protect environmental quality. Examination of water quality issues relative to turf. Application of Best Management Practice and Integrated Pest Management strategies. Credit cannot be received for both CS 465 and CS 565. Senior standing.

CS 590 Special Topics 1-6.

CS 591 Special Problems 1-6.

Special problems in various phases of crop science. Problems may be selected or will be assigned. Emphasis on review of recent and current research. Credits Arranged.

CS 601 Seminar 1.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Review and discussion of scientific articles, progress reports in research and special problems of interest to agronomists. Maximum of two credits allowed toward master's degree; however, additional credits toward doctorate allowed.

CS 620 Special Problems 1-6.

Special problems in various phases of crop science. Problems may be selected or will be assigned. Emphasis on review of recent and current research. Credits Arranged.

CS 685 Master's Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

CS 688 Non-Thesis Masters Continuous Registration - Half Time Registration 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain half-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc.

CS 689 Non-Thesis Master Continuous Registration - Full Time Registration 3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain full-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc. Students may register for this course a maximum of one semester.

CS 690 Master's Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non thesis master's programs who have completed all other requirements of the degree except preparing for and taking the final master's exam.

CS 693 Master's Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

CS 695 Master's Thesis Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Thesis research.

CS 696 Summer Thesis Research 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

CS 699 Master's Thesis Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements and full-time enrollment for the master's degree and are writing and defending their thesis.

CS 714 Crop Physiology: Plant Response to Environment 3.
Prerequisite: (PB 321 or PB 421) and CH 223 or CH 227.

Examines interactions between plants and the environment. Light environment, plant canopy development, photosynthesis, source-sink relations, growth analysis, growth regulation, water relations, and environmental stresses are addressed.

CS 717 Weed Management Systems 1.
Prerequisite: CS 414.

Weed management systems including integration of cultural, biological, mechanical and chemical methods for vegetables, fruits, ornamentals, turf, small grains, corn, tobacco, cotton, peanuts, aquatic and non-cropland settings. Taught second 5 weeksof semester. Drop date is by last day of 3rd week of minicourse.

CS 720 Molecular Biology In Plant Breeding 3.
Prerequisite: CS(GN,HS) 741, GN 701, GN 702, GN 703.

Theory and principles of molecular biology applied to plant breeding. Experimental approaches to induce genetic change, cytoplasmic recombination, haploid utilization and potentials of molecular techniques for solving breeding problems.

CS 725 Pesticide Chemistry 1.
Prerequisite: (CH 201 or CH 203) and (CH 221 or CH 225).

Chemical properties of pesticides including hydration and solvation, ionization, volatilization, lipophilicity, molecular structure and size, and reactivity and classification according to chemical description, mode of action or ionizability. Taughtduring the first 5 weeks of semester. Drop date is last day of 3rd week of the minicourse.

CS 726 Advanced Topics In Quantitative Genetics and Breeding 3.
Prerequisite: ST 511, Corequisite: ST 512.

Advanced topics in quantitative genetics pertinent to population improvement for quantitative and categorical traits with special applications to plant and animal breeding. DNA markers - phenotype associations. The theory and application of linear mixed models, BLUP and genomic selection using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Pedigree and construction of genomic relationships matrices from DNA markers and application in breeding.

CS 727 Pesticide Behavior and Fate In the Environment 2.
Prerequisite: CS(HS,SSC,TOX) 725,SSC 200.

Sorption/desorption, soil reactivity, movement, volatilization, bioavailability, degradation and stability of pesticides in the environment. Taught during the last 10 weeks of semester. Drop date is last day of 3rd week of the minicourse.

CS 729 Herbicide Behavior In Plants 2.
Prerequisite: BO 751 and BO 752 and CS(HS,SSC) 725.

Chemical, physiological and biochemical actions of herbicides in plants including uptake, translocation, metabolism and mechanism of action.

CS 745 Quantitative Genetics In Plant Breeding 1.
Prerequisite: CS(GN, HS) 541, ST 712, course in quantitative genetics recommended.

Theory and principles of plant quantitative genetics. Experimental approaches of relationships between type and source of genetic variability, concepts of inbreeding, estimations of genetic variance and selection theory.

CS 746 Breeding Methods 2.
Prerequisite: CS (GN, HS) 741, ST 535.

Theory and principles of plant breeding methodology including population improvement, selection procedures, genotypic evaluation, cultivar development and breeding strategies.

CS 755 Applied Research Methods and Analysis for Plant Sciences 3.
Prerequisite: ST 511.

Students will gain understanding of the common principles of scientific method. They will gain knowledge and experience with planning for research, developing research objectives, methodology considerations, experimental design, statistical analyses, and presentation of data. Class will have a heavy focus on experimental methods in applied plant science research.

CS 795 Special Topics 1-6.

CS 801 Seminar 1.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Review and discussion of scientific articles, progress reports in research and special problems of interest to agronomists. Maximum of two credits allowed toward master's degree; however, additional credits toward doctorate allowed.

CS 820 Special Problems 1-6.

Special problems in various phases of crop science. Problems may be selected or will be assigned. Emphasis on review of recent and current research. Credits Arranged.

CS 860 Plant Breeding Laboratory 1.
Prerequisite: CS(GN,HS)741.

Visitation of plant breeding projects in the Depts. of CS and HS at NC State, along with commercial seed companies. Discussion and viewing of breeding objectives, methods and equipment and teaching and practice of hybridization methods.

CS 861 Plant Breeding Laboratory 1.
Prerequisite: CS(GN,HS)741.

Visitation of plant breeding projects in the Depts. of CS and HS at NC State, along with commercial seed companies. Discussion and viewing of breeding objectives, methods and equipment and teaching and practice of hybridization methods.

CS 885 Doctoral Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

CS 890 Doctoral Preliminary Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who are preparing for and taking written and/oral preliminary exams.

CS 893 Doctoral Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

CS 895 Doctoral Dissertation Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Dissertation research.

CS 896 Summer Dissertation Research 1.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

CS 899 Doctoral Dissertation Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who have completed all credit hour, full-time enrollment, preliminary examination, and residency requirements for the doctoral degree, and are writing and defending their dissertations.

SSC - Soil Science Courses

SSC 103 Introductory Topics in Crop, Soil and Turfgrass Sciences 1.

Introduction to the scope, purpose, and objectives of a university education with an emphasis on areas related to Crop, Soil and Turfgrass Sciences. Students will explore university, college and departmental resources, academic policies and procedures, opportunities for minors, career opportunities, and current trends and issues in our related disciplines. Students cannot receive credit for both CS 103 and ALS 103. Freshman Only; PAA, PAB, PAC, PAE, PCB, SST, TFG.

SSC 112 Principles of Soil Science 4.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Fundamental soil physical and chemical properties and principles. Major lecture topics: soil description, formation, soil water and the hydrologic cycle, and soil fertility and fertilizers. Laboratory exercises in identifying soil horizons, determining soil texture, identifying nutrient deficiency symptoms in plants and interpreting soil fertility test reports. BROOME.

SSC 151 Fertilizers and Soil Fertility 3.
Requisite: Agricultural Institute Only.

Principles of managing plant nutrients in soils for crop, turfgrass and other plant production; nutrient requirements; deficiency symptons, nutrient availability in soils; soil acidity and liming; fertilizer materials; organic fertilizers; and environmental effects of fertilizers. BROOME.

SSC 185 Land and Life 3.

Soil is a fundamental natural resource that sustains life on earth. Detailed information is provided about soils at local, community, regional, national, and global scales; and their importance to world food security and human health, agricultural production, environmental quality, and sustainable ecosystems. Students will gain practical knowledge about soils, their use and management, and their critical role in supporting life. Understanding basic soil properties, their interactions, and how they are influenced or impacted by human activity is essential to everyday life and to being a well-informed citizen.

SSC 200 Soil Science 3.
Prerequisite: CH 101 or CH 100.

Fundamentals of soils including origin, composition and classification; their physical, chemical, and biological properties; significance of these properties to soil-plant relationships and soil management.

SSC 201 Soil Science Laboratory 1.
Corequisite: SSC 200.

Hands-on laboratory experience in fundamentals of soils including origin, composition and classification; their physical, chemical, and biological properties; significance of these properties to soil-plant relationships, soil management and the environment.

SSC 332 Environmental Soil Microbiology 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 181 and SSC 200.

Analysis of the effects of soil environments on microbial growth. Relationships and significance of microbes to mineral transformations, plant development, and environmental quality. Management of soil microorganisms in different ecosystems.

SSC 341 Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200.

The course provides detailed information on plant nutrition, soil fertility, and management of essential plant nutrients and other amendments affecting plant growth and nutrition. The influence of numerous biological, physical, and chemical soil properties on plant nutrient availability will be emphasized. Students will be familiar with contemporary diagnostic tools to assess nutrient availability, and the soil and nutrient management technologies essential for enhancing soil and plant productivity while minimizing the impact of nutrient use on the environment.

SSC 342 Soil and Plant Nutrient Analysis 1.
Prerequisite: SSC 341.

The course provides detailed information on (1) the chemical methods utilized in routine soil testing and plant analysis, (2) field soil sampling techniques, (3) nutrient recommendations, (4) nutrient response functions, and (5) nutrient management planning. Students gain essential experience in interpreting soil, plant, waste, and water analysis reports, and how these data are used in soil and crop management decisions. Course material will be presented in lecture and laboratory format.

SSC 421 Role of Soils in Environmental Management 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200.

Importance of soils in land application of municipal, industrial and agricultural wastes; onsite disposal of domestic wastewater; bioremediation of contaminated sites; erosion and sedimentation control; farm nutrient management; and nonpoint source water pollution.

SSC 427 Biological Approaches to Sustainable Soil Systems 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200 or equivalent, BIO 181 or 183, and CH 101.

Ecological and biochemical concepts will be applied to managing soils in agro-ecological settings such as organic and conventionally managed farms and gardens, emphasizing microbial transformations of nutrients and matter. Topics covered include soil organic matter formation and fractionation, decomposition, microbial assimilation of nutrients, fertilizer management, tillage, crop rotations, cover crop management. Companion course SSC 428 and SSC 341 recommended.

SSC 428 Service-Learning in Urban Agriculture Systems 1.
Prerequisite: SSC 200 or equivalent, BIO 181 or 183, and CH 101.

Course provides students a hands-on experience in urban agriculture with under-served youth in the Raleigh area. Students partner with a community gardening organization to provide knowledge and experience in soil science and agriculture to youth with the goals of increasing urban food security and developing student leadership skills. Particular emphasis is places on reflecting on course activities and deepening of skills related to extension, outreach, and working with diverse populations. Course designed to be taken as a companion course to SSC 427, however can be taken as a stand-alone course.

SSC 440 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Soil Science and Agriculture 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200.

Geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning system (GPS), and remote sensing to manage spatially variable soils, vegetation, other natural resources. Develop: function understanding of GIS principles, working knowledge of ArcGIS, problem-solving/critical-thinking necessary to use GIS to characterize and manage soils, agriculture, natural resources. Introduction to GIS; Maps/Cartography; Vectore/Raster Data Models; Georeferencing/Coordinate Systems; Spatial Data Sources; GPS/GPS skillls/ Remote Sensing; Statistics/Interpolation; Precision Agriculture; Computer Aided Design and GIS; Creating Analyzing 3-D Surfaces. Credit not given for both SSC 440 and SSC 540.

SSC 442 Soil and Environmental Biogeochemistry 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200 and (CH 101, or CH 201, or CH 220, or CH 221).

Quantitative approaches to the cycling of elements and chemical species in soils and the environment, including carbon and organic contaminants, non-metallic macronutrients, metals and metalloids.

SSC 452 Soil Classification 4.
Prerequisite: SSC 200.

Genesis, morphology, and classification of soils; characterization of soils according to their diagnostic properties; interpreting soil use potential; emphasis on North Carolina soils and their taxonomy; field exercise in soil mapping and site evaluation; several field trips, one overnight.

SSC 455 Soils, Environmental Quality and Global Challenges 3.
P: SSC 200 or ES 100 or Instructor permission.

As the world population grows to 9 billion people by 2050, we will be pressed to increase food security, respond to the consequences of a changing climate, and improve human health -- all while protecting the environment and maintaining natural resources. Soils play a critical role in many of these challenges. The goal of this course is to teach students how soils regulate environmental quality through a host of chemical, physical a,d biological processes. We will examine a series of global challenges, assess their related environmental issues and policies, and analyse the roles of soils in each issue.

SSC 461 Soil Physical Properties and Plant Growth 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200.

Soil physical properties and their influence on plant growth and environmentally sound land use; soil solid-porosity-density relationships, soil water, heat and air relations and transport. Principles and applications of these topics using current literature in agronomy, turf, horticulture, water quality, waste management and urban land use.

SSC 462 Soil-Crop Management Systems 3.
Prerequisite: CS 213, CS 414, SSC 342, SSC 452; senior standing.

Unites principles of soil science and crop science with those of allied areas into realistic agronomic applications; practical studies in planning and evaluation of soil and crop management systems.

SSC 470 Wetland Soils 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200, SSC 452 recommended.

Wetland definitions, concepts, functions and regulations; chemical, physical and morphological characteristics of wetland soils. Wetland soil identification using field indicators and monitoring equipment; principles of wetland creation, restoration and mitigation. Special project required for SSC 570. Two mandatory field trips. Field trips for distance education students are not required but optional. Credit will not be given for both SSC 470 and SSC 570.

SSC 473 Introduction to Surface/Water Quality Modeling 3.

Concepts in basic hydrologic, erosion and chemical transport used in modeling. Evaluation of typical hydrologic/water quality models on watershed systems. Project examples using state-of-the-art models. Credit will not be given for both BAE 473 and BAE 573.

SSC 490 Senior Seminar in Crop Science and Soil Science 1.
Prerequisite: Senior standing in Agronomy, Plant and Soil Sciences, or Turfgrass Science.

Review and discussion of current topics in crop science, soil science, agronomy and natural resource management. Preparation and presentation of scientific information in written and oral format. Senior standing in Agronomy, Plant and Soil Sciences, or Turfgrass Science.

SSC 492 External Learning Experience 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes facilities and resources which are external to the campus. Contact and arrangements with the prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience.

SSC 493 Special Problems in Soil Science 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes campus facilities and resources. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator prior to the experience.

SSC 495 Special Topics in Soil Science 1-6.
Prerequisite: SSC 200.

Offered as needed to present materials not normally available in regular course offerings or for offering of new courses on a trial basis.

SSC 511 Soil Physics 4.
Prerequisite: SSC 200, PY 212.

Soil physical properties and theory of selected instrumentation to measure them. Topics including soil solids, soil water, air and heat. Emphasis on transport processes and the energy concept of soil and water.

SSC 521 Soil Chemistry 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200, one yr. of general inorganic chemistry.

A consideration of the chemical and colloidal properties of clay and soil systems, including ion exchange and retention, soil solution reactions, solvation of clays and electrokinetic properties of clay-water systems.

SSC 532 Soil Microbiology 4.
Prerequisite: MB 351; CH 220.

Soil as a medium for microbial growth, the relation of microbes to important mineral transformations in soil, the importance of biological equilibrium and significance of soil microbes to environmental quality.

SSC 540 Geographic Information Systems (GIS) in Soil Science and Agriculture 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200.

Geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning system (GPS), and remote sensing to manage spatially variable soils, vegetation, other natural resources. Develop: function understanding of GIS principles, working knowledge of ArcGIS, problem-solving/critical-thinking necessary to use GIS to characterize and manage soils, agriculture, natural resources. Introduction to GIS; Maps/Cartography; Vectore/Raster Data Models; Georeferencing/Coordinate Systems; Spatial Data Sources; GPS/GPS skillls/ Remote Sensing; Statistics/Interpolation; Precision Agriculture; Computer Aided Design and GIS; Creating Analyzing 3-D Surfaces. Credit not given for both SSC 440 and SSC 540.

SSC 541 Soil Fertility 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 341.

Soil conditions affecting plant growth and the chemistry of soil and fertilizer interrelationships. Factors affecting the availability of nutrients. Methods of measuring nutrient availability.

SSC 545 Remote Sensing Applications in Soil Science and Agriculture 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200, PY 212.

Overview of remote sensing including history, evolution, vocabulary, and physical principles, i.e., electromagnetic radiation and its interaction with matter. Distant and proximate remote sensing techniques (aerial photography, satellite imaging, radar, lidar, etc.), hardware, and platforms and their application in the characterization and management of soils and crops. Development of strategies for incorporating remote sensing into soil and agronomic research, and of practical skills for processing, analysis, display, and discussion of remote sensing data with applications in soil science and agriculture.

SSC 551 Soil Morphology, Genesis and Classification 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200.

Morphology: Chemical, physical and mineralogical parameters useful in characterizing soil. Genesis: soil-forming factors and processes. Classification: historical development and present concepts of soil taxonomy with particular reference to worldwide distribution of great soil groups as well as discussions of logical bases of soil classification.

SSC 562 Environmental Applications Of Soil Science 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200.

Identification and evaluation of basic factors influencing movement of potential pollutants through soil and their underlying strata. Development of understanding of processes of soil and site evaluation for waste disposal and transport of pollutants through soils.

SSC 570 Wetland Soils 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200, SSC 452 recommended.

Wetland definitions, concepts, functions and regulations; chemical, physical and morphological characteristics of wetland soils. Wetland soil identification using field indicators and monitoring equipment; principles of wetland creation, restoration and mitigation. Special project required for SSC 570. Two mandatory field trips. Field trips for distance education students are not required but optional. Credit will not be given for both SSC 470 and SSC 570.

SSC 573 Introduction to Surface/Water Quality Modeling 3.
Prerequisite: BAE 471, SSC 200.

Concepts in basic hydrologic, erosion and chemical transport used in modeling. Evaluation of typical hydrologic/water quality models on watershed systems. Project examples using state-of-the-art models. Credit will not be given for both BAE 473 and BAE 573.

SSC 590 Special Problems 1-6.
Prerequisite: SSC 200.

Special problems in various phases of soils. Emphasis placed on review of recent and current research. Credits Arranged.

SSC 601 Seminar 1.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing in SSC.

A maximum of two semester hours allowed toward the master's degree, but any number toward the doctorate. Scientific articles, progress reports in research and special problems of interest to soil scientists reviewed and discussed.

SSC 609 Colloquium In Soil Science 1-3.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing in SSC.

Seminar-type discussions and lectures on specialized and advanced topics in soil science. Credits Arranged.

SSC 620 Special Problems 1-6.
Prerequisite: SSC 200.

Special problems in various phases of soils. Emphasis placed on review of recent and current research. Credits Arranged.

SSC 685 Master's Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

SSC 688 Non-Thesis Masters Continuous Registration - Half Time Registration 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain half-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc.

SSC 689 Non-Thesis Master Continuous Registration - Full Time Registration 3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain full-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc. Students may register for this course a maximum of one semester.

SSC 690 Master's Exam 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non thesis master's programs who have completed all other requirements of the degree except preparing for and taking the final master's exam. Credits Arranged.

SSC 693 Master's Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

SSC 695 Master's Thesis Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Thesis Research.

SSC 696 Summer Thesis Research 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

SSC 699 Master's Thesis Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements and full-time enrollment for the master's degree and are writing and defending their thesis. Credits arranged.

SSC 720 Soil and Plant Analysis 3.
Prerequisite: PY 212; CH 315; at least three soils courses including SSC 341.

Theory and advanced principles of utilization of chemical instruments to aid research on the heterogeneous systems of soils and plants.

SSC 722 Advanced Soil Chemistry 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 521, CH 730.

Critical review of application of chemical thermodynamics and kinetics to under standing soil systems, solution equilibria, precipitation and dissolution, complexation, reduction-oxidation, surface-solute interactions and chemical transport. Application of chemical speciation models.

SSC 725 Pesticide Chemistry 1.
Prerequisite: (CH 201 or CH 203) and (CH 221 or CH 225).

Chemical properties of pesticides including hydration and solvation, ionization, volatilization, lipophilicity, molecular structure and size, and reactivity and classification according to chemical description, mode of action or ionizability. Taughtduring the first 5 weeks of semester. Drop date is last day of 3rd week of the minicourse.

SSC 727 Pesticide Behavior and Fate In the Environment 2.
Prerequisite: CS(HS,SSC,TOX) 725,SSC 200.

Sorption/desorption, soil reactivity, movement, volatilization, bioavailability, degradation and stability of pesticides in the environment. Taught during the last 10 weeks of semester. Drop date is last day of 3rd week of the minicourse.

SSC 753 Soil Mineralogy 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200, SSC 341.

Composition, structure, classification, identification, origin, occurrence and significance of soil minerals with emphasis on primary weatherable silicates, layer silicate clays and sesquioxides.

SSC 771 Theory Of Drainage--Saturated Flow 3.

Discussion of physical concepts and properties of fluids and porous media in relation to soil-water movement. Derivation and discussion of the fundamental laws and equations governing saturated flow in porous media. Analysis of mathematical solutions of steady-state and transient flow equations to determine their applicability to drainage problems. Consideration of analogs and models of particular drainage problems.

SSC 790 Special Topics 1-6.

SSC 801 Seminar 1.

SSC 809 Colloquium In Soil Science 1-3.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing in SSC.

Seminar-type discussions and lectures on specialized and advanced topics in soil science. Credits Arranged.

SSC 820 Special Problems 1-6.
Prerequisite: SSC 200.

Special problems in various phases of soils. Emphasis placed on review of recent and current research. Credits Arranged.

SSC 885 Doctoral Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

SSC 890 Doctoral Preliminary Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who are preparing for and taking written and/or oral preliminary exams.

SSC 893 Doctoral Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graudate Faculty.

SSC 895 Doctoral Dissertation Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Dissertation research.

SSC 896 Summer Dissertation Research 1.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

SSC 899 Doctoral Dissertation Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who have completed all credit hour, full-time enrollment, preliminary examination and residency requirements for the doctoral degree and are writing and defending their dissertations.