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Department of Horticultural Science

http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/hort_sci

Horticulture is a dynamic segment of agriculture. The development, growth, distribution, and utilization of fruits, vegetables, flowers, and ornamental plants, plus the art and science of landscape designing enrich our lives with nutritious foods and more attractive surroundings. North Carolina’s varied climatic conditions favor the production of a wide variety of horticultural crops on a commercial scale, as well as numerous beautiful parks, gardens, and arboreta. The growing interest in local foods and home gardening has created a demand for more information about fruits and vegetable production and new crop varieties adapted to North Carolina’s environments. Urban population growth fuels a need for ornamental plants and a thriving nursery industry. Designers skilled in residential and commercial landscaping, interior plantscaping, and plant maintenance are in high demand. The growth in demand for horticultural information by the consumer, schools, and state and county government continues to increase.

Undergraduate programs in horticultural science offer a broad based education in physical and biological sciences and a sound production background. Students can concentrate in areas of fruit and vegetable science, floriculture, woody ornamental plant science, landscape design, or pursue a general approach encompassing all the specialties. They are prepared for graduate study or for diverse professional service.

Opportunities

Horticulture graduates fill positions in production, processing, sales, service, and outreach. Among these are:

  • county extension agents
  • vocational agriculture teachers
  • landscape designers and landscape contractors
  • farm operators
  • orchard
  • nursery
  • greenhouse
  • and garden center managers
  • research
  • production
  • and promotional specialists with commercial seed
  • fertilizer
  • chemical and food companies
  • urban horticulture specialists
  • garden writers
  • inspectors
  • quality control technologists
  • USDA specialists
  • county and state government planners
  • leaders in other phases of agricultural and industrial developments
  • Students also prepare for careers in research, teaching or extension in horticulture

Curricula

The degree of Bachelor of Science with a major in horticultural science can be earned in either science or technology. Under the science curriculum, specialized education is offered in fruit and vegetable crops, floriculture, and ornamental horticulture. Under the technology curriculum, education is offered in landscape design or in a general approach, which allows for specialization in fruit and vegetable science, floriculture, and woody ornamental plant science.

Specific curriculum requirements are available on the Registration and Records website.

Minor in Horticultural Science

The academic minor in Horticultural Science is offered to students who desire a strong foundation in the principles of horticultural science. Students may choose to enhance their own major by selecting courses in a specialized area of horticulture such as fruits and vegetables, ornamentals, floriculture, or landscape horticulture, or they may pursue a more general approach to the entire field of study. Sixteen or seventeen credit hours are required for the minor, depending on courses selected.

Certificate in Horticultural Science

The undergraduate certificate in Horticulture provides a basic introduction into the science of Horticulture and Horticultural practices as they pertain to the home garden. A broad-range of courses are available in a distance education format. A minimum of fifteen credits is required for the certificate.

Department Head

Wayne Buhler


Assistant Department Head

Todd C. Wehner


Undergraduate Coordinator

Helen T. Kraus


Director of Graduate Programs

Julia L. Kornegay


Department Extension Leader

Jonathan R. Schultheis


Director, JC Raulston Arboretum

Mark Weathington


Alumni Distinguished Undergraduate Professor

B.H. Lane


Graduate Alumni Distinguished Professor Emeritus

D.M. Pharr


JC Raulston Distinguished Professor

D. J. Werner


Professors

J.R. Ballington

T.E. Bilderback

F.A. Blazich

S.D. Clouse

N.G. Creamer

J.M. Dole

W.C. Fonteno

W.E. Hooker

J.L. Kornegay

J.C. Neal

P. Perkins-Veazie

T.G. Ranney

J.R. Schultheis

S.E. Spayd

T.C. Wehner

D.J. Werner

B.E. Whipker

L.G. Wilson

G.C. Yencho


Associate Professor

W.G. Buhler

J.D. Burton

J.M. Davis

G.E. Fernandez

S.J. McArtney

M.L. Parker

B.R. Sosinski

A.M. Spafford

J.D. Williamson


Assistant Professor

L.K. Bradley

A. Brown

G.C. Gunter

B.A. Fair

B.E. Jackson

H.T. Kraus

A.V. LeBude

D.R. Panthee

J.A. Pattison

J.T. Sherk


Lecturer

B.H. Lane


Research Associate Professor

GF.C. Allen, II


Research Assistant Professor

K.M. Jennings


Researcher

R.B. Batts

M.E. Clough

K.V. Pecota


Extension Associate

E.A. Driscoll

L.M. Forehand

W.E. Mitchem

A.C. Thornton


Associate Members of the Faculty

M.D. Boyette
Biological and Agricultural Engineering

G.D. Hoyt
Soil Science

Q. Xiang
Plant Biology


Adjunct Assistant Professor

G. Gusmini

F.R. Walls

F.C. Wise


Adjunct Professor

J.L. Gibson

P.S. Zorner


Faculty Emeriti

W.E. Ballinger

L. Bass

A.A. De Hertogh

E.D. Evans

P.R. Fantz

R.G. Gardner

J.H. Harris

W.R. Henderson

L.E. Hinesley

G.R. Hughes

T.R. Konsler

C.M. Mainland

C.H. Miller

T.J. Monaco

P.V. Nelson

D.M. Pharr

E.B. Poling

M.A. Powell

W.A. Skroch

C.R. Unrath

J.H. Wilson, Jr.

HS - Horticulture Science Courses

HS 101 Introduction to Ornamentals and Landscape Technology 1.

Introduction to the collegiate experience, academic skills of successful students, and scope, purpose, and objectives of the Agricultural Institute with an emphasis on areas related to the ornamental and landscape plants industry. Students will explore college and departmental resources, academic policies and procedure, the green industry, career opportunities, and current trends and issues in horticulture.

HS 111 Plant ID 3.

Identification, adaptation, culture, and use of ornamental trees, shrubs, vines, ground covers and herbaceous plants.

HS 115 Plant Growth and Development 3.

Examination of how plants grow and respond to environmental and cultural stimuli. Topics include: cell growth; flower, fruit, seed, shoot, and root development and functions; anatomy of stems, roots and leaves; hormonal regulation of growth; adaptations for survival; plant responses to temperature, light and gravity; photosynthesis, transpiration, and absorption of water and nutrients.

HS 121 Plant Propagation 3.

Principles and practices involved in sexual (seed) and asexual (vegetative) propagation of a variety of plants. Methods of asexual propagation include cuttings, layering, budding and grafting, division, separation, and micropropagation (tissue culture). Emphasis on factors affecting the regeneration of species by particular techniques.

HS 131 Fruit & Vegetable Production 3.

The objective of this course is to give students a fundamental and practical understanding of small-scale fruit & vegetable production in North Carolina. Agricultural Institute students only.

HS 141 Greenhouse Crop Production 4.

Production of greenhouse crops. Emphasis on greenhouse construction and environmental manipulation of crop growth. Site selection, construction materials, greenhouse design. Specific flowering crops as models to demonstrate potted flowering plant, cut flower, and bedding plant production systems. Hands-on crop production experience plus trips to commercial floriculture production and marketing facilities.

HS 144 Weeds & Diseases of Ornamentals 3.

The objective of this course is to give students a fundamental and practical understanding of weed, disease, and pesticide management in the ornamental industries in North Carolina. Agricultural Institute students only.

HS 151 Nursery Production 3.

Total aspects of field and container nursery stock production including site selection and development, propagation, growing procedures, harvesting, marketing, shipping and labor management practices.

HS 162 Landscape Maintenance 3.

A study of the maintenance of landscaped areas including plant material selection, installation, pruning, fertilization, and pest control of trees, shrubs, lawns, flower beds, and interior plants.

HS 171 Landscape Construction 3.

This course will provide students a fundamental and practical understanding of landscape construction techniques and equipment. AGI students only.

HS 200 Home Horticulture 3.

Introduction and review of home horticulture as it relates to the horticultural enthusiast. A general understanding of plant growth, structure, and development; house plant selection and care, selecting trees, shrubs, and flowers for the home landscape, and other related topics.

HS 201 The World of Horticulture: Principles and Practices 3.

Principles of plant growth and development relating to production and utilization of fruit, vegetable, floricultural, and ornamental crops. Historical, economic, and global importance of horticultural crops and services.

HS 202 Power of Plants: Appreciation and Use 3.

Power of Plants will focus on how plants are names and can be used in different horticultural situations and growing environments. Uniqueness, use, and plant descriptions of a wide range of horticultural plants will be considered including bonsai, topiary, espalier, and rain gardens. Not for horticultural science majors (SH, THG, THL).

HS 203 Home Plant Propagation 3.

Not for Horticultural Science Majors (SH, THG, THL). Substitution of HS 203 for HS 301 are not allowed. An introduction to the basic principles of sexual and asexual plant propagation, including seeds, cuttings, layering, Grafting, and Division.

HS 204 Home Landscape Maintenance 3.
Prerequisite: HS 200 or HS 201.

An understanding of the basic principles of landscape maintenance including, but not limited to, soil fertility and management, tree biology, pruning, turfgrass maintenance, plant selection, irrigation management and waterwise gardening, integrated pest management, and hardscape construction. Not for Horticultural Science majors (SH, THG, THL).

HS 205 Home Food Production 3.

Home food production will play an important role in increasing the sustainability of the world's food systems for the foreseeable future. The goal of this course is to familiarize students with the scientific knowledge and tried-and-true practices needed to successfully produce food at home, even in small-scale environments such as decks and patios. On-campus students will be required to participate in two Saturday field trips to visit local home gardens. Distance educations students will be required to visit two home gardens in their area. Not for Horticultural Science Majors (SH, THG, THL).

HS 215 Agricultural Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: ZO 160 or BIO 183.

Basic principles of inheritance in plants and animals of agricultural significance. Transmission genetics and its effects on the usefulness of plants and animals. Basic principles of plant and animal improvement.

HS 242 Introduction to Small Scale Landscape Design 3.

Landscape Horticulture is concerned with the small-scale design and use of plants and other materials to help humans relate better to the land. In this course, we will pursue an understanding of this relationship and explore the social, environmental, and economic implications of landscape design and the processes by which this understanding can be employed to design residential landscapes. There are an infinite number of design possibilities for each project, so it's a designer's responsibility and challenge to develop a creative and functional design that accommodates the needs of the users and is appropriate for a specific site.

HS 250 Home Landscape Design: Creating Garden Spaces 3.

Home landscape design is a 3-credit hour course for non-landscape design majors. Students will be introduced to the various issues associated with landscape design at the residential level. Through a series of Power Point lectures, on-line discussions, and small projects/exercises, students will gain an understanding of landscape graphics. Skills in design, and develop landscape plans and other forms of landscape graphics. Students will use all of their learned skills to develop a design for a given site using provided design software.

HS 252 Landscape Graphic Communication 2.
Prerequisite: Horticultural Science Majors.

This class is an introduction to the basic graphic skills necessary to develop and communicate creative ideas in landscape design. In the design process, we use graphic skills to communicate our ideas, starting with analysis, moving on to concept, then to design development, and finally to illustrative renderings. The design process will be introduced and serve as a backdrop for incrementally introducing graphic skills. The class will become confident in the use of manual drawing skills, and will be introduced to the use of computer drafting skills. Graphics supplies, with an estimated expense of $120.00, are required for the course.

HS 280 Hands-On-Horticulture 3.

This course will provide students a fundamental and practical understanding of applied techniques in horticulture. Students will learn basic hardscape construction, basic wooden landscape structure construction, vegetable harvest, propagation of perennial plants, principles of irrigation installation, safe and efficient use of landscape equipment including arboriculture, and professional certification and licensing. Pesticide Licensing Fee of $75 required.

HS 290 Horticulture: Careers and Opportunities 1.

Introduction and orientation to programs in horticultural science. Discussion of current status of horticulture, extension and research. Emphasis on undergraduate program management, internships, graduate education, and career planning. Guest lectures, career opportunities and qualifications for employment in horticulture and related fields.

HS 301 Plant Propagation 4.
Prerequisite: BIO 181 or BO 200.

Theoretical basis and techniques for successful asexual and sexual propagation of seed plants and ferns. Influence of heredity, phytopathological infection, and environmental conditions on success and quality of propagules. Recent developments and innovations in propagation techniques and methodologies.

HS 302 Gardening with Herbaceous Perennials 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 183 or BO 200.

Examination of the use of herbaceous perennials in the home garden and commercial landscapes. Topics include: general plant characteristics, culture and management, garden attributes, design usage, horticultural history, propagation, use of exotic (nonnative)species in the garden, heirloom roses and ornamental grasses.

HS 303 Ornamental Plant Identification I 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 181.

Identification, distribution, growth, characteristics, adaptation, and usage of ornamental plants. Emphasizes bedding plants, trees, and gymnosperms.

HS 304 Ornamental Plant Identification II 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 181.

Identification, distribution, growth, characteristics, adaptation, and usage of ornamental plants. Emphasizes shrubs, ground covers, vines, bulbs, and interior landscape plants.

HS 357 Site Design and Construction Materials 4.
Prerequisite: Landscape Horticulture (11HORTTHL) students, HS 252 and HS 342.

Site design of small scale landscape design projects including: understanding two-dimensional and three-dimensional representation of landform, landform manipulation, surveying and measuring, base map development, site analysis, grading and drainageplans, small circulation systems (pedestrian and vehicular), pavement, functional role of plants, designing site structures (steps, ramps, walls, and fences), documenting and analyzing user information, and special population site requirements. Exploration of appropriate construction materials and their properties occurs concurrently with the above topics. Field trips will be required.

HS 400 Residential Landscaping 6.
Prerequisite: HS 211, 212, 342, LAR 430, Corequisite: LAR 457.

Equips students with the necessary skills to create functional, aesthetic, and humanistic designs for residential and other small scale projects. Aspects of problem identification, project organization, design, execution, and evaluation. Required field trip with fee.

HS 401 Landscape Construction Studio 6.
Prerequisite: THL Majors, HS 357, 400.

Small scale landscape design with a concentrated focus on detail design and construction documentation. Development of skills in designing, drawing, and building landscape features. Opportunities for hands-on experiences.

HS 411 Nursery Management 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 181, SSC 200, Junior standing.

Principles and practices of production, management, and marketing of field-grown and container-grown nursery plants. One of three scheduled weekend field trips required at students' expense.

HS 416 Planting Design 4.
Prerequisite: Landscape Horticulture (11HORTTHL) concentration, HS 400.

Developing and cultivating a design process for creating meaningful and compelling ornamental planting designs through the study and practice of spatial articulation (form, enclosure, permeability), physical properties of plants (line, form, texture, color), client/site analysis and program development, visual journaling, garden narrative, presentation skills, utilizing principles of visual composition, design communication, and understanding and resolving technical and horticultural issues in contemporary planting design.

HS 418 Digital Media Graphic for Landscape Designers 3.
Prerequisite: HS 242 and HS 400.

Digital media is used in the landscape design profession as a tool with analytic, expressive, and representational abilities. The course focuses on introducing landscape design students to digital representational tools used to communicate design ideas for small scale landscape design projects. Students will be introduced to techniques used in AutoCAD, Photoshop, Illustrator, InDesign, and Sketch Up modeling programs. Digital representation will be used to develop the variety of images necessary to explore and communicate design intentions. Materials for this course will cost approximately $50.

HS 421 Temperate-Zone Tree Fruits: Physiology and Culture 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 181 or B0 200.

Physiology and culture of the major temperate-zone tree fruit and nut crops of the United States. Fundamental principles underlying woody plant growth as applied to the culture of specific tree-fruit crops with emphasis on crops of commercial importance to North Carolina.

HS 422 Small Fruit Production 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 181, SSC 200, HS 201.

Importance and economic value of blackberries, blueberries, cranberries, grapes, raspberries, strawberries and minor small fruit crops in the agricultural economy of the USA and the world. Cultural requirements of these crops and manipulation of their known morphological and physiological traits for successful production. Six all afternoon field trips are required.

HS 423 Viticulture 3.
Prerequisite: Junior standing or Senior standing.

A presentation of the commercial importance, distribution, anatomy, physiology, and production of Genus Vitis (grapes) including cultivars, propagation, canopy management, diseases, weed control, physiology, anatomy, irrigation, wine production, climates and soils. This course will not require students to provide their own transportation. Non-scheduled class time for field trips or out-of-class activities IS required for this class.

HS 428 Service-Learning in Urban Agriculture Systems 1.
Prerequisite: SSC 200 or equivalent, BIO 181 or 183, and CH 101.

Course provides students a hands-on experience in urban agriculture with under-served youth in the Raleigh area. Students partner with a community gardening organization to provide knowledge and experience in soil science and agriculture to youth with the goals of increasing urban food security and developing student leadership skills. Particular emphasis is places on reflecting on course activities and deepening of skills related to extension, outreach, and working with diverse populations. Course designed to be taken as a companion course to SSC 427, however can be taken as a stand-alone course.

HS 431 Vegetable Production 4.
Prerequisite: BIO 181, SSC 200.

Principles and practices of production and marketing of seventeen vegetable crops grown in the U.S. Additional topics include pest management, seed technology, food safety, sustainable agriculture, use of genetically engineered crops, and consumer issues.

HS 432 Introduction to Permaculture 3.

Permaculture means "permanent culture," and ..."is the conscious design and maintenance of cultivated ecosystems that have the diversity, stability, and resilience of a natural ecosystem." (Bill Mollison) This course will explore a design/thinking methodology that seeks to provide our essential physical needs, food, water, shelter, energy, etc., while doing so in an environmentally friendly, sustainable manner. The three weekend field trips are required. This course is restricted to upper level undergraduate, graduate, or matriculated continuing education students. STUDENTS MAY NOT RECEIVE CREDIT FOR BOTH HS 432 AND HS 532.

HS 440 Greenhouse Management 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200 and HS 201.

Perspective of greenhouse systems management. Selection of greenhouse site, construction, heating, cooling and production systems. Emphasis on greenhouse operations, cost accounting and analysis. Other topics; root substrates, sanitation, water, fertilization, chemical growth regulation, temperature, light and marketing. Hands-on experience in greenhouse operations plus trips to commercial greenhouses and markets.

HS 442 Floriculture Crop Production 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200, HS 201.

Production of floricultural crops. Emphasis on environmental manipulation and scheduling of crop growth and development for targeted market periods. Specific flowering crops as models to demonstrate potted flowering plant, cut flower, and bedding plant production systems. Hands-on crop production experience plus field trips to commercial floriculture production and marketing facilities.

HS 451 Plant Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200.

An understanding of the basic mineral nutrient requirements, nutritional monitoring procedures, and fertilizer application methods in horticultural production systems including those for fruits, field vegetables, fruits and vegetables under plasticulture, nursery crops, landscapes, greenhouse flowers and vegetables, interior plantscapes, hydroponics, and organic farming.

HS 462 Postharvest Physiology 3.
Prerequisite: PB 421.

Preharvest and postharvest factors that affect market quality of horticultural commodities with an emphasis on technologies to preserve postharvest quality and extend storage life of fruits, vegetables and ornamentals.

HS 471 Tree and Grounds Maintenance 4.
Prerequisite: SSC 200.

Principles and practices of tree and grounds maintenance. Physical (water) and chemical (fertility) properties of urban soils. Tree and shrubbery: physiology, selection, transplanting, pruning, fertilization, and protection. Weed biology and nonchemical and chemical management options.

HS 492 Horticulture Internship 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes facilities and resources which are external to the campus. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

HS 493 Independent Study in Horticultural Science 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes campus facilities and resources. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a "Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses" be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

HS 495 Experimental Courses in Horticultural Science 1-6.

Independent study under faculty supervision of horticultural topics in the student's area of interest not available in regular course offerings. Offering of new courses on a trial basis.

HS 502 Plant Disease: Methods & Diagnosis 2.
Prerequisite: PP 315.

Introduction to the basic principles of disease causality in plants and the methodology for the study and diagnosis of plant diseases caused by fungi. Identification of plant-pathogenic fungi. Research project, disease profiles and field trips arerequired.

HS 516 Planting Design 4.
P: HS 400.

Developing and cultivating a design process for creating meaningful and compelling ornamental planting designs through the study and practice of spatial articulation (form, enclosure, permeability), physical properties of plants (line, form, texture, color), client/site analysis and program development, visual journaling, garden narrative, presentation skills, utilizing principles of visual composition, design communication, and understanding and resolving technical and horticultural issues in contemporary planting design.

HS 521 Temperate-Zone Tree Fruits: Physiology and Culture 3.

Physiology and culture of the major temperate-zone tree fruit and nut crops of the United States. Fundamental principles underlying woody plant growth as applied to the culture of specific tree-fruit crops with emphasis on crops of commercial importance to North Carolina.

HS 523 Viticulture 3.
Prerequisite: BS Horticulture/Plant Science or permission from the instructor.

A presentation of the commercial importance, distribution, anatomy, physiology, and production of Genus Vitis (grapes) including cultivars, propagation, canopy management, diseases, weed control, physiology, anatomy, irrigation, wine production, climates and soils. This course will not require students to provide their own transportation. Non-scheduled class time for field trips or out-of-class activities is required for this class. One Saturday field-trip will be scheduled. Students may not receive credit for both HS 423 and HS 523.

HS 532 Introduction to Permaculture 3.

Permaculture means "permanent culture," and ..."is the conscious design and maintenance of cultivated ecosystems that have the diversity, stability, and resilience of a natural ecosystem." (Bill Mollison) This course will explore a design/thinking methodology that seeks to provide our essential physical needs, food, water, shelter, energy, etc., while doing so in an environmentally friendly, sustainable manner. The three weekend field trips are required. This course is restricted to upper level undergraduate, graduate, or matriculated continuing education students. STUDENTS MAY NOT RECEIVE CREDIT FOR BOTH HS 432 AND HS 532.

HS 533 Public Garden Administration 3.

This course addresses the practices, programs, and professional skills that are critical to the successful management of public gardens. The aim of the course is to better prepare graduate students and upper-level undergraduates for potential careers in public garden administration. Topics will include a brief history, impact, and current trends of public gardens in the United States; plant collections; managing staff, volunteers, and boards, and the visiting public; finances and fund raising; educational programming; visitor services; and careers in public gardens. Two Saturday off-campus field trips are required.

HS 541 Plant Breeding Methods 3.
Prerequisite: ST 511, Corequisite: ST 512.

Overview of plant breeding methods for advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students. Covers principles and concepts of inheritance, germplasm resources, pollen control, measurement of genetic variances, and heterosis. Special topics include heritability, genotype-environment interaction, disease resistance, and polyploidy. In-depth coverage on methods for breeding cross-pollinated and self-pollinated crops. Prepares students for advanced plant breeding courses.

HS 550 Environmental Nursery Production 3.
Prerequisite: HS 411, Nursery Management, or an equivalent course..

The course focuses on the impacts of the nursery industry on the environment and environmentally sound nursery practices. Exploration of the major challenges facing the nursery industry that drive decision making during production. Evaluation of past and current research addressing these challenges and sampling procedures and interpretation will be learned. Graduate status and an undergraduate nursery production or management course or working knowledge of nursery production required.

HS 551 Plant Nutrition 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200.

An understanding of the basic mineral nutrient requirements, nutritional monitoring procedures, and fertilizer application methods in horticultural production systems including those for fruits, field vegetables, fruits and vegetables under plasticulture, nursery crops, landscapes, greenhouse flowers and vegetables, interior plantscapes, hydroponics, and organic farming.

HS 562 Postharvest Physiology 3.

Pre- and post-harvest factors that affect market quality of horticultural commodities with an emphasis on technologies to preserve quality and extend storage life of crops.

HS 583 Advanced Floral Crop Production and Handling 3.

Principles and commercial practices for producing floral potted crops and cut flowers emphasizing the physical responses of plants to their environment and post-harvest physiology. Lab will be conducted at the student's home location and students will document plant growth with photos or video. Some live plants will be mailed to the student; however, the student will be required to purchase some plants (e.g. African violet). Course is restricted to graduates students only.

HS 590 Special Problems in Horticultural Science 1-6.

HS 601 Professional Presentation Skills in Horticultural Science 2.

The purpose of this course is to familiarize the students with the professional presentation skills they need to be successful. These skills include speaking, writing, poster and website development, based on the student's proposed research/project and literature review.

HS 610 Special Topics in Horticultural Science 1-6.

Investigation of special theoretical problems at 600 level in horticultural science not related to a thesis problem; new 600-level courses during developmental phase.

HS 615 Advanced Special Topics 1-6.

Investigation of theoretical problems at the 600 level in horticultural science not related to a thesis problem; new 600-level courses during the development phase.

HS 685 Master's Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

HS 688 Non-Thesis Masters Continuous Registration - Half Time Registration 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain half-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc.

HS 689 Non-Thesis Master Continuous Registration - Full Time Registration 3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain full-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc. Students may register for this course a maximum of one semester.

HS 690 Master's Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non thesis master's programs who have completed all other requirements of the degree except preparing for and taking the final master's exam.

HS 693 Master's Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

HS 695 Master's Thesis Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Thesis research.

HS 696 Summer Thesis Research 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

HS 699 Master's Thesis Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Original research on specific problems in fruit, vegetable and ornamental crops.

HS 701 Plant Metabolism 1.
Prerequisite: (CH 223 or CH 227) and PB 421.

A brief introduction to various aspects of metabolism in plants including the basic biochemical processes including the syntheses, utilization and roles of amino acids, lipids, carbohydrates and secondary metabolites in plant growth, development and response to the environment. This course is taught as a 5-week mini course.

HS 702 Biology of Plant Hormones 1.
Prerequisite: BO 421, (GN 411 or BCH 451).

Recent developments and current literature on the physiology, biochemistry, molecular biology, and practical applications of the primary plant hormones. The biosynthesis, signal transduction pathways, and biological functions of specific plant hormones will be examined. Taught as a five-week minicourse.

HS 703 Breeding Asexually Propagated Crops 1.
Prerequisite: CS 413.

Principles and problems associated with breeding clonally propagated crops and techniques used in overcoming these problems. Taught third five weeks of semester. Drop date is by last day of 3rd week of minicourse.

HS 704 Plant Nomenclature 1.
Prerequisite: PB 421.

A practical foundation in plant nomenclature and nomenclatural references. Emphasis on the evolution of international rules for naming plant taxa and their application in both wild and cultivated plants. Nomenclature applications used in patents, cultivar releases and journal articles. Taught mid-semester. Taught five weeks of semester.

HS 705 Physiology Of Flowering 1.
Prerequisite: PB 421.

Examination of physiological basis of flowering in plants such as: floral initiation, transition to reproductive growth; floral development; plant response to light, temperature, nutrition, water supply; plant age; chemical growth regulation and in vitro flowering. Taught first five weeks of fall semester. Drop date is by last day of 3rd week of minicourse.

HS 706 Fruit Development and Postharvest Physiology 1.
Prerequisite: PB 421.

Theories of plant senescence, both physiological and biochemical, and postharvest changes in all types of plant parts. Emphasis on physiological principles underlying current postharvest handling and storage techniques. A study of fruit development from fruit set to senescence. Taught third five weeks of semester. Drop date is by last day of 3rd week of minicourse.

HS 707 Environmental Stress Physiology 1.
Prerequisite: PB 421.

Physiology of plant responses to environmental stresses, with emphasis on current research in selected physiological, molecular, and biochemical mechanisms for tolerance to environmental stresses such as temperature extremes, drought, salt, pathogens and other plants.

HS 717 Weed Management Systems 1.
Prerequisite: CS 414.

Weed management systems including integration of cultural, biological, mechanical and chemical methods for vegetables, fruits, ornamentals, turf, small grains, corn, tobacco, cotton, peanuts, aquatic and non-cropland settings. Taught second 5 weeksof semester. Drop date is by last day of 3rd week of minicourse.

HS 720 Molecular Biology In Plant Breeding 3.
Prerequisite: CS(GN,HS) 741.

Theory and principles of molecular biology applied to plant breeding. Experimental approaches to induce genetic change, cytoplasmic recombination, haploid utilization and potentials of molecular techniques for solving breeding problems.

HS 725 Pesticide Chemistry 1.
Prerequisite: (CH 201 or CH 203) and (CH 221 or CH 225).

Chemical properties of pesticides including hydration and solvation, ionization, volatilization, lipophilicity, molecular structure and size, and reactivity and classification according to chemical description, mode of action or ionizability. Taughtduring the first 5 weeks of semester. Drop date is last day of 3rd week of the minicourse.

HS 727 Pesticide Behavior and Fate In the Environment 2.
Prerequisite: CS(HS,SSC,TOX)725,SSC 200.

Sorption/desorption, soil reactivity, movement, volatilization, bioavailability, degradation and stability of pesticides in the environment. Taught during the last 10 weeks of semester. Drop date is last day of 3rd week of the minicourse.

HS 729 Herbicide Behavior In Plants 2.
Prerequisite: BO 751 and BO 752 and CS(HS,SSC) 725.

Chemical, physiological and biochemical actions of herbicides in plants including uptake, translocation, metabolism and mechanism of action.

HS 745 Quantitative Genetics In Plant Breeding 1.
Prerequisite: CS(GN, HS) 741, ST 512, course in quantitative genetics recommended.

Theory and principles of plant quantitative genetics. Experimental approaches of relationships between type and source of genetic variability, concepts of inbreeding, estimations of genetic variance and selection theory.

HS 746 Breeding Methods 2.
Prerequisite: CS (GN, HS) 741, ST 512.

Theory and principles of plant breeding methodology including population improvement, selection procedures, genotypic evaluation, cultivar development and breeding strategies.

HS 790 Special Problems in Horticultural Science 1-6.

HS 815 Advanced Special Topics 1-6.

Investigation of theoretical problems at 600 level in horticultural science not related to a thesis problem; new 600-level courses during development phase.

HS 860 Plant Breeding Laboratory 1.
Prerequisite: CS(GN,HS)741.

Visitation of plant breeding projects in the Depts. of CS and HS at NC State, along with commercial seed companies. Discussion and viewing of breeding objectives, methods and equipment and teaching and practice of hybridization methods.

HS 861 Plant Breeding Laboratory 1.
Prerequisite: CS(GN,HS)741.

Visitation of plant breeding projects in the Depts. of CS and HS at NC State, along with commercial seed companies. Discussion and viewing of breeding objectives, methods and equipment and teaching and practice of hybridization methods.

HS 885 Doctoral Supervised Teaching 1-3.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

HS 890 Doctoral Preliminary Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who are preparing for and taking written and/or oral preliminary exams.

HS 893 Doctoral Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

HS 895 Doctoral Dissertation Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Dissertation Research.

HS 896 Summer Dissertation Research 1.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

HS 899 Doctoral Dissertation Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements, full-time enrollment, preliminary examination, and residency requirements for the doctoral degree, and are writing and defending their dissertations.