Breadcrumb Navigation:

cals-med.jpg

Department of Crop and Soil Sciences

www.cropsci.ncsu.edu

As of July 1, 2016, the Department of Crop Science has merged with the Department of Soil Science to become the Department of Crop and Soil Sciences. The information listed below is for the Department of Crop Science. Click here for information on Soil Science.

Crop Science is the discipline of producing abundant, safe and sustainable food, feed, fiber, and fuel crops and enhancing the quality of recreational and ornamental turfgrasses. The Department of Crop Science offers two areas of study: Plant and Soil Sciences (formerly Agronomy) and Turfgrass Science. The Plant and Soil Sciences major offers flexible curricula in several areas of study including concentrations in Agroecology, Agronomic Science, Agronomic Business, Crop Biotechnology, Crop Production and Soil Science (administered by the Department of Soil Science). Undergraduate students in both majors study adaptation, production practices, sustainability, genetics, pest management, soil management and soil fertility associated with producing various commodities. These curricula options allow students with diverse backgrounds and career goals to select courses that meet their individual interests and needs. 

Opportunities

There are numerous career opportunities for Plant and Soil Sciences and Turfgrass Science graduates. For example, Agroecology is a multi-disciplinary concentration that will prepare students for a diversity of employment opportunities including, government agricultural research, agriculture extension and education, non-governmental organizations, conservation and wildlife management and international agricultural research and development. Many of our Crop Biotechnology and Agronomic Science graduates enroll in graduate programs here at NCSU or at major universities throughout the country. Others find employment as research specialists with companies engaged in biotechnology, plant improvement, genetic enhancement of plant traits, and agri-chemical development. Crop Production and Agronomic Business graduates often secure jobs as consultants, extension agents, farm managers, seed production specialists, agribusiness agronomists and managers, soil survey specialists, soil conservationists, technical sales representatives, and waste management specialists. Graduates from our Turfgrass Science program find employment as golf course superintendents, athletic field managers, home and recreational lawn professionals, and turfgrass sod producers. 

Minors

Minor in Crop Science

The Crop Science Minor is open to any degree seeking undergraduate student (except Plant and Soil Sciences majors) interested in gaining knowledge of the development, productivity and sustainability of crop management systems, genetic improvement and pest management strategies, and the interaction of crops with their physical and biotic environment. It is intended to complement other curricula that are related to crop-environment and agro-ecological studies. An appreciation of agronomic approaches, which lead to a more efficient use of crop production inputs and to a less invasive impact on the environment, is emphasized. It is not intended to prepare students for a professional career in Crop Science. Additional courses are recommended for students who plan graduate work in this discipline. 

Minor in Agroecology

The Agroecology minor is open to all baccalaureate students (except Plant and Soil Sciences - Agroecology majors). It is designed for students majoring in the biological sciences, agronomy, horticulture and animal sciences, but will be of interest to a wide array of students as agriculture has broad implications in the life sciences, economics, and sociology. Agroecology instruction provides students a fundamental understanding of agriculture and its interaction with natural and social systems. Students selecting the Agroecology minor will gain an understanding of modern production agriculture from an ecological and sociological perspective, obtain new skills in analyzing agricultural systems, and acquire the knowledge to design a plan for change. This knowledge will improve a student’s ability to work with agricultural professionals to implement a system that meets ecological and social needs while remaining profitable for farmers.

Minor in Turfgrass Science

The Turfgrass Science minor is open to all undergraduate students except those with a major in Turfgrass Science. It is designed for students majoring in Plant and Soil Sciences, Biological Sciences, Horticultural Science, Parks and Recreation and related disciplines but will be of interest to a wide variety of students desiring expertise in establishing and maintaining turfgrass commonly grown throughout the United States. This knowledge will improve the student's ability to provide high quality turfgrass cover for a variety of situations including home lawns, commercial grounds, parks and other areas. 

Certificate in Agronomic Crop Production (Distance Education)

The Certificate in Agronomic Crop Production provides an undergraduate course of study in the fundamentals of agronomic crop production. The program courses cover the importance of agronomic crops for the state and national economy; the interaction of agronomic growth, development and yield with environmental factors; sound and sustainable production systems for agronomic crops; scientific and societal issues related to biotechnology applications in crop production; and the marketing and distribution of these crops and their relation to overcoming world hunger. 

Department Head

Jeff Mullahey


Undergraduate Coordinator for Plant and Soil Science

Lori Unruh Snyder


Undergraduate Coordinator for Turfgrass Science

Richard J. Cooper


Director of Graduate Programs

D.C. Bowman


Distinguished University Professor

M.M. Goodman


Alumni Distinguished Undergraduate Professors

R.P. Patterson


William Neal Reynolds Professors

M.M. Goodman

D.L. Jordan

A.C. York


William Neal Reynolds Professor Emeritus

E.A. Wernsman


Professors

D.C. Bowman

G. Brown-Guedira
USDA

K.O. Burkey
USDA

T.E. Carter, Jr.
(USDA)

R.J. Cooper

R.E. Dewey

E.J. Dunphy

K.L. Edmisten

L.R. Fisher

C.H. Haigler

R.W. Heiniger

J.B. Holland
(USDA)

T.G. Isleib

R.S. Lewis

D.P. Livingston
USDA

J.M. Luginbuhl

D.S. Marshall
(USDA)

G.L. Miller

J.P. Murphy

C.H. Peacock

R. Qu

T.W. Rufty, Jr.

H.T. Stalker

G.G. Wilkerson

F.H. Yelverton


Adjunct Professors

A.J. Cardinal

B.T. Campbell

T.M. Crosbie

D.C. Drehmel

J.R. Evans

K.D. Getsinger

E.B. Godshalk

S.C. Huber
(USDA)

D.M. Lawson

R. Liebl

M.D. Netherland

D.T. Patterson

N.N. Ranells

J.A. Ryals

T. Sinclair


Professors Emeriti

D.T. Bowman

J.C. Burns

J.W. Burton

B.E. Caldwell

D.S. Chamblee

H.D. Coble

W.K. Collins

F.T. Corbin

J.T. Green, Jr.

H.D. Gross

G.R. Gwynn

R.E. Jarrett

G.L. Jones

J.A. Lee

W.H. Lewis

H.M. Linker

R.C. Long

J.P. Mueller

G.F. Peedin

L.L. Phillips

G.A. Sullivan

D.L. Thompson

J.B. Weber

A.K. Weissinger

P.R. Weisz

R.F. Wilson
(USDA)

A.D. Worsham


Associate Professors

V. Kuraparthy

S.C. Reberg-Horton

R.J. Richardson

M.S. Schroeder-Moreno

E. Taliercio

L.J. Unruh Snyder


Associate Professors Emeriti

D.A. Danehower

R.L. Davis

W.G. Toomey


Assistant Professors

W.J. Everman

Susana Milla-Lewis


Adjunct Assistant Professor

M. Fraser


Associate Members of the Faculty

R.L. Beckmann
(Biological Sciences)

P. Balint-Kurti
(Plant Pathology)

M. Feaver
(Zoology)

J. Mickle
(Biological Sciences)

L. Parks
(Lecturer)

C.W. Stuber
(Genetics)

W.F. Thomson
(Food Science)

C.T. Young
(Food Science)

CS - Crop Science Courses

CS 101 Field Crop and Turfgrass Management Orientation 1.

Introduction to NCSU and the Agricultural Institute with an emphasis on areas related to Field Crops Technology and Turfgrass Management. Students will explore university, college, and departmental resources, academic policies and procedures, career opportunities, and current trends and issues in our related disciplines. Students cannot receive credit for both CS 10 and AGI 10. FCT or TGM only.

CS 103 Introductory Topics in Crop, Soil and Turfgrass Sciences 1.

Introduction to the scope, purpose, and objectives of a university education with an emphasis on areas related to Crop, Soil and Turfgrass Sciences. Students will explore university, college and departmental resources, academic policies and procedures, opportunities for minors, career opportunities, and current trends and issues in our related disciplines. Students cannot receive credit for both CS 103 and ALS 103. Freshman Only; PAA, PAB, PAC, PAE, PCB, SST, TFG.

CS 111 Field Crop Production 4.

Management of field crops, including growth and development, establishment, pest management, environmental considerations, rotations of crops and chemicals, harvesting, storage and marketing. SPEARS.

CS 121 Turfgrasses and Their Uses 3.

An introduction to turfgrass species and their uses. Emphasis on: size and scope of the turfgrass industry, basic concepts of grass growth and development, characteristics of cool- and warm-season turfgrasses and their use for golf courses, lawns, athletic fields, and other applications. Techniques for successful establishment and maintenance of turfgrass areas.

CS 122 Principles of Turfgrass Management 3.

An examination of cultural practices essential for management of high quality turfgrass areas. Topics include: function of plant nutrients, fertilizer characteristics and application techniques, irrigation programming, construction of high use turfgrass areas, calibration of spreaders and sprayers, aerification, pesticide fate and developing effective management systems. ERICKSON.

CS 124 Agriculture and Seeds 2.

This course will explore seeds, their importance in local and global agriculture, new biotechnology applications for agriculture, how biotechnology has changed the seed industry and agriculture, how seeds deliver new AG biotechnology discoveries and how seeds and biotechnology are addressing world hunger issues. Field trip is required.

CS 151 Forage Production 3.

Characteristics of major forage crops and their response to agronomic and animal management factors. Utilization methods, growth and quality characteristics related to animal performance. GREEN.

CS 152 Weed Control in Field Crops 3.

Principles involved in development of weed control programs and practical application of weed management techniques for major North Carolina cropping systems. Emphasis on proper use of herbicides. Laboratory includes weed identification and herbicide application methods. JORDAN.

CS 153 Turfgrass and Ornamental Weed Control 3.

General principles in development of turfgrass and ornamental weed prevention and management programs. Different weeds and their life cycles and management techniques and factors affecting herbicide performance. Laboratory includes weed identification and herbicide application methods. YELVERTON.

CS 154 Turf Weed and Disease Management 3.

General principles in turfgrass weed and disease development and management programs. Different weeds, their life cycles, management techniques, and factors affecting herbicide application performance will be covered. Students will learn the causes, development, identification and management of turfgrass diseases. Laboratory includes weed identification and herbicide application methods. Certain laboratory exercises will require personal transportation to Lake Wheeler Road Turf Field Lab unless otherwise specified by the lab instructors. The course is restricted to AGI students only.

CS 155 Advanced Turf Management 3.

Turfgrass management covering mineral nutrition, water relations, environmental stress responses and management regimes for low maintenance turf, golf courses, athletic fields and other turf settings. PEACOCK.

CS 162 Flue-Cured Tobacco Production 1.

Flue-cured tobacco production, with empasis on crop management practices, variety selection, transplant production, integrated pest management, fertilization, harvesting and curing, competitiveness in the world market, product needs of the tobacco manufacturing industry, and the role of climate and soil on yield and quality. FISHER.

CS 163 Peanut Production 1.

Principles of modern peanut production. Emphasis on the history and dispersal of peanuts, supply management programs, physiology of peanut growth and development, weed, disease, and insect management, fertility practices, recommended cultural practices including IPM, methods of maturity determination, recommended harvesting, curing, and handling practices. JORDAN.

CS 164 Soybean Production 1.

Introduction to the production of soybeans in North Carolina and the southeastern United States. Growth and development, tillage, fertility, varieties, seed quality, planting decision, pest management, harvesting, production economics, marketing, environmental quality, and social responsibility. DUNPHY.

CS 165 Cotton Production 1.

Cotton production, marketing, and improvement. Emphasis on current information regarding varieties, fertilization, disease, insect and weed control, cultural practices, equipment, harvesting and marketing. EDMISTEN.

CS 166 Corn Production 1.

Growth, management, and markets for corn in North Carolina.

CS 167 Wheat Production 1.

Practical approach to growing wheat and other small grain crops. Topics will include growth, management, and markets for small grains in North Carolina.

CS 190 Turf Seminar 1.

Discussions of the operations, opportunities, and problems existing in various phases of the turf industry by leaders in the various facets of the industry.

CS 191 Field Crops Seminar 2.

Guest speakers, students presentations, and outside assignments will address professionalism; professional development; and current challenges, issues, and opportunities facing profitable and sustainable agronomic crop production. A grade of C or better is required. FCT Only.

CS 200 Introduction to Turfgrass Management 4.
Prerequisite: BIO 181(preferred) or ZO 160(alternate) BO 200, or CS 213.

Turfgrass selection, establishment, maintenance, and pest management in lawns, golf courses, athletic fields, and roadside care; Emphasis on understanding the impact of the environment on management practices and turfgrass performance. Field trips in laboratory.

CS 210 Lawns and Sports Turf 3.

Utilization of turfgrasses for lawns and recreational areas. Emphasis on: the cultural and environmental benefits of grassed areas, concepts of grass growth and development, selecting adapted grasses for proper use, techniques for successful establishment and management of cool-and-warm-season turfgrasses, fertilization, irrigation, aeration, and pest management. The history and benefit of natural and artificial sports fields will also be discussed. Credit will not be awarded for both CS 200 and CS 210.

CS 211 Plant Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 183 or ZO 160.

Fundaments of plant genetics. Genetic basis for plant improvement. Genetic analysis of Mendelian traits, molecular structure and organization of genetic material, crop biotechnology, distribution and behavior of genes in populations.

CS 213 Crops: Adaptation & Production 4.
Prerequisite: BIO 181(preferred) or ZO 160(alternate) or BO 200.

Fundamental structure and reproductive features of crops. Their adaptation and importance in global agriculture. Practices and inputs needed for economic production of a quality product and interaction of these factors within the constraints of climate, soils, and topography in maintaining a quality environment.

CS 214 Crop Science Laboratory 1.
Prerequisite: BIO 181 or BIO 183 or PB 200 or PB 250; Co-requisite: CS 213.

The laboratory's intent is to provide students enrolled in the CS 213 lecture course opportunity to apply under field and controlled environmental conditions the crop production principles introduced in the lecture course. Using a hands-on approach targeting a variety of crop management approaches, students will examine the growth and development characteristics that relate most directly to final yield and quality of the marketed product. Students will employ a spectrum of treatment combinations aimed at strengthening understanding of the interaction of genotype, environment, and management, with the goal of identifying influential factors of crop yield and quality.

CS 216 Oilseed Crop Production 3.

Fundamental agronomic practices associated with the production of oilseed crops (soybean, peanuts and cotton). Discussions will include crop growth and development stages, variety characteristics, planting strategies, fertility and pest management programs, harvest and storage options, and the use of technologies associated with the production and maintenance of quality oilseed crops.

CS 218 Cereal Grain Crop Production 2.

Fundamental agronomic practices associated with the productio of cereal grain crops (corn and small grains). Discussions will include crop growth and development stages, how to choose the best varities and hybrids, planting strategies, fertility and pest management programs, harvest and t=storage options, and the use of technologies associated with the production and maintenance of quality grain.

CS 224 Seeds, Biotechnology and Societies 3.

An exploration of seeds, how seeds are the delivery system for crop biotechnology and how a specific culture's perception of science and agriculture influence the acceptance or rejections of modern genetic technologies. Topics include seed germination, survival and preservation; seed industry influence on societies and how societies are influencing the seed industry; seed production - commercially and at home; how our diverse genetic resources are preserved; how biotechnology is applied to agriculture and delivered through seeds; the impact biotech is having on the seed industry and subsequently on us and global agriculture; concerns and potential benefits of biotechnology application to crops.

CS 230 Introduction to Agroecology 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 105 or BIO 181 or BIO/ZO 160 or BO 200 or BO 250 or HS 201 or CS 213.

This course will examine the biological and physical attributes of farming systems and their associated ecological and social impacts in temperate and tropical regions. It will address the ecological consequences of indigenous food and fiber production systems, conventional agricultural systems and "alternative" systems that incorporate biological pest control and natural nutrient inputs. Students will examine several case studies that integrate their understanding of concepts.

CS 290 Professional Development in Plant & Soil Sciences 1.

This course is designed to prepare students for careers in Plant and Soil Sciences. Student discussions with faculty and industry professionals will center on structure and requirements for internship and jobs, research and extension opportunities,resume building and writing, professionalism and professional development, interpersonal skills, undergraduate program management, and career planning. Student development of an e-portfolio is required. Must hold sophomore or junior standing in: TAA, TAB, TAC, TSS, TFG.

CS 312 Grassland Management for Natural Resources Conservation 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 181(preferred) or ZO 160(alternate) CS 213, SSC 200.

Basic principles and practices of production and utilization of pasture and forage crops; impact on developing sustainable systems for livestock feed, soil and water conservation; use of computers to assist in whole farm planning and information retrieval.

CS 400 Turf Cultural Systems 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in CS 200.

Topics include: golf course design considerations, fertilizer characteristics and application techniques, irrigation programming, construction of high use turfgrass areas, calibration of spreaders and sprayers, aerification, pesticide fate and development of effective management systems.

CS 411 Crop Ecology 3.
Prerequisite: PB 321 or PB 421.

Ecology and production of major agronomic crops of economic importance. Impact of key environmental stress factors on production processes and management strategies. Environmental issues pertaining to sustainable cropping systems. Manipulation of canopy climate and rooting environment for enhanced crop performance in the context of global climate change. Ecological analysis of abiotic - and biotic-derived crop disorders.

CS 413 Plant Breeding 2.
Prerequisite: GN 411 or ANS 215.

Discussion of reproductive systems of higher plants; the genetic basis for plant improvement and the selection, evaluation, and utilization of crop varieties.

CS 414 Weed Science 4.
Prerequisite: CH 220.

History, current status and fundamentals of weed biology and cultural, biological, and chemical weed control; properties and uses of herbicides; weed identification; proper use of herbicide application equipment; current weed management practices incrops and non-cropland situations.

CS 415 Integrated Pest Management 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 181(preferred) or ZO 160(alternate) or BO 200 or BO 250.

History, principles, and application of techniques for managing plant pests. Theory and practice of integrating pest control tactics to manage pests within economic, environmental, and sociological constraints. Topics include pest monitoring methodology, economic aesthetic thresholds, biological control, efficient pesticide use, biotechnology, and global positioning systems.

CS 424 Seed Physiology 3.
Prerequisite: PB 321 or PB 421 or FOR 303.

This course will explore the physiological processes associated with seed formation, development, maturation, germination, and deterioration of agronomic and horticultural species. We will also study the physiological aspects of seed dormancy, how dormancy is manifested and overcome in cultivated and noncultivated systems and dormancy's impact on weed seedbank ecology.

CS 430 Advanced Agroecology 4.
P: CS 230.

This course applies agroecological principles introduced in CS 230 and critical thinking to evaluate various agroecosystems. Students will examine food, fiber, and other commodity production systems for security, productivity, and sustainability and address the simultaneous need to protect natural environments and the biodiversity on which agroecosystems depend. Topics include discussion of national and international government policies, research programs, and education programs that influence the future application of agroecosystem principles.

CS 462 Soil-Crop Management Systems 3.
Prerequisite: CS 213, CS 414, SSC 342, SSC 452, Senior standing.

Unites principles of soil science and crop science with those of allied areas into realistic agronomic applications; practical studies in planning and evaluation of soil and crop management systems.

CS 465 Turf Management Systems and Environmental Quality 3.
Prerequisite: CS 400 and Senior standing.

Integration of turfgrass management systems and the use of BMPs and IPM to protect environmental quality. Examination of water quality issues relative to turf. Application of Best Management Practice and Integrated Pest Management strategies. Credit cannot be received for both CS 465 and CS 565. Senior standing.

CS 470 Advanced Turfgrass Pest Management 2.
Prerequisite: C- or better in CS 200.

Characteristics and ecology of turfgrass weed, insect, and disease pests; identification and diagnosis of turfgrass pests, strategies for managing pests including cultural, mechanical, biological, and chemical methods; development of integrated pestmanagement programs, characteristics and modes of action for herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, and plant growth regulators; behavior and fate of pesticides in soil; and the development and management of pesticide resistant pest populations.

CS 490 Senior Seminar in Crop Science and Soil Science 1.
Prerequisite: Senior standing in Agronomy, Plant and Soil Sciences, or Turfgrass Science.

Review and discussion of current topics in crop science, soil science, agronomy and natural resource management. Preparation and presentation of scientific information in written and oral format. Senior standing in Agronomy, Plant and Soil Sciences, or Turfgrass Science.

CS 492 External Learning Experience 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes facilities and resources which are external to the campus. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience.

CS 493 Special Problems in Crop Science 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes campus facilities and resources. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience.

CS 495 Special Topics in Crop Science 1-6.

Offered as needed to present materials not normally available in regular course offerings or for offering of new courses on a trial basis.

CS 502 Plant Disease: Methods & Diagnosis 2.
Prerequisite: PP 315.

Introduction to the basic principles of disease causality in plants and the methodology for the study and diagnosis of plant diseases caused by fungi. Identification of plant-pathogenic fungi. Research project, disease profiles and field trips arerequired.

CS 524 Seed Physiology 3.
Prerequisite: (CH 220 or CH 221 or CH 225) and (PB 321 or PB 421 or FOR 303).

This course will explore the physiological processes associated with seed formation, development, maturation, germination, and deterioration of agronomic and horticultural species. We will also study the physiological aspects of seed dormancy, how dormancy is manifested and overcome in cultivated and noncultivated systems and dormancy's impact on weed seedbank ecology.

CS 541 Plant Breeding Methods 3.
Prerequisite: ST 511, Corequisite: ST 512.

Overview of plant breeding methods for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Covers principles and concepts of inheritance, germplasm resources, pollen control, measurement of genetic variances, and heterosis. Special topics include heritability, genotype-environment interaction, disease resistance, and polyploidy. In-depth coverage on methods for breeding cross-pollinated and self-pollinated crops. Prepares students for advanced plant breeding courses.

CS 565 Turf Management Systems and Environmental Quality 3.
Prerequisite: CS 400.

Integration of turfgrass management systems and the use of BMPs and IPM to protect environmental quality. Examination of water quality issues relative to turf. Application of Best Management Practice and Integrated Pest Management strategies. Credit cannot be received for both CS 465 and CS 565.

CS 590 Special Topics 1-6.

CS 591 Special Problems 1-6.

Special problems in various phases of crop science. Problems may be selected or will be assigned. Emphasis on review of recent and current research. Credits Arranged.

CS 601 Seminar 1.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Review and discussion of scientific articles, progress reports in research and special problems of interest to agronomists. Maximum of two credits allowed toward master's degree; however, additional credits toward doctorate allowed.

CS 620 Special Problems 1-6.

Special problems in various phases of crop science. Problems may be selected or will be assigned. Emphasis on review of recent and current research. Credits Arranged.

CS 685 Master's Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

CS 688 Non-Thesis Masters Continuous Registration - Half Time Registration 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain half-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc.

CS 689 Non-Thesis Master Continuous Registration - Full Time Registration 3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain full-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc. Students may register for this course a maximum of one semester.

CS 690 Master's Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non thesis master's programs who have completed all other requirements of the degree except preparing for and taking the final master's exam.

CS 693 Master's Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

CS 695 Master's Thesis Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Thesis research.

CS 696 Summer Thesis Research 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

CS 699 Master's Thesis Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements and full-time enrollment for the master's degree and are writing and defending their thesis.

CS 714 Crop Physiology: Plant Response to Environment 3.
Prerequisite: (PB 321 or PB 421) and CH 223 or CH 227.

Examines interactions between plants and the environment. Light environment, plant canopy development, photosynthesis, source-sink relations, growth analysis, growth regulation, water relations, and environmental stresses are addressed.

CS 717 Weed Management Systems 1.
Prerequisite: CS 414.

Weed management systems including integration of cultural, biological, mechanical and chemical methods for vegetables, fruits, ornamentals, turf, small grains, corn, tobacco, cotton, peanuts, aquatic and non-cropland settings. Taught second 5 weeksof semester. Drop date is by last day of 3rd week of minicourse.

CS 720 Molecular Biology In Plant Breeding 3.
Prerequisite: CS(GN,HS) 741, GN 701, GN 702, GN 703.

Theory and principles of molecular biology applied to plant breeding. Experimental approaches to induce genetic change, cytoplasmic recombination, haploid utilization and potentials of molecular techniques for solving breeding problems.

CS 725 Pesticide Chemistry 1.
Prerequisite: (CH 201 or CH 203) and (CH 221 or CH 225).

Chemical properties of pesticides including hydration and solvation, ionization, volatilization, lipophilicity, molecular structure and size, and reactivity and classification according to chemical description, mode of action or ionizability. Taughtduring the first 5 weeks of semester. Drop date is last day of 3rd week of the minicourse.

CS 726 Advanced Topics In Quantitative Genetics and Breeding 3.
Prerequisite: ST 511, Corequisite: ST 512.

Advanced topics in quantitative genetics pertinent to population improvement for quantitative and categorical traits with special applications to plant and animal breeding. DNA markers - phenotype associations. The theory and application of linear mixed models, BLUP and genomic selection using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Pedigree and construction of genomic relationships matrices from DNA markers and application in breeding.

CS 727 Pesticide Behavior and Fate In the Environment 2.
Prerequisite: CS(HS,SSC,TOX) 725,SSC 200.

Sorption/desorption, soil reactivity, movement, volatilization, bioavailability, degradation and stability of pesticides in the environment. Taught during the last 10 weeks of semester. Drop date is last day of 3rd week of the minicourse.

CS 729 Herbicide Behavior In Plants 2.
Prerequisite: BO 751 and BO 752 and CS(HS,SSC) 725.

Chemical, physiological and biochemical actions of herbicides in plants including uptake, translocation, metabolism and mechanism of action.

CS 745 Quantitative Genetics In Plant Breeding 1.
Prerequisite: CS(GN, HS) 541, ST 712, course in quantitative genetics recommended.

Theory and principles of plant quantitative genetics. Experimental approaches of relationships between type and source of genetic variability, concepts of inbreeding, estimations of genetic variance and selection theory.

CS 746 Breeding Methods 2.
Prerequisite: CS (GN, HS) 741, ST 535.

Theory and principles of plant breeding methodology including population improvement, selection procedures, genotypic evaluation, cultivar development and breeding strategies.

CS 755 Applied Research Methods and Analysis for Plant Sciences 3.
Prerequisite: ST 511.

Students will gain understanding of the common principles of scientific method. They will gain knowledge and experience with planning for research, developing research objectives, methodology considerations, experimental design, statistical analyses, and presentation of data. Class will have a heavy focus on experimental methods in applied plant science research.

CS 795 Special Topics 1-6.

CS 801 Seminar 1.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Review and discussion of scientific articles, progress reports in research and special problems of interest to agronomists. Maximum of two credits allowed toward master's degree; however, additional credits toward doctorate allowed.

CS 820 Special Problems 1-6.

Special problems in various phases of crop science. Problems may be selected or will be assigned. Emphasis on review of recent and current research. Credits Arranged.

CS 860 Plant Breeding Laboratory 1.
Prerequisite: CS(GN,HS)741.

Visitation of plant breeding projects in the Depts. of CS and HS at NC State, along with commercial seed companies. Discussion and viewing of breeding objectives, methods and equipment and teaching and practice of hybridization methods.

CS 861 Plant Breeding Laboratory 1.
Prerequisite: CS(GN,HS)741.

Visitation of plant breeding projects in the Depts. of CS and HS at NC State, along with commercial seed companies. Discussion and viewing of breeding objectives, methods and equipment and teaching and practice of hybridization methods.

CS 885 Doctoral Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

CS 890 Doctoral Preliminary Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who are preparing for and taking written and/oral preliminary exams.

CS 893 Doctoral Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

CS 895 Doctoral Dissertation Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Dissertation research.

CS 896 Summer Dissertation Research 1.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

CS 899 Doctoral Dissertation Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who have completed all credit hour, full-time enrollment, preliminary examination, and residency requirements for the doctoral degree, and are writing and defending their dissertations.