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Department of Philosophy and Religious Studies

http://www.ncsu.edu/ncsu/chass/philo

The disciplines of Philosophy and Religious Studies tackle important questions with rigorous standards, relying on over two millennia of accumulated wisdom.

Philosophy seeks to advance our understanding of ourselves and the nature of reality, mind, knowledge and morality. It is concerned with fundamental questions and critically investigates what other disciplines and other human activities take for granted. Philosophy students at NC State study the writings of great philosophers and recent work on topics such as the relationship between mind and brain, the demands of morality, the justification of political and legal institutions, the relationship between knowledge and reality, and the nature of the logic that structures human language and thought.

Religious Studies does not seek to advance the practice of religion or any particular religion, but to understand religion as a complex and significant human phenomenon. Students majoring in Religious Studies at NC State study the history, texts and practices of both well-known and lesser-known religious traditions as well as a range of theoretical and comparative issues concerning religion, such as the meaning of ritual, the role of gender, the impact of religion in the modern world, and the relationship between religion and conflict.

Both Philosophy and Religious Studies help students to develop their capacity to think critically, constructively and independently, to analyze and solve problems, and to elaborate their ideas and present them in a clear, cogent and well-organized way.

Opportunities

The NC State major in Philosophy provides excellent preparation for top graduate programs in Philosophy as well as for professional training in fields as diverse as law, library science, management and medicine. Although the major does not train students for a particular career, it develops skills that are useful for work in any field that requires critical, constructive and independent thinking.

The NC State major in Religious Studies provides excellent preparation for top graduate programs in Religious Studies as well as for professional training in fields as diverse as education, library science, ministry and social work. The major also provides knowledge and skills that are useful for work in many fields, including diplomacy, educating the public, fund-raising, journalism, museum projects and public service.

Students majoring in Philosophy or Religious Studies tend to achieve higher scores on objective tests such as the GRE (required for admission to graduate school), the LSAT (required for admission to law school) and the GMAT (required for admission to MBA programs). The majors in Philosophy and Religious Studies are both designed to combine easily with a major in a further discipline that is relevant to a student’s career aspirations. Students who take advantage of this opportunity will enhance their chance of future success.

Philosophy Honors Program

The honors program in Philosophy offers an enriching and challenging educational experience to qualified majors. Admission to the program requires completion of nine credits in the major, a 3.66 GPA in the major, and a 3.25 GPA overall. To graduate with Honors in Philosophy, a student must complete a degree in philosophy and in doing so complete the following courses:

PHI 300Ancient Philosophy3
LOG/MA 335Symbolic Logic3
PHI 301Early Modern Philosophy3
PHI 498Special Topics in Philosophy (taken for the honors thesis, to be evaluated by an honors committee)3
At least one other course in the history of philosophy:3
19th Century Philosophy
Existentialism
History of Ethics
Kant's Critique of Pure Reason
Complete one 3 credit, 400-level PHI course other than PHI 4983
Total Units18

Graduation requires a 3.66 GPA in the major and 3.25 GPA overall. Successful completion of the program is noted on the student’s transcript and in the commencement and honors convocation programs.

Religious Studies Honors Program

The honors program in Religious Studies guides outstanding majors in independent, critical inquiry of the academic study of religion. Admission to the program requires junior standing, completion of nine hours in the major, and a 3.25 GPA overall and in the major. Honors students must complete at least nine credit hours of honors option course work in Religious Studies (including at least one 400 level course) and write an honors paper as part of an independent study course (REL 498 Special Topics in Religious Studies) which is evaluated by an honors committee.

Graduation requires a 3.25 GPA overall and in the major. Successful completion of the program is noted on the student’s transcript and in the commencement and honors convocation programs.

Bachelor of Arts in Religious Studies

The major in Religious Studies consists of 30 credit hours. The courses must include:

REL 200Introduction to the Study of Religion3
One of the following Non-Western Religious Tradition courses:3
Asian Religions
The Hindu Tradition
The Buddhist Traditions
Chinese Religions
Japanese Religions
Islam
Islamic History to 1798
Islam in the Modern World
One of the following Western Religious Tradition courses:3
Introduction to the Old Testament
Introduction to the New Testament
Introduction to Intertestamental Literature
Christianity
Religion in American History
Religious Cults, Sects, and Minority Faiths in America
Introduction to Judaism
Early Christianity to the Time of Eusebius
Advanced Readings in the Christian Gospels
The Life and Letters of the Apostle Paul
Religion and Politics in America
One of the following Textual Methods courses:3
Introduction to the Old Testament
Introduction to the New Testament
Introduction to Intertestamental Literature
Advanced Readings in the Christian Gospels
The Life and Letters of the Apostle Paul
Advanced Readings in Theological and Religious Literature
One of the following Historical Methods courses:3
Asian Religions
Christianity
Religion in American History
The Hindu Tradition
The Buddhist Traditions
Chinese Religions
Japanese Religions
Islam
Introduction to Judaism
Early Christianity to the Time of Eusebius
Islamic History to 1798
Islam in the Modern World
One of the following Critical/Theoretical Methods courses:3
Religion and Society
Religious Cults, Sects, and Minority Faiths in America
Issues in Contemporary Religion
Religion, Globalism, and Justice
Religion and Politics in America
Darwinism and Christianity
Women and Religion
Religion, Gender, and Reproductive Technologies
Religion and Conflict
Interpretations of Religion
9 hours of advanced Religious Studies courses (REL 4**)9
Religious Studies Elective3
Total Units30

Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy

Candidates for the Bachelor of Arts in Philosophy must complete 30 hours in philosophy, including the three hours in philosophy required for all CHASS students.

Two of the following courses in development of Western philosophical thought courses:6
Ancient Philosophy
Early Modern Philosophy
19th Century Philosophy
Kant's Critique of Pure Reason
One of the following logic courses:3
Logic
Symbolic Logic
Advanced Logic & Metamathematics
Model Theoretic Semantics
One of the following value theory courses:3
Political Philosophy
Ethical Problems in the Law
Bio-Medical Ethics
Ethics
History of Ethics
Global Justice
Ethical Theory
One of the following contemporary philosophy courses:3
Metaphysics
Philosophy of Language
Philosophy of Psychology
Knowledge and Skepticism
Introduction to Cognitive Science
The Scientific Method
Philosophy, Evolution and Human Nature
All three of the following one-credit courses in research writing
PHI 494Research and Writing in Ethics1
PHI 495Research and Writing in History of Philosophy1
PHI 496Research and Writing in Contemporary Philosophy1
Four additional LOG or PHI courses (Note that PHI 205 and PHI 210 may not both be used toward this requirement)12
Total Units30

Major in Philosophy with a Concentration in Ethics

The concentration requires 30 hours in philosophy, including the three hours in philosophy required of all CHASS students.

Two of the followingcourses in development of Western philosophical thought:6
Ancient Philosophy
Early Modern Philosophy
19th Century Philosophy
Kant's Critique of Pure Reason
One of the following logic courses: 3
Logic
Symbolic Logic
Advanced Logic & Metamathematics
Model Theoretic Semantics
Two of the following core courses: 6
Ethics
History of Ethics
Ethical Theory
Two additional ethics courses: 6
Contemporary Moral Issues
Political Philosophy
Ethical Problems in the Law
Bio-Medical Ethics
Ethics
History of Ethics
*PHI 375 or 376 -cannot be used in concentration if taken as a core course
Global Justice
Ethical Theory (if not taken as a core course)
One of the following contemporary philosophy courses: 3
Metaphysics
Philosophy of Language
Philosophy of Psychology
Knowledge and Skepticism
Introduction to Cognitive Science
The Scientific Method
Philosophy, Evolution and Human Nature
All three of the following one-credit courses in research and writing:3
PHI 494Research and Writing in Ethics1
PHI 495Research and Writing in History of Philosophy1
PHI 496Research and Writing in Contemporary Philosophy1
One additional LOG or PHI course3
Total Units33

Major in Philosophy with a Concentration in Philosophy of Law

The concentration requires 30 hours, including the three hours of philosophy required of all CHASS students.

PHI 309Political Philosophy3
PHI 312Philosophy of Law3
PHI 313Ethical Problems in the Law3
One of the following value theory courses:3
Ethics
History of Ethics
Ethical Theory
One of the following courses in development of Western philosophical thought:3
Ancient Philosophy
Early Modern Philosophy
19th Century Philosophy
Kant's Critique of Pure Reason
One of the following logic or practical reasoning courses:3
Logic
Thinking Logically
Symbolic Logic
Advanced Logic & Metamathematics
Model Theoretic Semantics
One of the following contemporary philosophy courses:3
Metaphysics
Philosophy of Language
Philosophy of Psychology
Knowledge and Skepticism
Introduction to Cognitive Science
The Scientific Method
Philosophy, Evolution and Human Nature
All three of the following one-credit courses in research and writing:3
PHI 494Research and Writing in Ethics1
PHI 495Research and Writing in History of Philosophy1
PHI 496Research and Writing in Contemporary Philosophy1
Two advised electives6
Total Units33

Bachelor of Science in Philosophy

Candidates for the Bachelor of Science in Philosophy must complete 30 hours in philosophy, including the three hours in philosophy required for all CHASS students.

Two of the of the following courses in development of Western philosophical thought:6
Ancient Philosophy
Early Modern Philosophy
19th Century Philosophy
Kant's Critique of Pure Reason
One of the following logic courses:3
Logic
Symbolic Logic
Advanced Logic & Metamathematics
Model Theoretic Semantics
One of the following value theory courses:3
Political Philosophy
Ethical Problems in the Law
Bio-Medical Ethics
Ethics
History of Ethics
Global Justice
Ethical Theory
One of the following contemporary philosophy courses:3
Metaphysics
Philosophy of Language
Philosophy of Psychology
Knowledge and Skepticism
Introduction to Cognitive Science
The Scientific Method
Philosophy, Evolution and Human Nature
One of the following philosophy of science:3
Philosophy of Science
The Scientific Method
Philosophy, Evolution and Human Nature
All three of the following one-credit courses in research and writing:3
PHI 494Research and Writing in Ethics1
PHI 495Research and Writing in History of Philosophy1
PHI 496Research and Writing in Contemporary Philosophy1
Three additional LOG or PHI courses (note that PHI 205 and PHI 210 may not both be used toward this requirement)9
Total Units33

Major in Philosophy with a Concentration in Logic, Representation and Reasoning

The concentration requires 30 hours, not including the three hours of philosophy required of all CHASS students.

PHI 301Early Modern Philosophy3
PHI 375Ethics3
One of the following courses in development of Western philosophical thought:3
Ancient Philosophy
19th Century Philosophy
Kant's Critique of Pure Reason
Three of the following courses in logic, language and cognitive science:9
Symbolic Logic
Advanced Logic & Metamathematics
Model Theoretic Semantics
Philosophy of Language
Introduction to Cognitive Science
One of the following courses in the philosophy of science:3
The Scientific Method
Philosophy, Evolution and Human Nature
Two of the following courses in logic and cognitive philosophy: 6
Logic
Symbolic Logic
Advanced Logic & Metamathematics
Model Theoretic Semantics
Metaphysics
Philosophy of Language
Philosophy of Psychology
Knowledge and Skepticism
Introduction to Cognitive Science
The Scientific Method
Philosophy, Evolution and Human Nature
Both of the following one-credit courses in research and writing:2
PHI 496Research and Writing in Contemporary Philosophy1
PHI 497Research and Writing in Logic, Representation and Reasoning1
One of the following one-credit courses in research and writing: 1
Research and Writing in Ethics
Research and Writing in History of Philosophy
Total Units32

Minor in Philosophy

Students who take a Minor in Philosophy are required to complete with a grade of C or better 15 hours of courses in selected fields in philosophy, including a course in the history of philosophy (3 credit hours), a course in normative (ethics and ethics-related) philosophy (3 credit hours), a course other than one in normative philosophy, but not including logic or the history of philosophy (3 credit hours). Please see the Department for course requirements.

Minor in Religious Studies

Students who take a Minor in Religious Studies are required to complete with a grade of C or better fifteen hours of courses in selected fields of religious studies. In order to ensure a wide study of the field, students are required to select at least one course in each of the following categories: (A) Historical Methods, (B) Textual Methods, and (C) Critical/Theoretical Methods; and also complete (D) 6 elective hours in REL courses.  As part of these requirements, it is expected that at least one of these classes focus on Western religious traditions and at least one on non-Western religious traditions. Please see the Department for course requirements.

Minor in Cognitive Science

Students who take a Minor in Cognitive Science must complete 15 hours of courses with a grade of C or better, where at least three of the five participating disciplines are represented: Psychology, Neurobiology, Computer Science, Linguistics, and Philosophy (including Logic). Please see the Department for course requirements.

Minor in Logic and Methodology

Students who take a Minor in Logic and Methodology are required to complete with a grade of C- or better 15 hours of courses (with an overall average of 2.0 in these courses). Please see the Department for course requirements.

Minor in Ethics

Students who take a Minor in Ethics are required to complete with a grade of C or better 15 hours of courses. Please see the Department for course requirements.

Minor in Health, Medicine, and Human Values

Students who take a Minor in Health, Medicine, and Human Values are required to complete with a grade of C- or better 15 hours of courses (with an overall average of 2.0 in these courses). Please see the Department for course requirements.

Head

M. J. Pendlebury


Associate Head

D. F. Austin


Director of Advising

C. M. Driscoll


Senior Religious Studies Adviser

J. C. Bivins


Senior Philosophy Adviser

D. D. Auerbach


Distinguished University Professor

W. Adler


Alumni Distinguished Undergraduate Professors

W. Adler

J. C. Bivins

M. K. Cunnngham


Professors

W. Adler

J. C. Bivins

M. F. Bykova

J. W. Carroll

G. L. Comstock

T. J. Hinton

M. J. Pendlebury


Professors emeriti

R. S. Bryan

C. M. Pierce

T. H. Regan

A. D. VanDeVeer


Associate professors

D. F. Austin

A. B. Bigelow

M. K. Cunningham

C. M. Driscoll

R. P. Endicott

K. A. Harwood

B. B. Levenbook

R. A. Mabrito


Associate professors emeriti

W. C. Fitzgerald

W. L. Highfill

H. D. Levin


Assistant professors

D. D. Auerbach

J. Hafner

L. McLaughlin

S. M. Puryear

S. Soyarslan

PHI - Philosophy Courses

PHI 205 Introduction to Philosophy 3.
Credit is not allowed for both PHI 205 and PHI 210..

Introduction to selected problems of enduring philosophical importance, including such topics as the nature of morality, knowledge, human freedom, and the existence of God. Content varies with different sections.

PHI 210 Representation, Reason and Reality 3.
Credit is not allowed for both PHI 210 and PHI 205.

This course is an introduction to philosophical issues concerning topics such as language, thought, knowledge, reason, truth, and reality through the study of problems, puzzles, and paradoxes. Not both PHI 205 and PHI 210 may be used towards satisfaction on PHI major or PHI minor requirements.

PHI 214 Issues in Business Ethics 3.

An analysis and evaluation of major issues in business ethics. Topics include the social responsibility of business; social justice and free enterprise; the rights and duties of employers, employees, manufacturers, and consumers; duties to the environment, the world's poor, future generations, and the victims of past injustices; the moral status of the corporation; and the ethics of advertising.

PHI 221 Contemporary Moral Issues 3.

Philosophical analysis and theory applied to a broad range of contemporary moral issues, including euthanasia, suicide, capital punishment, abortion, war, famine relief, and environmental concerns.

PHI 250 Thinking Logically 3.

Deductive arguments attempt to guarantee their conclusions. Inductive arguments attempt to make their conclusions more probable. Using a small number of simple, powerful logical techniques, this course teaches you how to find, analyze and evaluate deductive and inductive arguments, and thus how to avoid the most common errors in reasoning.

PHI 298 Special Topics in Philosophy 3.

Selected studies in philosophy that do not appear regularly in the curriculum. Topics will be announced for each semester in which the course is offered.

PHI 300 Ancient Philosophy 3.

Western philosophy of the ancient world, with special emphasis on Plato and Aristotle.

PHI 301 Early Modern Philosophy 3.

Western philosophy of the 17th and 18th centuries, including such philosophers as Descartes, Hobbes, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, and Kant.

PHI 302 19th Century Philosophy 3.

Western philosophy of the 19th century, including such philosophers as Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Kierkegaard, Marx, and Nietzsche.

PHI 305 Philosophy of Religion 3.

The existence and nature of God, including such topics as traditional proofs of God, skeptical challenges to religious belief, miracles, the problem of evil, faith and reason, and religious experience.

PHI 309 Political Philosophy 3.
Prerequisite: One PHI course.

Philosophical study of important political ideas and values such as liberty, equality, justice, rights, and democracy. May include readings from classical and contemporary sources.

PHI 310 Existentialism 3.

Philosophy of Existentialism, including such thinkers as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, Doestoevsky, Sartre, Heidegger, and Camus.

PHI 312 Philosophy of Law 3.

Fundamental legal issues such as what constitutes a law or legal system. Justifications of legal interference with individual liberty. Philosophical legal issues illustrated by specific legal cases.

PHI 313 Ethical Problems in the Law 3.
Prerequisite: PHI 221, or 375.

Explores uses of the legal system, including such topics as the death penalty, plea bargaining, legalizing euthanasia, censorship, Good Samaritan laws, the insanity defense, civil disobedience, preferential treatment.

PHI 325 Bio-Medical Ethics 3.

Interdisciplinary examination and appraisal of emerging ethical and social issues resulting from recent advances in the biological and medical sciences. Abortion, euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide, compromised infants, aids, reproductive technologies, and health care. Focus on factual details and value questions, fact-value questions, fact-value interplay, and questions of impact assessment and policy formulation.

PHI 330 Metaphysics 3.
Prerequisite: One PHI course.

Problems of metaphysics, including such topics as: possibility and necessity, paradoxes of time travel, nature of space and time, free will and determinism, causation, mind-body problem and identity-over-time.

PHI 331 Philosophy of Language 3.
Prerequisite: One PHI course.

Introduction to traditional and modern accounts of the relations between language and reality, the nature of truth, problems of intentionality and propositional attitudes.

PHI 332 Philosophy of Psychology 3.
Prerequisite: One PHI course or one PSY course.

Problems and controversies that overlap the boundary between philosophy and psychology: the mind/body problem, behaviorism vs. cognitivism, the prospects for artificial intelligence, and language and the questions of innate knowledge.

PHI 333 Knowledge and Skepticism 3.
Prerequisite: One PHI course.

Analysis of such central concepts as knowledge, belief, and truth, and the investigation of the principles by which claims to knowledge may be justified.

PHI 340 Philosophy of Science 3.

Nature of science highlighted by differences between science and pseudoscience, relationships between science and religion, and roles of purpose-directed (teleological) and causal explanation in physical, life and social sciences.

PHI 375 Ethics 3.

Examination of traditional questions of philosophical ethics: What are the principles of moral conduct? What sort of life is worthy of a human being? Includes both classic and contemporary literature.

PHI 376 History of Ethics 3.
Prerequisite: One PHI course.

Topics in the history of ethics. Philosophers to be studied may include Plato, Aristotle, Aquinas, Butler, Hume, Kant, Sidgwick and Nietzsche.

PHI 401 Kant's Critique of Pure Reason 3.
Prerequisite: 6 credits in PHI. Credit is not allowed for both PHI 401 and PHI 501..

A text-based critical study of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason Focusing on such topics as perception, judgment, knowledge, space, time, substance, causation and reality. Students cannot receive credit for both PHI 401 and PHI 501.

PHI 420 Global Justice 3.
Prerequisite: One PHI course. Credit is not allowed for both PHI 420 and PHI 520..

The applications of the ideas of justice and right beyond and across the borders of individual nation states, attending to the facts of globalization and their consequences for political and economic justice and human rights. Topics: skepticism about global justice; transnational distributive justice, pollution, and poverty; national sovereignty, self-determination, and intervention; the ethics of war; international human rights; and global democracy. No one can receive credit for both PHI 420 and PHI 520.

PHI 425 Introduction to Cognitive Science 3.
Prerequisite: One upper-level PHI, PSY, CSC or Linguistics course. Credit is not allowed for PHI 425 and PHI/PSY 525..

Philosophical foundations and empirical fundamentals of cognitive science, an interdisciplinary approach to human cognition. Topics include: the computational model of mind, mental representation, cognitive architecture, the acquisition and use of language. Students cannot receive credit for both PHI/PSY 425 and PHI/PSY 525.

PHI 440 The Scientific Method 3.
Prerequisite: One PHI course. Credit is not allowed for both PHI 440 and PHI 540..

Detailed examination of core issues in the philosophy of science: the confirmation of scientific theories, falsification, projectibility, the nature of scientific explanation, laws of nature, and causation. Students cannot receive credit for both PHI 440 and PHI 540.

PHI 447 Philosophy, Evolution and Human Nature 3.
Prerequisite: One 300 level or higher course in Philosophy, Biology, Psychology or Anthropology. Credit is not allowed for PHI 447 and PHI 547..

This course covers philosophical issues in the evolutionary study of human cognition: the role of adaptationism; the values of psychological vs. behavioral approaches; the phenotypic gambit; the evolution of morality and altruism; the nature of culture and the possibility of cultural evolution; innateness, genetic determinism and development; and case studies of evolutionary explanation of human behavior or psychology. Students cannot receive credit for both PHI 447 and PHI 547.

PHI 475 Ethical Theory 3.
Prerequisite: PHI 375 or PHI 376. Credit is not allowed for both PHI 475 and PHI 575..

An introduction to some central themes and issues in ethical theory. Topics in normative and meta-ethics such as consequentialism, deontology, virtue ethics, constructivism, realism, relativism, subjectivism, and expressivism. Readings primarily from contemporary literature.

PHI 494 Research and Writing in Ethics 1.
Prerequisite: PHI 250 or LOG/MA 201 or LOG/MA 335 and one other (non PHI 250) PHI course. Corequisite: One of (PHI 298, 309,310, 313, 325, 375, 376, 420, 475, or 498).

A substantial paper in ethics, assigned by the instructor of the corequisite; enrollment subject to departmental approval; may be repeated for credit. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

PHI 495 Research and Writing in History of Philosophy 1.
Prerequisite: PHI 250, LOG 201 or 335 and one other (non-PHI 250) PHI course, Corequisite: One of PHI 298, 300, 301, 302, 310, 401 or 498.

A substantial paper in history of philosophy, assigned by the instructor of the corequisite; enrollment subject to departmental approval; may be repeated for credit. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

PHI 496 Research and Writing in Contemporary Philosophy 1.
Prerequisite: PHI 250, LOG 201 or 335 and one other PHI course, Corequisite: One of PHI 298, 305, 330, 331, 332, 333, 340, 425, 440, 447 or 498.

A substantial paper in contemporary philosophy, assigned by the instructor of the corequisite; enrollment subject to departmental approval; may be repeated for credit. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

PHI 497 Research and Writing in Logic, Representation and Reasoning 1.
Prerequisite: LOG 201 or 335, and one other PHI course, not PHI 250, Corequisite: One of LOG 335, 435/535, 437, PHI 298, 330, 331, 332, 333, 340, 425/525, 440/540 or 447/547.

A substantial paper in logic, representation and reasoning, assigned by the instructor of the corequisite. enrollment subject to departmental approval; may be repeated for credit. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

PHI 498 Special Topics in Philosophy 1-6.
Prerequisite: Six credits in PHI courses.

Detailed investigation of selected topics in philosophy. Topics determined by faculty members in consultation with head of the department. Course may be used for individualized study.

PHI 501 Kant's Critique of Pure Reason 3.
Prerequisite: Graduate Standing. Credit is not allowed for both PHI 501 and PHI 401..

A text-based critical study of Kant's Critique of Pure Reason focusing on topics such as perception, judgment, knowledge, space, time, substance, causation, and reality. Students cannot receive credit for both PHI 401 and PHI 501.

PHI 520 Global Justice 3.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing. Credit is not allowed for both PHI 520 and PHI 420..

The applications of the ideas of justice and right beyond and across the borders of individual nation states, attending to the facts of globalization and their consequences for political and economic justice and human rights. Topics: skepticism about global justice; transnational distributive justice, pollution, and poverty; national sovereignty, self-determination, and intervention; the ethics of war; international human rights; and global democracy. Students cannot receive credit for both PHI 420 and PHI 520.

PHI 525 Introduction To Cognitive Science 3.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing. Credit is not allowed for PHI 525 and PHI/PSY 425..

Philosophical foundations and empirical fundamentals of cognitive science, an interdisciplinary approach to human cognition. The computational model of mind, mental representation, cognitive architecture, the acquisition and use of language. Students cannot receive credit for both PHI/PSY 425 and PHI/PSY 525.

PHI 540 The Scientific Method 3.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing. Credit is not allowed for both PHI 540 and PHI 440..

Detailed examination of core issues in philosophy of science: confirmation of scientific theories, falsification, projectibility, nature of scientific explanation, laws of nature, and causation. Students cannot receive credit for both PHI 440 and PHI 540.

PHI 547 Philosophy, Evolution and Human Nature 3.
Credit is not allowed for both PHI 547 and PHI 447. Graduate Standing Required..

Core philosophical issues in the evolutionary study of human cognition: the role of adaptationism; the value of psychological vs. behavioral approaches; the phenotypic gambit; the evolution of mortality and altruism; the nature of cultural evolution; innateness, genetic determinism and development; and case studies of evolutionary explanation of human behavior and psychology. Students cannot receive credit for both PHI 447 and PHI 547. Graduate standing required.

PHI 575 Ethical Theory 3.
Prerequisite: Graduate Standing. Credit is not allowed for both PHI 575 and PHI 475..

An introduction to some central themes and issues in ethical theory. Topics in normative and meta-ethics such as consequentialism, deontology, virtue ethics, constructivism, realism, relativism, subjectivism, and expressivism. Readings primarily from contemporary literature. Students cannot receive credit for both PHI 475 and PHI 575.

PHI 598 Special Topics in Philosophy 3-6.

PHI 696 Summer Thesis Res 1.

PHI 816 Introduction to Research Ethics 1.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Institutional rules guiding the responsible conduct of research (RCR) and their philosophical justification. Rudiments of moral reasoning and their application to RCR. Topics: plagiarism, falsification and fabrication of data, and ethics versus custom, law, science, and religion.

PHI 896 Summer Dissert Res 1.

REL - Religious Studies Courses

REL 200 Introduction to the Study of Religion 3.

Historical, theoretical, and methodological introduction to the study of religion. Critical analysis of development of the discipline of Religious Studies. Preparation for all advanced study in Religious Studies theory and method, as well as training to study religious traditions of the world.

REL 210 Religious Traditions of the World 3.

Major Eastern and Western religious traditions with attention to their basic teachings and practices as well as to the historical, geographical, social, and political settings in which they have arisen and developed.

REL 230 Asian Religions 3.

Asian religious traditions in comparative perspective. Religious and cultural history through literature, film, and art o India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Afghanistan, China, Japan, Korea, and other countries in the region. Doctrine, practice, teaching tales, and issues of change and conflict.

REL 298 Special Topics in Religious Studies 3.

Selected studies in religion that do not appear regularly in the curriculum. Topics will be announced for each semester in which the course is offered.

REL 309 Religion and Society 3.
Prerequisite: 3 cr. in SOC, 200 level.

Religious beliefs, practices and organizations addressed as social phenomena. Structural functionalism, conflict and subjectivism as theoretical orientations for understanding influences between religion and society. Relationship of religions to family, government, and economy and to social divisions, conflict and change.

REL 311 Introduction to the Old Testament 3.

Study of Old Testament books, examining their content, background and development. Comparisons of the biblical material with other Ancient Near Eastern literature. Assessment of contributions from archeology and literary studies to clarifying the text.

REL 312 Introduction to the New Testament 3.

Literary and historical study of the New Testament in its Jewish and Greco-Roman contexts. Special attention to distinctive characteristics of the Gospels and their relationships, early controversies with Judaism and the emergence of church structure and teaching.

REL 314 Introduction to Intertestamental Literature 3.

Intertestamental literature in the context of Jewish history, institutions and beliefs of the Intertestamental Period (ca. 300 B.C.-ca. 100 A.D.).

REL 317 Christianity 3.

Development of Christianity from its origins to the present; events, persons, ideas, beliefs and practices which were most significant in this development.

REL 320 Religion in American History 3.
Prerequisite: 3 hours of History or Sophomore standing.

Representative people, movements and thought in the major religions within the context of American society and culture.

REL 323 Religious Cults, Sects, and Minority Faiths in America 3.

Religious cults, sects and minority faiths in America, including Mormonism, Christian Science and Jehovah's Witnesses. Also covers such alternate groups as the holiness-charismatic movement and the Unification Church. Origins, development and teachings of these groups within the context of American culture and religion.

REL 327 Issues in Contemporary Religion 3.

Responses of contemporary Western religious thinkers to critics of religion and to challenges posed by the 20th century including the Nazi Holocaust, social injustice (liberation theologies - black, feminist, Third World), ecological crisis, threat of nuclear warfare, and conflicts between religions.

REL 331 The Hindu Tradition 3.

Basic religio-philosophical concepts, social institutions, and individual practices of Hindu civilization from earliest Vedic times to the present. Focus on major traditions: Action (karma), Knowledge (jnana), and Devotion (bhakti), with emphasis on disciplines (yoga), myth, symbol, art.

REL 332 The Buddhist Traditions 3.

History and structure of the Buddhist tradition analyzed through the "three jewels": the Buddha, the Monastic Community (sangha), and the Teachings (dharma). Emphasis on fundamental religio-philosophical concepts, social history and ritual practicesof Southern Buddhism, early Mahayana development, and Tantric ideals. Growth of the traditions in China and Japan.

REL 333 Chinese Religions 3.

Survey of Chinese religions from prehistoric times to present. Confucianism, Daoism, primary Buddhist schools in China, spirit possession, divination and popular religious worship.

REL 334 Japanese Religions 3.

Survey of various strands of Japanese religious life from prehistoric times until present. Kami worship; primary Buddhist schools in Japan; Japanese Christianity; Confucianism; and New Religions.

REL 340 Islam 3.

Introductory survey of the Islamic religious tradition. Examination of the primary historical, literary, and theological sources for Islamic religious thought in global contexts. Topics include the Prophet Muhammad, the development of the early Muslim community, Islamic religious practice, Sunni and Shi'i Islam, Sufism, theology, law and Islamic art and architecture.

REL 350 Introduction to Judaism 3.

A survey of Jewish religious traditions from the bible through the present day. Evolution of major religious ideas through classical texts including torah, Talmud, philosophical and mystical literature, and contemporary fiction.

REL 383 Religion, Globalism, and Justice 3.
Prerequisite: One course in religion, philosophy, history, political science, anthropology or sociology.

Issues and problems in religion and societies since 1945. Historical, theoretical, sociological, and cultural approaches to globalism and religion. Inquiry into the role of ethical reasoning in religious debates on the problem of globalization.

REL 402 Early Christianity to the Time of Eusebius 3.
Prerequisite: One of: REL 312, REL 317, or HI 207.

Growth and diffusion of early Christianity from the end of the first century up to the time of Eusebius and the conversion of Constantine (early fourth century); Christianity in its Greco-Roman environment; Roman policy towards Christianity; heterodox Christian movements; anti-heretical writings; orthodox institutions of authority.

REL 407 Islamic History to 1798 3.
Prerequisite: 3 hrs. of History.

Credit will not be given for both HI 407 and HI 507. The history of the Islamic Near East to 1798. Topics include the East Mediterranean before Islam, Muhammad and the development of Islam, sources of Muslim civilization, Islamic law, science, philosophy, art and architecture, Islam in Spain, India, Asia and Africa, the Crusades, the Ottomans, Islam and Europe.

REL 408 Islam in the Modern World 3.
Prerequisite: 3 hours of history or religious studies.

Evolution of modern Islam from 17th century to the present. Primary emphasis on North Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. Pre-modern Islamicate empires, reform and revival. Historical origins of current issues in the Islamic world. Students cannot receive credit for both REL/HI 408 and REL/HI 508.

REL 412 Advanced Readings in the Christian Gospels 3.
Prerequisite: REL 312 or REL 317.

Close study of the varieties of gospel writings, both canonical and non-canonical, in early Christianity. Analysis of the constituent features of the gospels (parables, healing narratives, sermons), and their "pre-history"; the use of the gospels inthe reconstruction of the life and ministry of Jesus; and critical methods in gospel research.

REL 413 The Life and Letters of the Apostle Paul 3.
Prerequisite: REL 312 or REL 317.

Intensive study of the apostle Paul and his writings in their historical, literary and religious contexts. Sources for the life and ministry of Paul; the structure and theology of the Pauline and deutero-Pauline epistles; the influence and image of Paul in early Christianity; and contemporary controversies and issues in the study of Paul.

REL 423 Religion and Politics in America 3.
Prerequisite for REL 423: one 300-level course in religion, philosophy, or history.

Issues and problems in religion and politics in the United States since 1900. Historical, theoretical, sociological, and cultural approaches to religion and politics. Inquiry into the relations between religion and the state. Responses of religious traditions to American social and political issues. Students cannot receive credit for both REL 423 and REL 523.

REL 471 Darwinism and Christianity 3.
Prerequisite: One course in religious studies, biological sciences, philosophy of science, or history of science. Credit is not allowed for both REL 471 and REL 571..

Evolutionary biology and Christianity. Darwin's evolutionary theory; neo-Darwinism; conflicts between evolutionary theory and Christian thought; methodological parallels and differences between science and religion; proposals for divine action in anevolutionary world.

REL 472 Women and Religion 3.
Prerequisite: one course in religious studies or women's and gender studies.

Historical, literary, and theological sources dealing with portrayals of women and women's religious experience in several religious traditions of the world through different historical periods, from ancient to modern. Impact of feminist theory on the academic study of religion; methodological issues surrounding the study of women's religious history; role of religion in shaping attitudes toward women and their status in society. Students cannot receive credit for both REL/WGS 472 and REL/WGS 572.

REL 473 Religion, Gender, and Reproductive Technologies 3.
Credit is not allowed for both REL 473 and REL 573..

Examines comparative religious ethics concerning gender marriage, parenthood, children, and the relationship of human beings to the "natural". Relates these views to new and emerging reproductive and genetic technologies. Compares the internally diverse perspectives of three major religious traditions with regard to their interpretations of these technologies. Analyzes the impact of particular uses of these technologies on the rights of women and girls. Students cannot earn credit for both REL 473 and REL 573.

REL 482 Religion and Conflict 3.
Prerequisite: A 300 or above level Religion course.

Critical and theoretical inquiry into religious violence and nonviolence. Source materials on violence and nonviolence from histories and texts. Case studies of inter- and intra-religious conflict and violence, including both US and non-US religious traditions. Conflict Resolution and role of religion in peacebuilding. Politics and public policy of religion, violence, and conflict. Students cannot earn credit for both REL 482 and REL 582.

REL 489 Interpretations of Religion 3.
Prerequisite: One course in religion, philosophy, anthropology, history, or sociology..

Theory and method in the study of religion. Historical survey of the discipline of religious studies. Investigation of the major schools of interpretation and themes of study. Application of methodologies to historical and sociological case studies, involving both US and non-US religious traditions.

REL 491 Advanced Readings in Theological and Religious Literature 3.
Prerequisite: 300-level course in Religion.

Critical analysis of advanced theological works; close reading of primary texts; methods of interpretation (hermeneutics). Course may be used for individualized study programs by arrangement with the instructor.

REL 496 Seminar in Religious Studies 3.
Prerequisite: 300-level course in Religion.

Advanced research and writing in selected topics; application of contemporary and historical methods for the study of religion; hermeneutic theory. Open primarily to Religious Studies majors and minors.

REL 498 Special Topics in Religious Studies 1-6.
Prerequisite: 6 hours REL.

Detailed investigation of selected topics in religion. Topics determined by faculty members in consultation with head of the department. Course may be used for individualized study programs.

REL 508 Islam in the Modern World 3.
Prerequisite: Graduate Standing.

Evolution of modern Islam from 17th century to the present. Primary emphasis on North Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. Pre-modern Islamicate empires, reform and revival. Historical origins of current issues in the Islamic world. Students cannot receive credit for both REL/HI 408 and REL/HI 508.

REL 523 Religion and Politics in America 3.
Prerequisite for REL 523: graduate standing.

Issues and problems in religion and politics in the United States since 1900. Historical, theoretical, sociological, and cultural approaches to religion and politics. Inquiry into the relations between religion and the state. Responses of religious traditions to American social and political issues. Students cannot receive credit for both REL 423 and REL 523.

REL 571 Darwinism and Christianity 3.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing. Credit is not allowed for both REL 571 and REL 471..

Evolutionary biology and Christianity. Darwin's evolutionary theory; neo-Darwinism; conflicts between evolutionary theory and Christian thought; methodological parallels and differences between science and religion; proposals for divine action in an evolutionary world.

REL 573 Religion, Gender, and Reproductive Technologies 3.
Prerequisite: Graduate Standing. Credit is not allowed for both REL 573 and REL 473.

Examines comparative religious ethics concerning gender marriage, parenthood, children, and the relationship of human beings to the "natural". Relates these views to new and emerging reproductive and genetic technologies. Compares the internally diverse perspectives of three major religious traditions with regard to their interpretations of these technologies. Analyzes the impact of particular uses of these technologies on the rights of women and girls. Students cannot earn credit for both REL 473 and REL 573.

REL 582 Religion and Conflict 3.
Credit is not allowed for both REL 582 and 482. Graduate Standing Required..

Critical and theoretical inquiry into religious violence and nonviolence. Source materials on violence and nonviolence from histories and texts. Case studies of inter- and intra-religious conflict and violence, including both US and non-US religious traditions. Conflict Resolution and role of religion in peacebuilding. Politics and public policy of religion, violence, and conflict. Students cannot earn credit for both REL 482 and REL 582.