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Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Science

http://fbns.ncsu.edu/

The Department of Food, Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences offers three undergraduate degree programs:

  1. Food Science
  2. Bioprocessing Science
  3. Nutrition Science

These programs focus on the application and integration of chemistry, biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, and engineering disciplines in the development, production, and delivery of safe and nutritious foods and other products (including drugs) from food and bioprocessing operations, in addition to understanding the role of diet and how it generally affects human health. In support of each program, the department maintains modern, fully-equipped laboratories and a host of Nutrition outreach opportunities for teaching and research. All three undergraduate programs are compatible with pre-professional school curricula, such as pre-med or pre-vet, and many students elect to take on a minor in an area that enhances their major coursework. There are also opportunities to double major both within departmental majors as well as external majors such as Biochemistry.

Opportunities

Consumer demand for safe, high quality, nutritious foods and biopharmaceutical products, as well as for educational programs designed to promote healthy eating, creates a variety of career opportunities in the food, pharmaceutical and the allied health industries. Industrial opportunities include management, research and development, process supervision, quality control and assurance, procurement, distribution, and sales. Public health opportunities include educational program development, delivery, and assessment. In addition, graduates hold positions with government agencies and many with advanced degrees have teaching and/or research positions in colleges and universities.

Food Science

Many career opportunities exist in the food and beverage industry, the world’s largest manufacturing sector, for graduates with a Food Science degree. Food science professionals are involved in the discovery of new food sources, new methods of food preservation, advances in food chemistry and sensory science and even product development. Positions are found worldwide, providing technical support to the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical industries and also government agencies. Food scientists work to ensure the safety and quality of foods through the application of basic scientific principles. The demand for food scientists continues to increase as the food industry expands.

Bioprocessing Science

The Bioprocessing Science degree is a unique program designed to provide graduates with a special skill set specific to bioprocessing and biomanufacturing. Graduates from this degree program will have exciting opportunities to biomanufacture medicines, vaccines, enzymes and other products that improve the quality of life.

Nutrition Sciences

Jobs for those with training in Nutrition Science are increasing due to the growing and aging population, public interest, especially related to obesity and chronic disease risk, and a desire to develop nutritious products for a health conscious consumer. Nutrition scientists may be employed in a variety of settings including clinical or private practice, health management organizations, wellness centers, health-related government agencies or non-profit organizations, and the food industry. Because of the key role that diet plays in the prevention, development, and treatment of many major diseases, health professionals benefit from an understanding of nutrition. Therefore, a degree in Nutrition Science is also highly relevant for those desiring a career in an allied health field.

Scholarships

The department provides both merit and financial need scholarships to encourage and assist students preparing for careers in Food, Bioprocessing, or Nutrition Science.

Curricula

The Food Science Bachelor of Science degree is offered through two curricula emphasizing science or technology. The science curriculum is designed for students desiring a more analytically intense program leading to technical careers in the food industry or graduate school. Students with an interest in business opportunities will find the technology program permits greater flexibility to pursue coursework in business, agricultural economics, or related fields. 

The Bioprocessing Science Bachelor of Science degree prepares students for technical careers in biomanufacturing through formal training in fundamental sciences, as well as preparing students for careers in industries whose products are based on biological systems, including biopharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. 

The Nutrition Science Bachelor of Science degree has two sub-plans to choose from: the Science track or the Applied track. The Science curriculum is designed for those students with an interest in graduate school or post-graduate training in a human health profession for which physics and 4 semesters of chemistry are required. The Applied curriculum is designed for those interested in health-related jobs immediately after graduation, obtaining further training to become a Registered Dietitian after graduation, or going on for post-graduate training in a human health profession for which no physics courses and only 3 semesters of chemistry are required. 

Minor in Food Science

The Food Science Minor is designed to provide students with important food science principles and concepts, giving a competitive edge to individuals seeking employment in the food, pharmaceutical and related industries. A minor provides technical information to improve the student’s knowledge and understanding of food and its manufacture. While a comprehensive coverage of Food Science cannot be accomplished in 15 credit hours, flexibility in developing the minor permits tailoring each program to complement a student’s major. An introductory course (FS 201) is required, but other courses are selected to build on the student's major.

Minor in Nutrition

A Nutrition Science minor is designed to provide knowledge of the principles of nutrition associated with healthful diets and to apply an understanding of nutrient structure, function, and sources to the evaluation of information and policies concerning foods and dietary and/or feeding practices. Introductory Biochemistry is a required course; students then select an additional 12 credit hours from a list of 200-500 level classes, including on- and off-campus independent study or research experiences.

Specific curriculum requirements are available on the Registration and Records website.

Department Head

Chris R. Daubert


Department Extension Leader

David P. Green


Food Science Undergraduate Teaching Coordinator

G. Keith Harris


Bioprocessing Science, Undergraduate Teaching Coordinator

John D. Sheppard


Nutrition Undergraduate Teaching Coordinator

Sarah L. Ash


Director of Graduate Programs

Jonathan C. Allen


Distinguished University Professor

T.R. Klaenhammer


William Neal Reynolds Professors

M.A. Drake

E.A. Foegeding

L.A. Jaykus

T.R. Klaenhammer

K.R. Swartzel


David H. Murdock Distinguished Professor

M.A. Lila


Professors

J.C. Allen

S.L. Ash

F. Breidt
USDA

C.R. Daubert

M.A. Drake

D.P. Green

L.A. Jaykus

S. Kathariou

T.C. Lanier

D.K. Larick

M.A. Lila

K.P. Sandeep

T.H. Sanders
USDA

J.D. Sheppard

V.D. Truong
USDA


Associate Professors

F.M. Arritt

R. Barrangou

D.J. Hanson

G.K. Harris

I.M Perez-Diaz


Assistant Professors

J.P. Davis
USDA

L.O. Dean

A.D. Fogleman

S. Goodell

S.D. Johanningsmeier
USDA

S. Komarnytsky

C.D. Stevenson


Professors Emeriti

L.W. Aurand

H.R. Ball

L.C. Boyd

R.E. Carawan

D.E. Carroll

G.L. Catignani, Jr.

J.A. Christian

H.B. Craig

H.P. Fleming

M.E. Gregory

A.P. Hansen

M.W. Hoover

V.A. Jones

R.F. McFeeters
USDA

J.L. Oblinger

D.H. Pilkington

J.E. Rushing

S.J. Schwartz

H.E. Swaisgood

L.G. Turner

W.M. Walter, Jr

D.R. Ward


Associate Members of the Faculty

K.E. Anderson
Poultry Science

B. Chapman
4-H Youth Development and Family & Consumer Sciences

S.A. Hale
Biological and Agricultural Engineering

H.M. Hassan
Molecular and Structural Biochemistry, Microbiology, Toxicology

S.A. Khan
Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

R.R. Sharma
Biological and Agricultural Engineering

D.P. Smith
Poultry Science

S. Thakur
College of Veterinary Medicine


Adjunct Faculty

A. Amezquita

P.A. Curtis

A. Kilara

S. Sang

R.C. Theuer

BBS - Bioprocessing Courses

BBS 201 Introduction to Biopharmaceutical Science 3.

Through this course, students will experience laboratory and manufacturing terminology relevant to the biomanufacturing industries. Students will also gain exposure to regulatory and compliance procedures and issues facing this industry. This coursewill provide an introduction to prepare students to meet the demands and expectations of this industry and the bioprocessing science program.

BBS 301 Process Validation Science 3.
Prerequisite: (FS 231 and BBS 201) or BBS 426..

Process validation is a tested and documented subset of the panel of activities that are performed during the production of a biopharmaceutical. This course will introduce the concept of process validation as it applies to the biotechnology industry, and more specifically, to the manufacture of protein molecules as therapeutic agents.

BBS 426 Upstream Biomanufacturing Laboratory 2.
Prerequisite: (MB 351 and FS 231) CHE/BEC 463.

This course is an introduction to current food manufacturing practice (CGMP) as applied to the growth of microbial cells in bioreactors. Hands-on experience is obtained in the operation and control of 30 liter bioreactors to study agitation, oxygen transfer, cleaning, sterilization, media preparation and the growth of recombinant E. coli for protein production. Credit will not be awarded in both BBS 426 and BBS/FS 526. This is an eight week course.

BBS 526 Upstream Biomanufacturing Laboratory 2.
Prerequisite: (MB 351 and FS 231) CHE/BEC 463.

This course is an introduction to current food manufacturing practice (CGMP) as applied to the growth of microbial cells in bioreactors. Hands-on experience is obtained in the operation and control of 30 liter bioreactors to study agitation, oxygen transfer, cleaning, sterilization, media preparation and the growth of recombinant E. coli for protein production. Credit will not be awarded in both BBS 426 and BBS/FS 526. This is an eight week course.

FS - Food Science Courses

FS 201 Introduction to Food Science 3.

Science and practice of providing a wholesome, nutritious, economical and readily available supply of basic and processed foodstuffs. Chemical nature of foods, nutritional requirements, health-related dietary considerations, microorganisms, foodborne illnesses, preservation and processing, food additives, food labeling, food safety and the consumer.

FS 231 Principles of Food and Bioprocess Engineering 4.
Prerequisite: PY 211.

Engineering concepts and their applications to the food and bioprocessing industries. Mass and energy balances and principles related to fluid flow, heat transfer, refrigeration and freezing, psychrometrics, and selected unit operations found in these industries.

FS 250 Basics of Food Safety & Quality 3.

This course examines the programs that maintain food safety and quality in food processing environments. It is based on international standards for food safety prerequisite programs in food manufacturing. Students will learn how to evaluate and manage pre-requisite programs for food safety. Examples include Good Manufacturing Practices (GMPs), Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOPs), Sanitation Control Procedures, and Preventive Controls.

FS 290 Careers in Food and Bioprocessing Sciences 1.

Careers and opportunities related to food and bioprocessing industries and regulatory agencies. Development of professional enhancement skills. Resume preparation, interviewing techniques, leadership development, oral and written communication, and team building. Benefits of undergraduate research, internships, and graduate education.

FS 295 Special Topics in Food Science 1-4.

Offerings of new or experimental courses in Food Science at the early undergraduate level.

FS 301 Introduction to Human Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

Functions, dietary sources, digestion and absorption, deficiencies and excesses of essential nutrients in humans; dietary guidelines; food labels; the study of diet-disease relationships; the role of diet in heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis; energy balance and weight control; dietary supplement regulation; diet and athletic performance.

FS 322 Muscle Foods and Eggs 3.
Prerequisite: ZO 160, BIO 181 or BIO 183.

Processing and preserving fresh poultry, red meats, seafood, and eggs. Ante- and post-mortem events as they affect quality, yield, and compositional characteristics of muscle foods. Principles and procedures involved in the production of processedmeat items.

FS 324 Milk and Dairy Products 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 181 or 183, CH 101.

Introduction to the manufacture of dairy products. Dairy processing procedures from the farm, through the dairy plant, and to the consumer are studied. The course consists of 15 learning modules, three exams, and a project.

FS 330 Science of Food Preparation 3.
Prerequisite: FS 201 and CH 101.

Basic elements of culinary practices are taught in conjunction with the scientific basis for how flavor, texture, and appearance of foods are created or maintained during food preparation.

FS 350 Introduction to HACCP 3.

Introductory course on the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points System (HACCP) which is designed to decrease hazards in foods. An International HACCP Alliance approved curriculum which covers prerequisite programs. A step by step approach for developing and implementing a HACCP plan for USDA regulated food processing plants. Offered only as a world wide web course through the Office of Instructional Telecommunications.

FS 351 Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures in Food Safety Control 3.

This course is one of a series of six courses that are part of North Carolina State University's Food Safety Certification program. "Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures (SSOP's) in Food Safety Control" addresses current federal regulatory requirements for seafood, meat, and poultry processing operations. The course also addresses the international dimensions of sanitary standards in import/export of food. The course is designed to provide the student with the background necessary to develop, implement and maintain a sanitation plan based on sanitation standard operating procedures (SSOP's).

FS 352 Introduction to Microbiological Food Safety Hazards 3.

For non-science students. The course is designed to provide an introduction to the more prominent microbial foodborne safety hazards and their control. Lessons are provided on specific pathogens, their pathogenesis and transmission and the scientific basis for specific control options. In addition, the course provides up-to-date information on current "hot-topics" in food microbiology, including food safety regulations and emerging food safety issues.Course is offered to non-science majors. Students may not receive credit for both FS 352 and FS 405.

FS 353 Good Manufacturing Practices 3.

Food Safety sanitation in the United States is primarily regulated by FDA under their "Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)." This course will introduce the student to the GMP and consider how and why they were developed. Students will become familiarwith the issues of compliance and consider the regulations in light of international laws and current practices. The student should have some familiarity with food processing and safety.

FS 354 Food Sanitation 3.
Prerequisite: FS/ANS/PO 350 or equivalent HACCP industry experience.

Discussion of hygienic practices, requirements for sanitation programs, and modern sanitation practices in food processing facilities. At the end of this course, students will have the knowledge to develop and maintain a sanitation program.

FS 401 Advanced Nutrition and Metabolism 3.
Prerequisite: (NTR 301 or NTR 415) and (CH 221 or CH 220 or CH 225).

Nutritional biochemistry and physiology as it relates to establishment of nutrient requirements and Dietary Reference Intakes. Digestion, absorption, metabolism, storage, and excretion of nutrients and other markers of nutritional adequacy or excess with emphasis on micronutrients. Functions of nutrients, in bone muscle, blood, growth and development and communication. Credit will not be awarded for both NTR (FS) 401 and NTR (FS) 501.

FS 402 Chemistry of Food and Bioprocessed Materials 4.
Prerequisite: CH 220 or 221 or 225.

The course focuses on the properties of biological molecules (e.g., proteins, enzymes lipids, carbohydrates and pigments) found in foods and pharmaceuticals. Basic elements of molecules, such as structure and reactive groups, are presented in regard to how they affect the properties of foods and pharmaceuticals. Reactions such as Maillard browning and lipid oxidation are discussed regarding mechanisms, products and controlling processes. Laboratory experiments emphasize basic concepts discussed in lecture and provide a practical working knowledge of select analytical equipment.

FS 403 Analytical Techniques in Food & Bioprocessing Science 4.
Prerequisite: FS 402.

Principles, methods and techniques for quantitative physical and chemical analyses of food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical products. Results of analyses evaluated in terms of quality standards and governing regulations.

FS 405 Food Microbiology 3.
Prerequisite: MB 351.

Microorganisms of importance in foods and their metabolic activities. Source of microbial contamination during food production, processing and storage. Microbial spoilage; foods as vectors of human pathogens. Physical and chemical destruction of microorganisms in foods and the kinetics involved. Conversions of raw foods by microorganisms into food products. Microbiological standards for regulatory and trade purposes. Credit will not be given for both FS/MB 405 and FS/MB 505.

FS 406 Food Microbiology Lab 1.
Prerequisite: MB 351 and Corequisite: FS 405 or FS 505.

Laboratory experience to complement FS/MB 405. Skills in detecting and quantitating microorganisms and their toxins in foods. Application of colony and direct microscopic counts, most probable numbers, enzyme immunoassays, nucleic acid probes and computer modeling are used to understand the numbers and types of microorganisms or microbial end products in foods. Laboratory safety and oral and written reports are emphasized.

FS 407 Risk Analysis and Hazard Analysis in Food Safety 3.
Prerequisite: FS/ANS/PS 350 or equivalent HACCP industry experience.

In-depth focus on the application of the first HACCP principle, Hazard Analysis, on the identification of food safety hazards, as well as the emerging importance of risk assessment. Distance Education Only.

FS 416 Quality Control in Food and Bioprocessing 3.
Prerequisite: ST 311.

Organization and principles of quality control in the food and bioprocessing industries. Regulations and process control to maintain safety and quality. Evaluation of physical, microbiological, chemical, sensory, and stability testing for food and bioprocessed materials. Risk assessment, hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP), process control, water quality, waste water analysis and reduction. Cleaning and sanitation and compliance inspection.

FS 421 Food Preservation 3.
Prerequisite: FS 231 and FS 405.

Food preservation methods. Emphasis on thermal, freezing, drying and fermentation processes and corresponding physical, chemical and organoleptic changes to products. Application of preservation schemes to the development of an overall processing operation.

FS 426 Upstream Biomanufacturing Laboratory 2.
Prerequisite: (MB 351 and FS 231) CHE/BEC 463.

This course is an introduction to current food manufacturing practice (CGMP) as applied to the growth of microbial cells in bioreactors. Hands-on experience is obtained in the operation and control of 30 liter bioreactors to study agitation, oxygen transfer, cleaning, sterilization, media preparation and the growth of recombinant E. coli for protein production. Credit will not be awarded in both BBS 426 and BBS/FS 526. This is an eight week course.

FS 453 Food Laws and Regulations 3.
Prerequisite: Junior standing..

Federal and state laws and regulations, and case law history affecting food production, processing, packaging, marketing, and distribution of food and food products. History of food law, enactment of laws and regulations, legal research, and regulatory agencies.Credit will not be given for both FS 453 and FS 553.

FS 462 Postharvest Physiology 3.
Prerequisite: PB 421.

Preharvest and postharvest factors that affect market quality of horticultural commodities with an emphasis on technologies to preserve postharvest quality and extend storage life of fruits, vegetables and ornamentals.

FS 475 Problems and Design in Food and Bioprocessing Science 3.
Prerequisite: FS 231, FS 402, FS 405 or BAE(BBS) 425.

Team approach to problem solving and product/process design and development. Ingredient functionality; formulation, safety, processing, packaging, sensory evaluation, regulatory issues, hazard analysis, critical control points (HACCP), nutritional labeling and other pertinent scientific, technical, marketing and financial aspects. Oral and written presentations are required.

FS 492 External Learning Experience 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes facilities and resources which are external to the campus. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by the student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience.

FS 493 Special Problems in Food Science 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes campus facilities and resources. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by the student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience.

FS 495 Special Topics in Food Science 1-3.

Offered as needed to present materials not normally available in regular course offerings or for offering new courses on a trial basis.

FS 501 Advanced Nutrition and Metabolism 3.
Prerequisite: (NTR 301 or NTR 415 or NTR 500) and (CH 221 or CH 220 or CH 225).

Nutritional biochemistry and physiology as it relates to establishment of nutrient requirements and Dietary Reference intakes. Digestion, absorption, metabolism, storage, and excretion of nutrients and other markers of nutritional adequacy or excess with emphasis on micronutrients. Functions of nutrients, in bone, muscle, blood, growth and development, and communication. Credit will not be awarded for both NTR(FS) 401 and NTR(FS) 501.

FS 502 Chemistry of Food and Bioprocessed Materials 4.
Prerequisite: CH 220 or 221 or 225.

The course focuses on the properties of biological molecules (e.g., proteins, enzymes lipids, carbohydrates and pigments) found in foods and pharmaceuticals. Basic elements of molecules, such as structure and reactive groups, are presented in regard to how they affect the properties of foods and pharmaceuticals. Reactions such as Maillard browning and lipid oxidation are discussed regarding mechanisms, products and controlling processes. Laboratory experiments emphasize basic concepts discussed in lecture and provide a practical working knowledge of select analytical equipment.

FS 505 Food Microbiology 3.
Prerequisite: MB 351.

Microorganisms of importance in foods and their metabolic activities. Source of microbial contamination during food production, processing and storage. Microbial spoilage; foods as vectors of human pathogens. Physical and chemical destruction of microorganisms in foods and the kinetics involved. Conversions of raw foods by microorganisms into food products. Microbiological standards for regulatory and trade purposes. Credit will not be given for both FS/MB 405 and FS/MB 505.

FS 506 Food Microbiology Lab 1.
Prerequisite: MB 351 and Corequisite: FS 405 or FS 505.

Laboratory experience to complement FS/MB 405. Skills in detecting and quantitating microorganisms and their toxins in foods. Application of colony and direct microscopic counts, most probable numbers, enzyme immunoassays, nucleic acid probes and computer modeling are used to understand the numbers and types of microorganisms or microbial end products in foods. Laboratory safety and oral and written reports are emphasized.

FS 520 Pre-Harvest Food Safety 3.

Dairy, beef, swine, poultry, and seafood modules: production, government regulation of products, use of antimicrobials in production, and the emergence of resistant human pathogens. Field fruit and vegetable crops section: hazards in food includingpesticide residues and philosophy and practice of organic farming and public's perception of food and biotechnology.

FS 521 Food Preservation 3.
Corequisite: MB 351.

Food preservation methods. Emphasis on thermal, freezing, drying and fermentation processes and corresponding physical, chemical and organoleptic changes to products. Application of preservation schemes to the development of an overall processing operation.

FS 522 Food Packaging 3.

This course deals with the history of packaging, types of packages, and packaging equipment, factors involved in choice of package, aseptic packaging, shelf-life studies, modified atmospheric packaging, active packaging, packaging for e-commerce, automatic identification and data capture, closures, seal integrity, tamper evidence, graphic design & printing, distribution, labeling, environmental issues, regulatory agencies and stipulations, new frontiers in packaging, and packaging resources. Restricted to students enrolled in (or degree received) in the Food Bioprocessing and Nutrition Sciences Program or a closely related program such as the Biological & Agricultural Engineering Program.

FS 526 Upstream Biomanufacturing Laboratory 2.
Prerequisite: (MB 351 and FS 231) CHE/BEC 463.

This course is an introduction to current food manufacturing practice (CGMP) as applied to the growth of microbial cells in bioreactors. Hands-on experience is obtained in the operation and control of 30 liter bioreactors to study agitation, oxygen transfer, cleaning, sterilization, media preparation and the growth of recombinant E. coli for protein production. Credit will not be awarded in both BBS 426 and BBS/FS 526. This is an eight week course.

FS 530 Post-Harvest Food Safety 3.
Prerequisite: MB 351/352.

Background on the current issues and developments associated with post-harvest food safety, including biological, chemical, and physical food safety hazards. Additionally, regulations governing food safety and consumer perceptions.

FS 540 Food Safety and Public Health 3.
Prerequisite: MB 351/352.

Issues and developments related to the relationship between food safety and public health, including emerging foodborne pathogens; virulence and pathogenicity; foodborne toxins; epidemiological techniques used in the investigation of foodborne disease; rapid detection methods; and quantitative microbial risk assessment in food safety.

FS 550 Food Industry Study Tour 2.

The Food Industry Study Tour is designed to give students a behind the scenes look into the food processing industry. This week-long trip, will allow students to travel throughout North Carolina and the Southeast region, touring various meat, dairy, seafood, produce, cereal, snack food, beverage, and candy production facilities. The class trip will run 5-6 days during the week of Spring Break holiday. Enrollment is limited and subject to the permission of the instructor.

FS 553 Food Laws and Regulations 3.

Federal and state laws and regulations and case law history affecting food production, processing, packaging, marketing and distribution of food and food products. History of food law, enactment of laws and regulations, legal research, and regulatory agencies. Credit for both FS 453 and FS 553 is not allowed.

FS 554 Lactation, Milk, and Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 230 or FS/NTR 400; BCH 451 or ZO 421.

Nutritional properties of milk as a high-quality food with nutritional diversity. Principles of physiology, biochemistry and cell biology in the mammary gland. Procedures of milk production and milk collection for milk quality and nutrition. Human lactation vs. that of domestic animals. Impacts of biotechnology and food safety on dairy production. Credit will not be given for both ANS 454 and 554.

FS 555 Exercise Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: NTR 400/500.

Metabolism of macro- and micronutrients as affected by exercise and physical activity. Effects of dietary patterns, specific foods, dietary supplements and ergogenic aids on sports performance. Reading and discussion of current literature and individual or group projects.

FS 557 Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods 3.

This course evaluates the weight of evidence from peer-reviewed scientific literature relating food bioactives, whole foods, and diets to disease prevention, athletic performance, and cognitive development/enhancement. Data are viewed in the context of processing effects, global food and supplement regulations, as well as commercial marketing claims. Key concepts include dose-response, signal transduction, and the use of advanced technologies such as genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. Students will work in teams to develop and write a critical review manuscript suitable for publication.

FS 562 Postharvest Physiology 3.
Prerequisite: PB 321.

Pre- and post-harvest factors that affect market quality of horticultural commodities with an emphasis on technologies to preserve quality and extend storage life of crops.

FS 567 Sensory Analysis of Foods 3.
Prerequisite: Statistics 511.

Techniques of sensory analysis and data interpretation, a crucial aspect of food science research and marketing both at the academic and industrial levels. Fundamental and applied aspects of sensory analysis of foods, including human senses, descriptive analysis, scaling, consumer testing and sensory-instrumental relationships.

FS 580 Professional Development and Ethics in Food Safety 1.
Prerequisite: FSA 520 or FSA 530 or FS 540.

Professional development and thics related to food safety. Foof safety communications to lay-audiences and the media; the ethical frontier between science/policy and science/profit. Planned student and faculty presentations as well as guest lectures on current topical issues.

FS 591 Special Problems In Food Science 1-6.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or Senior standing.

Analysis of scientific, engineering and economic problems of current interest in foods. Problems designed to provide training and experience in research.

FS 592 Special Research Projects in Food Science 1-6.

FS 620 Special Problems In Food Science 1-6.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or Senior standing.

Analysis of scientific, engineering and economic problems of current interest in foods. Problems designed to provide training and experience in research.

FS 623 Special Research Problems In Food Science 1-6.

Directed research in a specialized phase of food science designed to provide experience in research methodology and philosophy.

FS 685 Master's Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

FS 690 Master's Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non thesis master's programs who have completed all other requirements of the degree except preparing for and taking the final master's exam.

FS 693 Master's Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

FS 695 Master's Thesis Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Thesis research.

FS 696 Summer Thesis Research 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

FS 699 Master's Thesis Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements and full-time enrollment for the master's degree and are writing and defending their theses.

FS 706 Vitamin Metabolism 2.
Prerequisite: ANS(NTR,PO) 415 and BCH 453.

Structures, chemical and physical properties, functions, deficiency symptoms, distribution, absorption, transport, metabolism, storage, excretion and toxicity of vitamins in humans and domestic animals. Nutritional significance of essential fatty acids and metabolism of prostaglandins, prostacyclins and leucotrienes.

FS 725 Fermentation Microbiology 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 451, MB 351.

Fermentation bioprocessing and characteristics, function and ecology of responsible microorganisms. Fermentative activities, growth responses and culture interactions related to metabolism, physiology and genetics of lactic acid bacteria and selected yeasts and molds. Current developments in starter culture technology and genetics; application to food and industrial fermentations.

FS 741 Thermal Processing of Foods 3.
Prerequisite: FS 231.

Fluid flow, heat transfer, food preservation, kinetics of chemical, microbiological, and enzymatic reactions, decimal reduction time, pasteurization, sterilization, cook value, process lethality, canning of foods, thermal process evaluation, qualityconsiderations, optimization, shelf-life studies, thermal processing equipment, hot-fill, extended shelf-life products, heat exchanger design, pumps, sanitation, aseptic processing, minimal processing, NFPA bulletins, alternative processing technologies, regulatory issues, HACCP.

FS 751 Food Ingredient Technology In Product Development 4.
Prerequisite: FS 402, FS 405, FS 421.

Chemistry and functional properties of major food ingredient materials. Legal and regulatory restrictions, as well as consumer biases, in existence with respect to selection of ingredients, package materials, processes and labeling statements. Necessary skills and techniques for efficiently and successfully conducting food product development projects in a competitive corporate setting.

FS 765 Polymer and Colloidal Properties of Foods 3.
Prerequisite: (CH 221 or CH 225) and (CH 223 or CH 227) and FS 402.

Theoretical and practical elements of applying principles from polymer and colloidal chemistry to foods. Major focus on proteins and polysaccharides in sols, foams, emulsions and gels.

FS 780 Seminar In Food Science 1.

Preparation and presentation of scientific papers, progress reports and research and special topics of interest in foods.

FS 785 Food Rheology 3.
Prerequisite: FS 331 or MAE 314.

Principles and methods for measuring rheological properties. Theories of elastic, viscous, viscoelastic and viscoplastic behavior and relationships to food texture and commodity damage during harvest, handling and processing. Influence of time, composition and processing.

FS 791 Special Problems in Food Science 1-6.

Directed research in a specialized phase of food science designed to provide experience in research methodology and philosophy.Credits Arranged.

FS 792 Special Research Projects in Food Science 1-6.

Credits Arranged.

FS 820 Special Problems In Food Science 1-6.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or Senior standing.

Analysis of scientific, engineering and economic problems of current interest in foods. Problems designed to provide training and experience in research.

FS 823 Special Research Problems In Food Science 1-6.

Directed research in a specialized phase of food science designed to provide experience in research methodology and philosophy.

FS 885 Doctoral Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

FS 890 Doctoral Preliminary Exam 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who are preparing for and taking wirtten and/or oral preliminary exams.

FS 893 Doctoral Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

FS 895 Doctoral Dissertation Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Dissertation research.

FS 896 Summer Dissertation Research 1.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

FS 899 Doctoral Dissertation Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who have completed all credit hour, full-time enrollment, preliminary examination, and residency requirements for the doctoral degree, and are writing and defending their dissertations.

NTR - Nutrition Courses

NTR 220 Food and Culture 3.

This course explores traditional food cultures around the world; highlighting foodways, flavor profiles, and commonly used ingredients. This course focuses on how and to what extent traditional foodways of US immigrants are impacted by the majority culture and how regional cuisines have been impacted by historical migration patterns. Students will examine their own food culture, biases, and how these impact personal interactions with others through a semester-long project. Food tastings and sensory experiences will expose students to a variety of global and US regional cuisines allowing students to compare and contrast flavor profiles and commonly used ingredients. Course is available to all majors.

NTR 301 Introduction to Human Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

Functions, dietary sources, digestion and absorption, deficiencies and excesses of essential nutrients in humans; dietary guidelines; food labels; the study of diet-disease relationships; the role of diet in heart disease, diabetes, hypertension, osteoporosis; energy balance and weight control; dietary supplement regulation; diet and athletic performance.

NTR 302 Introduction to Nutrition Research, Communication, and Careers 3.
Prerequisite: NTR 301.

This course exposes students to scientific literature, communication, and careers in the field of nutrition. Students will learn how to critically evaluate scientific literature and communicate that information both orally and in writing. Course topics include: research design, nutritional epidemiology, statistics, scientific writing, professionalism, and current nutrition-related "hot topics." Class time will be a combination of lecture and small or large group discussions and individual or group in-class assignments. Student evaluations include in-class assignments, writing assignments, oral presentations, and exams.

NTR 320 Nutrition Education 3.
Prerequisite: NTR 301.

This course exposes students to the principles behind the development, implementation, and evaluation of nutrition education programs in the United States. Course topics will cover behavior change models, educational pedagogies, nutrition needs assessments, curricular and tool development, social marketing, and social media and technology related to nutrition education. The course is a flipped-course design with course content posted online through pre-recorded lectures and reading assignments. In-class lecture time will be reserved for class discussion and in-class assignments. Student evaluations include exams, in-class assignments, and a term paper.

NTR 330 Public Health Nutrition 3.

Students will explore factors that affect the health and nutrition of the population as well as how those factors are identified, studied, and applied to improve health issues. Students will identify services and programs available to address nutrition and health issues. Students will analyze current events related to public health, evaluate nutrition related policy, and advocate for issues related to nutrition.

NTR 401 Advanced Nutrition and Metabolism 3.
Prerequisite: (NTR 301 or NTR 415) and (CH 221 or CH 220 or CH 225).

Nutritional biochemistry and physiology as it relates to establishment of nutrient requirements and Dietary Reference Intakes. Digestion, absorption, metabolism, storage, and excretion of nutrients and other markers of nutritional adequacy or excess with emphasis on micronutrients. Functions of nutrients, in bone muscle, blood, growth and development and communication. Credit will not be awarded for both NTR (FS) 401 and NTR (FS) 501.

NTR 410 Maternal and Infant Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: NTR 301.

Students will explore the current research, controversies, and biological mechanisms related to nutrition for women before, during, and after pregnancy, as well as for infants in utero and after birth.

NTR 415 Comparative Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 225 or ANS 230 or CH 220 or CH 223 or CH 227.

Principles of nutrition, including the classification of nutrients and the nutrient requirements of and metabolism by different species for health, growth, maintenance and productive functions.

NTR 419 Human Nutrition and Chronic Disease 3.
Prerequisite: Junior standing, ANS 230, or ANS/FS/NTR 301 or ANS/NTR/PO 415.

Current concepts regarding, and physiological bases of the roles of nutrition in the prevention and treatment of acute and chronic disease states in humans with emphasis on the process of scientific discovery, reading of original research and transformation of research findings to public policy.

NTR 420 Community Nutrition 4.
Prerequisite: NTR 301 and junior standing required.

This course exposes students to nutrition-related community programs, agencies, and activities. Through service-learning experiences, students will apply course material to teach nutrition in the community. Course topics will also cover behavior change models, educational pedagogies, and nutrition among diverse populations. Students are expected to provide their own transportation for the community service in the greater Raleigh area. Instructor consent required; Credit will not be given for both NTR 420 and NTR 520.

NTR 421 Life Cycle Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: NTR 301 and junior standing required.

This course focuses on the physiologic changes and nutritional needs throughout the life cycle. Additionally, students will explore psychosocial and environmental influencers on food consumption and diet quality at each stage of life. Pregnancy and lactation, fetal development, infancy, early childhood, childhood, adolescence, young and middle adulthood, and geriatrics will be examined. Student will apply course content to real-world settings through individual and/or group service-learning projects. Credit will not be given for both NTR 421 and NTR 521.

NTR 454 Lactation, Milk and Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 230 or FS/NTR 400; BCH 451 or ZO 421.

Nutritional properties of milk as a high-quality food with nutritional diversity. Principles of physiology, biochemistry and cell biology in the mammary gland. Procedures of milk production and milk collection for milk quality and nutrition. Human lactation vs. that of domestic animals. Impacts of biotechnology and food safety on dairy production. Credit will not be given for both ANS 454 and 554.

NTR 490 Senior Capstone Experience in Nutrition 4.
Prerequisite: Nutrition Science majors only; Senior status required.

In this capstone course, students will work in groups to complete research and service projects for community partners while gaining professional experiences in nutrition. Students will be expected to apply their knowledge and skills gained throughout their nutrition coursework to develop solutions to problems in public health and community nutrition. Students will complete comprehensive written and poster presentations about their work as a group, in addition to individual reflection(s) about their learnings. Students must provide their own transportation when visiting their community partner site. Students should complete this course in the last semester (or year) of their degree. NTS and NTA Majors only; Senior status required.

NTR 492 External Learning Experience 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes facilities and resources which are external to the campus. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience.

NTR 493 Special Problems in Nutrition 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes campus facilities and resources. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience.

NTR 495 Special Topics in Nutrition 1-3.

Offered as needed to present materials not normally available in regular course offerings or for offering of new courses on a trial basis.

NTR 500 Principles of Human Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: CH 220 and (CH 221 or CH 223) and (ZO 160 or BIO 181/183).

Overview of fields of Nutritional Sciences; functions of nutrients in the human body; sources and properties of nutrients; relationships of food industry practices to nutrition. Credit will not be given for both NTR (FS)400 and NTR 500.

NTR 501 Advanced Nutrition and Metabolism 3.

Nutritional biochemistry and physiology as it relates to establishment of nutrient requirements and Dietary Reference intakes. Digestion, absorption, metabolism, storage, and excretion of nutrients and other markers of nutritional adequacy or excess with emphasis on micronutrients. Functions of nutrients, in bone, muscle, blood, growth and development, and communication. Credit will not be awarded for both NTR(FS) 401 and NTR(FS) 501.

NTR 510 Maternal and Infant Nutrition 3.
P: NTR 301 or NTR 500.

Students will explore the current research, controversies, and biological mechanisms related to nutrition for women before, during, and after pregnancy, as well as for infants in utero and after birth.

NTR 515 Advanced Comparative Nutrition 3.

An in-depth presentation of core nutrition principles stressing the role nutrient availability plays in digestive and metabolic adaptations of a variety of animal species. Consideration will be given to translational biomedical nutrition issues that apply to both human and animal health. Students are expected to develop a term paper suitable for submission in a peer-reviewed scientific journal that reviews the latest information in metabolic or digestive adaptations of a specific species as related to nutritional processes. Credit will not be allowed for both ANS/NTR/PO 415 comparative Nutrition and NTR/PO 515 Advanced Comparative Nutrition.

NTR 520 Community Nutrition 4.
Prerequisite: NTR 301 and junior standing required.

This course exposes students to nutrition-related community programs, agencies, and activities. Through service-learning experiences, students will apply course material to complete a needs assessment for a target audience, design and implement a program, and evaluate the program's effectiveness. Course topics will also cover behavior change models, educational pedagogies, and nutrition among diverse populations. Twenty hours of service is required. Students are expected to provide their own transportation for the community service in the greater Raleigh area. Instructor consent required; Credit will not be awarded for both NTR 420 and NTR 520.

NTR 521 Life Cycle Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: NTR 301 or other introductory human nutrition course.

This course focuses on the physiological changes and nutritional needs throughout the life cycle. Additionally, students will explore psychological and environmental influencers on flood consumption and diet quality at each stage of life. Pregnancy and lactation, fetal development, infancy, early childhood, childhood, adolescence, young and middle adulthood, and geriatrics will be examined. Students will apply course content to real-world settings through individual and/or group service-learning projects.

NTR 525 Advanced Feed Science and Technology 3.
Prerequisite: PO/ANS/NTR 415 or ANS 230 or related feed industry experience.

Feed mill management, equipment, maintenance, operation, safety, and regulations pertaining to feed manufacturing. Feed ingredient purchasing, inventory, storage, quality evaluation, and computerized feed formulation. Advanced NTR525 topics include more detailed aspects of feed science and technology, feed mill design and process flow, operations management, feed quality assurance, regulations, and computer applications. The Distance Education section will have independent study assignments in place of lab experience. Credit will not be given for both PO/ANS 425 and NTR 525.

NTR 550 Applied Ruminant Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 230 or ANS(NTR,PO) 415.

Applied concepts in ruminant nutrition for the practicing agricultural professional. Protein, energy, vitamin and mineral nutrition in relation to the nutritional needs and practical feeding of beef cattle, dairy cattle, sheep, and goats. New developments in feeding systems, feed additives and the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders. Emphasis on solving problems in case studies. Permission given to undergraduates.

NTR 554 Lactation, Milk, and Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: ANS 230 or FS/NTR 400; BCH 451 or ZO 421.

Nutritional properties of milk as a high-quality food with nutritional diversity. Principles of physiology, biochemistry and cell biology in the mammary gland. Procedures of milk production and milk collection for milk quality and nutrition. Human lactation vs. that of domestic animals. Impacts of biotechnology and food safety on dairy production. Credit will not be given for both ANS 454 and 554.

NTR 555 Exercise Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: NTR 400/500.

Metabolism of macro- and micronutrients as affected by exercise and physical activity. Effects of dietary patterns, specific foods, dietary supplements and ergogenic aids on sports performance. Reading and discussion of current literature and individual or group projects.

NTR 557 Nutraceuticals and Functional Foods 3.

This course evaluates the weight of evidence from peer-reviewed scientific literature relating food bioactives, whole foods, and diets to disease prevention, athletic performance, and cognitive development/enhancement. Data are viewed in the context of processing effects, global food and supplement regulations, as well as commercial marketing claims. Key concepts include dose-response, signal transduction, and the use of advanced technologies such as genomics, proteomics and metabolomics. Students will work in teams to develop and write a critical review manuscript suitable for publication.

NTR 561 Equine Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite:ANS 230 or ANS 225 or ANS (NTR,PO) 415 or PO/NTR 515.

This course explores concepts in equine nutrition including digestive physiology of horses, nutrient requirements for different classes of horses and feed management. Ration evaluation and balancing, as well as problem solving will be a core component to this course.

NTR 594 Special Topics in Nutrition 1-6.

NTR 601 Master's Seminar 1.

NTR 624 Topical Problems In Nutrition 1-6.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or Senior standing.

Analysis of current problems in nutrition. Also entails the scientific appraisal and solution of a selected problem designed to provide training and experience in research.

NTR 625 Advanced Special Problems In Nutrition 1-6.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Directed research in a specialized phase of nutrition designed to provide experience in research methodology and philosophy.

NTR 685 Master's Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

NTR 690 Advanced Special Problems In Nutrition 1-6.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Directed research in a specialized phase of nutrition designed to provide experience in research methodology and philosophy.

NTR 693 Master's Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

NTR 695 Master's Thesis Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Thesis research.

NTR 696 Summer Thesis Research 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

NTR 699 Research In Nutrition 1-9.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Original research preparatory to the thesis for Master of Science or Doctor of Philosophy degree.

NTR 701 Protein and Amino Acid Metabolism 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 453, ZO 421, a 400-level nutrition course.

Study of protein and amino acid metabolism, regulation, dietary requirements and techniques for their investigation in human and other animals.

NTR 706 Vitamin Metabolism 2.
Prerequisite: ANS(NTR,PO) 415 and BCH 453.

Structures, chemical and physical properties, functions, deficiency symptoms, distribution, absorption, transport, metabolism, storage, excretion and toxicity of vitamins in humans and domestic animals. Nutritional significance of essential fatty acids and metabolism of prostaglandins, prostacyclins and leucotrienes.

NTR 708 Energy Metabolism 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 453 and an introductory NTR course.

Relationship of biochemical and physiological events within the cell, tissue, organ and system with the nutrient needs as sources of energy for productive animal life. Digestion, absorption and metabolism of energy sources. Presentation of processesof energy transformations within living structures in relation to energetics, biological oxidations, coupled reactions, anabolic and catabolic systems, metabolic control, partitioning and efficiency.

NTR 764 Advances in Gastrointestinal Pathophysiology 3.
Prerequisite: PHY 503, PHY 504.

This course will focus on advanced gastrointestinal physiology and the pathophysiology of deseases of relevance to scientsts involved in animal-related research. In particular, the course will cover the pathophysiology of ulceration, infectious diarrhea, ischemia, motility disorders, and inflammatory diseases of the gut. An in-depth review paper will be required based on recent literature rgarding a specific gastrointestinal disease.

NTR 775 Mineral Metabolism 3.
Prerequisite: ANS(NTR,PO) 415, BCH 451 and ZO 421.

Requirements, function, distribution, absorption, excretion and toxicity of minerals in humans and domestic animals. Interactions between minerals and other factors affecting mineral metabolism or availability. Emphasis on mechanisms associated withmineral functions and the metabolic bases for the development of signs of deficiency.

NTR 785 Digestion and Metabolism in Ruminants 3.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Advanced concepts in ruminant digestion and metabolism, with emphasis on bovine, ovine, and caprine species. Major topics include voluntary intake, ruminal fermentation, mechanisms and rates of digestion, absorption and passage of dietary components, and postabsorptive metabolism of carbohydrates, lipds, and proteins. New developments in feeding systems, feed additives and the prevention and treatment of metabolic disorders.

NTR 790 Advanced Feed Formulation 3.
Prerequisite: NTR(FM) 525.

Principles of feed and ingredient quality assurance and how to develop a comprehensive quality assurance program. The course will include the development of an approved supplier list, ingredient specifications, feed manufacturing quality assurance procedures, and risk based feed safety programs.

NTR 794 Special Topics in Nutrition 1-6.

NTR 801 Doctoral Seminar 1.

NTR 824 Topical Problems In Nutrition 1-6.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing or Senior standing.

Analysis of current problems in nutrition. Also entails the scientific appraisal and solution of a selected problem designed to provide training and experience in research.

NTR 825 Advanced Special Problems In Nutrition 1-6.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Directed research in a specialized phase of nutrition designed to provide experience in research methodology and philosophy.

NTR 885 Doctoral Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

NTR 890 Doctoral Preliminary Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who are preparing for and taking written and/or oral preliminary exams.

NTR 893 Doctoral Dissertation Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

NTR 895 Doctoral Dissertation Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Dissertation research.

NTR 896 Summer Dissertation Research 1.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

NTR 899 Doctoral Dissertation Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who have completed all credit hour, full-time enrollment, preliminary examination, and residency requirements for the doctoral degree, and are writing and defending their dissertations.