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Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources

The undergraduate program of the Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources prepares students for professional challenges, personal growth, and a lifetime of service as managers of natural resources. Each curriculum  produces well-educated graduates who have the knowledge, skills, flexibility, and attitude needed for successful professional performance. Graduates will be prepared to face the challenges of competing uses of natural resources and the environment, and the pressures for increasing production of goods and services from natural ecosystems while maintaining their quality for future generations.

The Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources strives to enroll and graduate high-quality culturally and ethnically diverse students.  Its academic curricula are enriched by out-of-class contacts among students, faculty, and practicing professionals to promote a sense of professionalism and global awareness. Gaining practical experience is encouraged through participation in summer employment, internships, undergraduate research opportunities, study and work abroad, and the cooperative education program.

The department has five Bachelor of Science programs: Forest Management; Natural Resources Ecosystem Assessment; Natural Resources-Policy and Administration; Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, and Environmental Technology and Management. The Forest Management curriculum provides the broad-based forestry education needed for direct employment into positions in a wide variety of forestry or forestry-related organizations. The Natural Resources curricula provide interdisciplinary programs in natural resources management that focus as indicated in the curricula titles. The Fisheries Wildlife and Conservation Biology curriculum provides specialization in ecological principles needed to conserve and manage fisheries and wildlife resources. The Environmental Technology and Management curriculum provides broad-based and applied skills for the assessment and management of society’s impact on the environment.

Instruction and practice in communications skills (both writing and speaking) are integrated into all four curricula. Spatial technologies and computer applications are introduced and used throughout technical courses.

Information on department programs may be obtained by contacting Ms. Christi Standley, Coordinator of Undergraduate Programs, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, NCSU, Box 8008, Raleigh, NC 27695-8008, Phone (919) 513-2582, E-mail: christi_standley@ncsu.edu. Specific curriculum requirements are available at https://oucc.dasa.ncsu.edu/natural-resources-cnr/.

Scholarships

The Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources annually awards four types of scholarships that are available to freshmen, transfers, and advanced students: Academic, Forestry & Wildlife Summer Camp, Industrial, and Work-Study. About 40 Academic Scholarships varying between $4000 and $7000 are awarded annually in May for the following academic year and are renewable provided that superior progress is made toward a degree. Timber sales from the James L. Goodwin and Hofmann forests and nineteen endowments provide these awards.

Nine scholarships support students attending forestry or wildlife summer camps. Each award provides $500-$1000. Six endowments support these awards.

Three Industrial scholarships are available each year. In addition to cash awards of $2000 - $4000, the Industrial Scholarships provide practical work experience with industrial forestry organizations. Industrial Scholarships are supported by grants.

Approximately 18 Work-Study Scholarships are awarded each year, generally to juniors and seniors. Work-Study Scholarships, currently at $4032 each, carry a work requirement, which is usually satisfied by assisting with operational activities on the college forests. This requirement means that recipients must be advanced students with some field skills.

Scholarship applications or questions should be directed to Dr. Richard Braham, Scholarship Coordinator 3003 Biltmore Hall, Phone: (919) 515-7568, Fax: (919) 515-8149, E-mail: richard_braham@ncsu.edu.

Cooperative Education, Internships, and Summer Work Experience

Practical work experience is an important component of the professional degree programs in the Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources. Experience may be gained through participation in the Cooperative Education Program, summer work, and internships. The department has established professional relationships with employers in forestry, fisheries management, wildlife management, environmental technology management and natural resources, and provides placement assistance for the work experience programs. The Fisheries Wildlife and Conservation Biology Program offers summer internships with research faculty and others across the state. The Cooperative Education Program, which requires a minimum 2.5 GPA after at least one year of study (many employers require a higher minimum GPA), involves alternating semesters or summer periods on the job with semesters on campus for classes. A total of 12 months of work experience is required. Students who successfully complete the co-op program are in high demand by employers.

Dual Degree Programs

Students enrolled in one of the department’s degree programs who have a strong interest in another degree topic may obtain a second baccalaureate degree in addition to the primary one. Such dual degree programs may be designed to provide a broader base in a related technical field such as wood products or soil science, or to broaden the student’s knowledge and skills in a supporting field such as business, economics, sociology, or political science. Majoring in dual degree programs requires coordination of the courses required in both curricula and the additional time required to complete them depends on the similarity between the curricula and the use of electives in one to satisfy required courses in the other. One to several extra semesters may be required to complete two degrees but expanded employment opportunities are a definite benefit.

Transfer Students

The Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources accepts NC State students as on-campus transfers, as well as students with good academic records from other accredited colleges and universities. Students at community colleges or other baccalaureate institutions who plan to transfer to one of the department’s degree programs should closely follow the desired curriculum by taking equivalent courses. Only equivalent courses will be credited to the appropriate degree program after enrolling at NC State, and the time required to complete the degree will depend on the courses remaining in the degree track. Students applying for the Forest Management curriculum must have at least 30 credits equivalent to those in the freshman and sophomore years and must transfer in the fall of the sophomore year in order to complete the courses required for summer camp. Formal articulation agreements exist with the four forestry programs at North Carolina community colleges and those students do not need to attend Summer Camp. Questions about transfer procedures, admissions criteria, or courses should be directed to Ms. Christi Standley, Coordinator of Undergraduate Programs, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, NCSU Box 8008, Raleigh, NC 27695-8008, Phone: (919) 513-2582, E-mail: christi_standley@ncsu.edu.

Curriculum in Forest Management

The curriculum in Forest Management is a professional program accredited by the Society of American Foresters that has long been ranked as one of the best in the country. The Forest Management curriculum satisfies the education requirements to become registered (licensed) forester by the North Carolina State Board of Registration for Foresters. With a rigorous math and science base, the curriculum produces graduates with a broad education in natural sciences, humanities and social sciences, communications skills, technology and the practical knowledge and skills needed for sound management of the multiple resources of natural and managed forest ecosystems. Preparatory courses in the freshman and sophomore years are followed by the nine-week forestry summer camp where the woods knowledge and field skills that are essential for all foresters are acquired. Core courses of the junior and senior years focus on forest ecosystem processes, applied economics, operational practices in forest stand management, measurement and analysis of forest stand components, policy issues in natural resource management and the management decision-making tools and skills needed to develop and implement forest management plans. For information on entrance requirements, contact Chrisie Standley at E-mail: christi_standley@ncsu.edu.

Forestry Summer Camp

An intensive, full-time, nine-week summer camp with training in the Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Mountain regions of North Carolina is required in the Forest Management curriculum. The camp is based at the college’s Hill Demonstration Forest located in Durham County, NC with trips taken to other regions. Students take summer camp between the sophomore and junior year and earn nine-semester credits in required courses that provide a base of knowledge and skills for the advanced courses in the junior and senior years.

Opportunities

Graduates in Forest Management are in high demand by state and federal land management agencies, forest products companies growing wood as a raw material, investment firms and insurance companies with land ownership portfolios, state forestry and agriculture extension services, the Peace Corps, environmental and wetland consulting firms, wood procurement companies, nursery and landscape management firms, and environmental organizations. After several years of experience, many graduates start their own businesses in forestry and land management consulting. Some graduates continue their education in graduate school to specialize in a wide variety of forestry and related programs.

Minor in Forest Management

The Forest Management minor is open to all undergraduate degree students at NC State, (except majors in Forest Management), who are interested in learning the basics of the structure and functioning of forest ecosystems and the policies and practices of forest management. The minor will be useful to students in related career fields who wish to have a better understanding of the scientific and policy issues involved in the sound stewardship of the nation’s forests. The minor will also be useful to students who may be responsible for management of natural resources or interacting with foresters.

The minor in Forest Management requires a minimum of 15 credit hours, in one of the following options:

Option A
FOR 172Forest System Mapping and Mensuration I2
FOR 339Dendrology4
FOR 252Introduction to Forest Science3
Two FOR Electives6
Total Units15
Option B *
FOR 172Forest System Mapping and Mensuration I2
FOR 339Dendrology4
Attend Forestry Summer Camp9
Total Units15
*

Students who are interested in instruction and field experience in forestry technical skills should choose option B.

For additional information, contact Dr. Gary B. Blank, Director of Undergraduate Programs, E-mail: gary_blank@ncsu.edu or Phone: (919) 515-7566.

Minor in Wetland Assessment

The Undergraduate Minor in Wetland Assessment is an interdisciplinary, interdepartmental minor that is designed to provide the requisite knowledge of skills needed for entry-level competence in wetland delineation and assessment. The soils, hydrology, and plant identification courses of the minor build the scientific background and skills needed to understand the structure and functions of wetland ecosystems and to apply assessment protocols. The capstone course, NR 421 Wetland Assessment, Delineation and Regulation focuses on further development of knowledge and skills in applying wetlands assessment, delineation, and regulation procedures. The Undergraduate Minor in Wetland Assessment consists of 17 credit hours. PB 405 Wetland Flora and FOR (NR) 420 are prerequisites of , and therefore, must be completed before enrolling in NR 421. For details about the minor contact Dr. Ryan Emanuel. Email: ryan_emanuel@ncsu.edu.

Curricula in Natural Resources

Two natural resources curricula are offered by the Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources. The curricula produce natural resources professionals with a broad interdisciplinary background coupled with a specific focus in natural resources management. The Natural Resources curricula include a series of common courses to highlight the integrated nature of work by interdisciplinary teams.

The curriculum in Natural Resources Ecosystem Assessment produces graduates who have knowledge and skills to inventory and describe ecosystems characteristics and to evaluate the impacts of management decisions. Ecosystem assessment or environmental impact assessment is an important part of development planning that calls for individuals who understand ecosystem structure and processes; who can identify, measure, inventory, and describe ecosystems; and who can apply standard evaluation and classification systems such as wildlife habitat evaluation procedures and the federal wetland delineation criteria. The curriculum entails a strong science base, as well as advanced courses in sampling and measurements, vegetation, soils, hydrology, and wildlife and fisheries are added. The 400-level courses also address techniques and issues of natural resource management.

The curriculum in Natural Resources Policy and Administration produces graduates who have knowledge and skills to manage natural resources programs in a variety of settings and organizations with an emphasis on public agencies. The advanced courses of the curriculum provide background in economics, policy, government, public administration, and natural resources management. An economics track begins with introductory microeconomics and culminates with environmental economics and public finance. Courses in government and public administration provide knowledge of how public institutions work. Courses in forestry, wildlife and fisheries, and outdoor recreation provide techniques of managing natural ecosystems for various uses. A common thread of how public policy on natural resources is influenced and developed runs through many of the courses already noted and culminates in two senior courses that focus on policy. For information on entrance requirements, contact the program coordinator: Dr. George Hess, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, NCSU, Box 8008, Raleigh, NC 27695-8002, Phone: (919) 515-7437, Fax: (919) 515-8149, E-mail: george_hess@ncsu.edu

Opportunities

Graduates of the Natural Resources Ecosystem Assessment curriculum work in environmental service firms, public agencies, non-governmental organizations, and industries. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the N.C. Division of Water Quality, and county and city governments employ graduates to help manage compliance with county, state, and federal environmental regulations, particularly wetlands and protected species. Non-governmental organizations and private engineering and environmental consulting firms employ graduates to prepare environmental impact statements and assessments, delineate wetlands, and conduct searches for threatened or endangered plant and animal species. The broad background in natural resources provided by this curriculum also provides a strong base for students interested in graduate school or environmental law.

The curriculum in Natural Resources Policy and Administration produces managers and administrators for public agencies and private organizations involved with management, administration, policy-making, planning, preservation, or regulation of natural resources. Examples are the USDI National Park Service, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the US Geological Survey, state and local government agencies, and not-for-profit environmental organizations. Background in government, economics, policy, and natural resource management also provides a strong base for students who wish to pursue a graduate program in natural resources economics and policy or environmental law.

Curriculum in Environmental Technology and Management

Environmental Technology and Management offers a comprehensive teaching and research program, preparing students for careers within the arenas of environmental regulation, environmental site assessment, and environmental health and safety. This curriculum prepares graduates to collect data, analyze and interpret those data, and determine appropriate solutions for sound environmental management. The curriculum focuses on the sciences behind the biological and chemical mechanisms of environmental processes. Students learn how to deal with a range of topics from every day environmental management activities to natural and man-made disasters such as chemical spills, fires, hurricanes, oil spills, and more. Many Environmental Technology courses emphasize hands-on training with state-of-the-art monitoring equipment. An internship to obtain actual working-world experience is required. For information on entrance requirements, contact the program coordinator: Terrie Litzenberger, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, NCSU, Box 8008, Raleigh, NC 27695-8008, Phone: (919) 515-7581, Fax: (919) 515-6193, E-mail: terrie_litzenberger@ncsu.edu.

Opportunities

Career opportunities include technical positions with: firms that offer environmental services; manufacturing companies that are required to maintain sophisticated environmental monitoring networks; consulting and audit firms that perform independent environmental audits; and state and federal regulatory agencies. A number of graduates have also pursued graduate degrees. Several professional certifications can be achieved through the major. Students may receive Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response training and are eligible to sit for two professional certification exams: the exam for certification as an Associate Environmental Professional, and the exam Certified Hazardous Materials Manager.

Curricula in Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology

The Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources administers the Fisheries Wildlife and Conservation Biology Program, which is shared among the College of Natural Resources, the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, and the College of Veterinary Medicine. The undergraduate curriculum prepares the student for the Bachelor of Science in Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology degree concentrating in either Fisheries Science, Wildlife Science, or Conservation Biology. The program emphasizes application of ecological principles to management of fisheries and wildlife populations and habitats. The curriculum integrates biological sciences with social sciences, mathematics, physical sciences, and specialty courses in fisheries, wildlife, and conservation biology to give students a well- rounded undergraduate education and to prepare students for graduate school.

The Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Program facilitates and provides opportunities for student internships, cooperative education and professional society interactions that are extremely valuable in preparation for future employment. The Student Chapter of the Leopold Wildlife Club and the Student Fisheries Society offer students in all levels of study the opportunity to network, to perform community service, and to learn from professionals in their chosen field. For information on entrance requirements, contact the undergraduate program coordinator: Dr. Lara Pacifici, Undergraduate Coordinator, Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology Program, Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources, NCSU, Box 7646, Raleigh, NC 27695-7646, Phone: (919) 515-3431, Fax: (919) 515-5110, E-mail: lara_pacifici@ncsu.edu.

Fisheries and Wildlife Summer Program

Four courses comprise the six-week summer session that is required of all fisheries and wildlife majors. These courses, offered in part at Hill Forest, a residential camp about one hour from Campus, provide the opportunity for intense study and practical application in fisheries and wildlife management. Additionally, one course is offered at Great Smoky Mountains National Park on the border of Tennessee and North Carolina and another course is offered in coastal North Carolina studying marine and estuarine habitats.

Specific curriculum requirements are available at https://cnr.ncsu.edu/fer/current-undergraduates/student-experience/internships/.

Minor in Wildlife Science

The objective of the wildlife sciences minor is to provide students, who might pursue careers in related areas of natural resources management, with basic ecological and management knowledge about wildlife resources. Additionally, the minor will provide students majoring in unrelated fields an appreciation for the value of wildlife resources and the need for sound management. Requirements: 16-17 credit hours:

FW 221Conservation of Natural Resources3
PB/AEC 360Ecology4
or FOR 260 Forest Ecology
FW 353Wildlife Management3
Choose two of the following:6
Conservation Biology in Practice
Vertebrate Natural History
Urban Wildlife Management
Forest Wildlife Management
Human Dimensions of Wildlife and Fisheries
Mammalogy
International Wildlife Management and Conservation
Total Units16

Opportunities

Graduates are prepared for graduate school and entry-level professional positions in state and federal government agencies, non-profit organizations and private industry. Upon graduation, students are qualified to seek certification from The Wildlife Society or the American Fisheries Society.

Head

S.T. Gower


Director of Undergraduate Programs

G.B. Blank


Director of Graduate Programs

J.P. Roise


Director of Geospatial Analytics

R. Meetenmeyer
Director


Alumni Distinguished Graduate Professor

F.W. Cubbage


Alumni Distinguished Undergraduate Professor

G.B. Blank

R.R. Braham

B. Goldfarb


Carl Alwin Schenck Professor

H.L. Allen


Edwin F. Conger Distinguished Professor

R.R. Sederoff


Professors

R.C. Abt

R.R. Braham

V.L.C. Chiang

F.W. Cubbage

C. Deperno

L.J. Frampton

D.J. Frederick

B. Goldfarb

S. Khorram

J. King

S.E. McKeand

S. Mills

L. Nielsen

J.P. Roise

R.R. Sederoff

W.A. Winner


Professors Emeriti

H.L. Allen

R. Brown

A.W. Cooper

E.B. Cowling

P. Doerr

W. Dvorak

E.C. Franklin

J. Gregory

A. Hassan

J.B. Jett

R.C. Kellison

R. Lancia

R. Lea


Associate Professors

R.E. Bardon

G.B. Blank

J. Delborne

R. Emanuel

G.R. Hess

G.R. Hodge

L. Li

M. McHale

C.E. Moorman

S.A.C. Nelson

E.G. Nichols

M.N. Peterson

T.H. Shear

E.O. Sills

S.T.Warren

R.W. Whetten


Research Associate Professor

J. Acosta

J. Domec

G. Hodge

B. Conkling

F. Isik

R. Kays

A. Noormets

K. Potter


Associate Professor Emeriti

H.V. Amerson

L.G. Jervis

R.J. Weir


Assistant Professor

M. Ardon-Sayao

R. Cook

R. Emanuel

J. Forrester

J. Gray

D.W. Hazel

Z. Leggett

S.E. Moore

L. Pacifici

L. Rivers


Lecturers

S. Jeffries

T.H. Litzenberger

L. Taylor

ET - Environmental Technology Courses

ET 105 Introduction to Environmental Regulations 1.

ET 105 is a 1 hour lecture/discussion class, required of all environmental technology majors. The course reviews all the major federal and state regulations and laws addressing, water air and soil pollution; solid, toxic and hazardous waste, occupational safety/health and environmental management systems. For ET majors only.

ET 120 Introduction to Renewable Energy Technologies and Assessments 3.

Overview of the various renewable energy assessment technologies. Students will learn what assessments and measurements can be taken to determine if renewable energy technologies will be effective in a particular location. Topics include biomass and biofuels, geothermal systems, solar thermal systems, photovoltaics, wind energy, and hydroelectric.

ET 201 Environmental Technology Laboratory I 1.

Use of field and laboratory instrumentation for monitoring water quantity and quality. Management, analysis, interpretation, and oral and written reporting of complex environmental data sets. Hands-on, real-world experience in water quality monitoring and maintenance. Required field trips may extend beyond class time.

ET 202 Environmental Technology Laboratory II 1.

Use of field and laboratory instrumentation for monitoring plants, soils, and natural systems. Management, analysis, interpretation, and oral and written reporting of complex environmental datasets. Hands-on, real-world experience in plant and soil quality monitoring and maintenance. Required field trips may extend beyond class time.

ET 203 Pollution Prevention 1.
Prerequisite: ES 100.

This course studies the prevention of the pollution of air, water, and terrestrial ecosystems. State of the art technological solutions are discussed. The social, economic, legal and ethical dimensions of pollution prevention are integrated into the scientific and technological challenges facing developed and developing economies.

ET 220 Solar Photovoltaics Assessment 3.
Prerequisite: ET 120.

This course introduces specific elements in photovoltaic (PV) systems technologies including efficiency, modules, inverters, charge controllers, batteries, and system installation. Topics include National Electric Code (NEC), electrical specifications, photovoltaic system components, array design and power integration requirements that combine to form a unified structure. upon completion, students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of various photovoltaic designs and proper installation of NEC compliant solar electric power systems.

ET 240 Wind and Hydroelectric Energy Assessment 3.

This course introduces concepts, designs, tools, techniques, and material requirements for systems that convert wind and water into usable energy. Topics include the analysis, measurement, and estimation of potential energy of wind and water systems. Upon completion, students should be able to demonstrate an understanding of the technologies associated with converting wind and water into a viable energy source.

ET 252 Introduction to Spatial Technologies 3.

Introduction to types of spatial information technologies and their uses in environmental assessments. Topics include: map reading, geographic positioning systems, geographic information systems, and remote sensing. This course will provide a basic overview of these technologies through lectures, and will afford an exposure to their uses through a series of structured laboratory exercises.

ET 255 Assessing Lands for BioEnergy Production 3.
Prerequisite: ET 120.

Overview of the historical and current role of bioenergy and biomass potential, technologies and systems, resource supplies, current market developments, and barriers to use in the USA. Students will learn biomass classifications and develop skills to assess landscapes for woody and non-woody biomass stocks, yields and energy values. Skills for techniques to measure woody biomass for managed forest plantations and natural forest stands and select herbaceous bioenergy crops will be developed. Emphasize North Carolina sites and spatial data to develop conceptual framework and assessment skills. Targeted for science and non-science students.

ET 262 Renewable Energy Adoption: Barriers and Incentives 3.

The understanding of the economic, social, and legal barriers and incentives to renewable energy adoption is an important facet to helping renewable energies reach their potential. This course explores mechanisms that can be used and that have been used successfully in the US and in other parts of the world to remove those barriers and to promote greater use of renewable resources, particularly in rural areas and on agricultural and forested lands.

ET 293 Independent Study in Environmental Technology & Management 1-6.

Independent Study for Environmental Technology & Management students at the freshman and sophomore level developed under the direction of a faculty member. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a "Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses" be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

ET 294 Independent Study in Environmental Technology & Management 1-6.

Independent Study for Environmental Technology & Management students at the freshman and sophomore level developed under the direction of a faculty member. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a "Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses" be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

ET 295 Special Topics in Environmental Technology & Management 1-6.

Special Topics in Environmental Technology & Management at the 200 Level for offering courses on an experimental basis.

ET 301 Environmental Technology Laboratory III 1.

Assessment of and response to environmental hazards caused by hazardous materials releases. Regulatory requirements associated with hazardous materials releases. Utilization of chemical protective clothing and respiratory protection. Students passing the class receive Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 40-hour Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response (HAZWOPER) certification. Required field trips may extend beyond lab time.

ET 302 Environmental Technology Laboratory IV 1.

Use of field and laboratory instrumentation for monitoring outdoor and indoor air quality. Management, analysis, interpretation, and oral and written reporting of complex environmental data sets. Hands-on, real-world experience in air quality monitoring and maintenance. Required field trips may extend beyond class time.

ET 303 Laboratory Safety Systems and Management 1.

Theory and practice of regulation, management, and auditing of laboratory safety. Laboratory field trips may extend beyond class time.

ET 310 Environmental Monitoring and Analysis 3.
Prerequisites:CH 101 or 100; BIO 181; ET students only.

Monitoring and analysis of chemical, biological, and radiation impacts to the environment. Theory of chemical, physical, biological, and ecological monitoring. Planning and conducting environmental sampling and monitoring programs. Management, analysis, and quality assurance and control. Risk assessment in environmental technology. Laboratory practice and safety.

ET 320 Fundamentals of Air Pollution 3.
Prerequisite: (MA 121, MA 131, or MA 141) and (PY 131 or PY 201 or PY 205 or PY 211).

Air pollution sources, and the influence of natural and anthropogenic processes on the atmosphere. Roles of local, state and federal governments in air pollution control and importance of the Clean Air Act and it amendments.

ET 330 Environmental Technology Practicum 3.

Preparation for practicum, including resume writing, interviewing skills, cover letters, and practicum search techniques and resources. Professional practice as an environmental technologist. Written and oral communications of the practicum experience.

ET 401 Environmental Technology Laboratory V 1.

Scientific and legal definitions of brownfield and EPA Superfund sites. Physical, chemical, and biological methods for remediating contaminated sites. Impacts of hazardous waste management on public and private sector organizations. Field trips to public and private brownfield and Superfund remediation sites to examine real-world applications of principles. Required field trips may extend beyond class time.

ET 410 Toxic Substances and Society 3.
Prerequisite: Junior standing..

Interdisciplinary evaluation of past, present and future effects of toxic substances in the environment. Addresses various dimensions of toxic substances; special emphasis on ways to minimize adverse effects in contemporary and future societies.

ET 455 Adaptive Management and Governance 3.
Junior standing or above.

Some environmental and natural resource problems are more difficult to resolve than others. The purpose of this course is to understand the factors that condition intractable or "wicked" environmental and natural resources conflicts. These factors include narrow conceptions of science, rigid bureaucratic structures and narrow policy targets. We also explore some of the alternatives for addressing intractable environmental and natural resource problems- including adaptive management and governance.

ET 460 Practice of Environmental Technology 3.
Prerequisite: ET 310 or SSC 442; and ET Senior Only.

Preparation and presentation of comprehensive environmental assessments and analyses. Critical roles of quality control and assurance. The ISO 14000 environmental management standard of the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). Preparation for certification as an environmental auditor by ANSI and registration as an Environmental Professional by the National Register of Environmental Professionals. Optional training and exams for Environmental Auditors Registration Association and American National Standards Institute/Register Accreditation Board Written Examination available.

ET 470 Environmental Forensics 3.
Prerequisite: ET 310 or SSC 442.

Use of site assessment methodologies and state of the art technologies from analytical chemistry, molecular biology, biogeochemistry, and GIS to solve environmental cases of "Who done it?" with regards to soil/sediment, water, and air contamination.Two field trips which may extend beyond class time are required.

ET 484 Practice of Renewable Energy Assessments 1.
P: ET 220 and (ET 240 or ET 255 or ET 262); R: Renewable energy assessment minors only.

Renewable Energy Assessment principles, practices, and technologies. Lectures and field practicum concerning renewable energy potential on a variety of types of land across North Carolina. This course is for enrollment by students who are minoring in renewable energy assessments only.

ET 490 Senior Seminar in Environmental Technology 1.
Prerequisite: ET Senior Only.

Weekly departmental and university seminars and group discussions to enrich and broaden student perspectives on the practice and development of environmental technology. Oral and written reporting of seminars topics.

ET 493 Independent Study in Environmental Technology & Management 1-6.

Independent Study for Environmental Technology & Management students at the advanced level developed under the direction of a faculty member. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a "Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses" be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

ET 494 Independent Study in Environmental Technology & Management 1-6.

Independent Study for Environmental Technology & Management students at the advanced level developed under the direction of a faculty member. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a "Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses" be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

ET 495 Special Topics in Environmental Technology & Management 1-6.

Special Topics in Environmental Technology & Management at the 400 level for offering courses on an experimental basis.

FOR - Forestry Courses

FOR 150 Critical Thinking and Data Analysis 2.

Exploration and practical experience with basis for making resource management decisions. Learning to pose questions that drive research and analysis. Discovering differences between found and built answers. Examining spreadsheet structure and functionality for manipulating data. Establishing solid grounds for conclusions and actions in natural resources contexts. Experiencing thinking processes from posing questions to articulating well-founded answers in coherent, persuasive discourse.

FOR 172 Forest System Mapping and Mensuration I 2.

Concepts and application of basic forest and land resource measurement techniques used in forestry and related fields. Measuring distances and areas; orienteering; basic air photo and topographic map interpretation; introduction to GPS; measuring tree characteristics; introduction to forest sampling. Application of spreadsheets and word processing to analyze and summarize resource characteristics. Field trip required.

FOR 204 Silviculture 2.
Prerequisite: Summer camp eligibility.

Silvical characteristics and growth requirements of forest trees; dynamics of stand growth, species-site relationships, site productivity, forest pest interactions, hydrology and nutrient cycling in forest ecosystems; emphasis on understanding and applying ecological principles to the production of multiple benefits at the forest community level.

FOR 220 Urban and Community Forestry 3.

Introduction to the interdisciplinary study of urban forestry and greenspaces. Study of urban forest history, distribution and ownership patterns, urban ecology and ecosystems, benefits and uses of urban forests, vegetation establishment and maintenance, urban planning and policy, community interactions, urban forestry implementation.

FOR 248 Forest History, Technology and Society 3.

Examining forest resource use and issues throughout history. Tracing developments and concepts that created the context for today's issues concerning global forest resources. Examining how wood resource availability shaped civilization's development, and examining consequences on forest resources of civilization's scientific, social, and technological progress.

FOR 250 Professional Development II: Communications in Natural Resources 1.

Development of written and oral communication skills for forestry and natural resources management. Discussion topics include interactive communication, writing to a target audience, common pitfalls in technical writing, various kinds of technical writing, poster and oral presentations, reviewing and revising writing, and responding to questions in a professional manner.

FOR 252 Introduction to Forest Science 3.
Not open to Forest Management Majors (15FOMND,15FORMTBS, 15FGM).

Integration of biological principles into studies of tree growth, reproduction, establishment, survival, and disturbance. Discussions of regional silviculture and of effects of humans on forest ecosystems. Instruction in forest sampling and tree identification. Many laboratories meet outdoors.Not open to Forest Management majors.

FOR 260 Forest Ecology 4.

Introduction to forest ecosystems, their structure and functions, and the processes that regulate them including: radiation, temperature, water, and biogeochemistry; productivity; plant populations; forest communities; succession; natural disturbances; and human influences. Must have a strong love of trees.

FOR 261 Forest Communities 2.
Prerequisite: FOR 339 or PB 220 or PB 403.

Study of the species composition, distribution, site requirements, and succession of the principal forest communities of southeastern North America. Identification of important member plant species. Field trips to typical examples.

FOR 264 Forest Wildlife 1.
Prerequisite: Summer camp eligibility.

Diversity of fauna that inhabits forest communities in the Piedmont of North Carolina. Inventory terrestrial and aquatic habitats and identify various vertebrate and invertebrate species. Insect collection initiated. The life histories of representative species presented.

FOR 265 Fire Management 1.
Prerequisite: Summer camp eligibility.

Effects of wildfire and prescribed fire on forest ecosystem components and processes; fire behavior and the ecosystem and meterologic factors that affect it; silvicultural uses of fire; organization, equipment, and tactics for wildfire suppression; fire suppression exercises on the North Carolina Division of Forest Resources' Forest Fire Simulator.

FOR 273 Forest System Mapping and Mensuration II 3.
Prerequisite: FOR 172.

Procedures and Instruments for measuring various tree and stand characteristics. Determination of stem volume and taper. Planning and implementation of forest resource samples to provide population estimates using fixed-radius and variable-radius sampling. Detailed coverage of land measurements and mapping of boundary surveys. Use of aerial photography, topographic maps, and GPS to aid in resource assessment. Incorporation of inventory data into a GIS. Basic statistical concepts applied to resource measurements. Taught off-campus at Hill Forest.

FOR 293 Independent Study in Forest Management 1-6.

Independent Study for Forest Management students at the freshman and sophomore level developed under the direction of a faculty member. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a "Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses" be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

FOR 294 Independent Study in Forest Management 1-6.

Independent Study for Forest Management students at the freshman and sophomore level developed under the direction of a faculty member. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a "Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses" be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

FOR 295 Special Topics in Forestry 1-6.

Study of forestry topics not covered in existing courses at the introductory level. Development of a new course on a trial basis.

FOR 303 Silvics and Forest Tree Physiology 3.
P: (CH 101 or 103) and [(CH 201 and 202) or (CH 203 and 204) or PY 205 or PY 211].

Ecological and physiological processes influencing establishment, growth, and development of forest stands with particular emphasis on forest types of Southeastern United States; influence of resource availability on forest stand productivity; physical and biochemical processes associated with tree function, including water relations, mineral nutrition, transport and translocation, photosynthesis, respiration; internal and environmental factors regulating tree growth and development.

FOR 304 Theory of Silviculture 4.
Prerequisite: FOR 260.

Ecological processes affecting the establishment and growth of forest stands with particular emphasis on forest types of the Southeastern United States. Forest stand productivity, how productivity is influenced by site, stand, climatic factors, and the application of site specific prescriptions to establish and manipulate the composition, growth, and health of forest stands.

FOR 318 Forest Pathology 3.
Prerequisite: PB 200.

Major diseases of forest trees and deterioration of wood products emphasizing principles of plant pathology; diagnosis; nature, physiology, ecology, and dissemination of disease-causing agents; mechanisms of pathogenesis; epidemiology and environmental influences; principles and practices of control.

FOR 319 Forest Economics 3.
Prerequisite: ARE 201 or EC 205 or EC 201.

Economic approaches for evaluating the production and costs of forest management, timber harvesting activities, and nontimber forest products. Estimating the financial returns of long-term investments in timber or other forest resources, including discounted cash flow analysis and capital budgeting techniques. Property taxes and income tax treatment of timber and their effects on investment returns. Demand estimation and timber supply analyses.

FOR 330 North Carolina Forests 3.

An introduction and overview of forests in North Carolina with emphasis on the importance of forests in the 21st century. Topics include: history and distribution of forests, soils-sit relationships, forestry practices, non-conventional management objectives. Two required Saturday field trips.

FOR 334 Operations Research Applications in Natural Resources 1.

Introduction to the application and use of management science in forestry and natural resources. The course will introduce decision and information theory and mathematical programming techniques including linear, non-linear and integer programming concepts. The emphasis is on problem formulation and solution using computer programs. Half semester course.

FOR 339 Dendrology 4.

Identification and elementary silvics of woody plants of eastern North America with studies of their classification, characteristics, and habitats. Consideration of trees from northern and western North America and the Caribbean region. Field identification with trips to forest communities.

FOR 350 Professional Development III: Ethical Dilemmas in Natural Resource Management 1.
Prerequisite: Junior standing..

Study of ethical issues confronting natural resource management professionals, including: biodiversity conservation, private property rights, traditional religion and ecological values, community rights, environmental racism, hunting and animal rights, business ethics, and the purpose and content of professional codes of ethics.

FOR 353 Air Photo Interpretation and Photogrammetry 3.
Prerequisite: MA 114 or MA 121or MA 131 or MA 141.

Theory, principles, and techniques of utilizing air photos for inventory and management of renewable resources, photogrammetric and engineering applications, hydrologic and terrain analysis, and land use/cover mapping. Introduction to remote sensing and use of color infrared, thermal, Skylab, and Lands at imagery in resource mapping.

FOR 374 Forest Measurement, Modeling, and Inventory 3.
Prerequisite: FOR 273.

Mathematical functions required for quantifying the yield of timber and non-timber products. Procedures for planning, conducting, and analyzing forest inventories. Use of mathematical models to estimate growth and yield of forest stands and non-timber products for management decisions.

FOR 402 Forest Entomology 3.
Prerequisite: Junior standing..

Fundamentals of morphology, classification, biology, ecology and control of insects attacking trees, with emphasis on silvicultural practices.

FOR 405 Forest Management 4.
Prerequisite: FOR 304, FOR 319, FOR 374.

Fundamental principles and analytical techniques necessary in the planning, management and optimization of forest operations. Formulation of objectives and constraints, yield forecasting, forest regulation, procurement and marketing, inventory methods, and management plan preparation. Written and oral reporting.

FOR 406 Forest Inventory, Analysis and Planning 4.
Prerequisite: FOR 405, FOR 460.

Independent project in designing and implementing a multi-resource survey; analyze stand conditions; forecast growth, yield and revenue of timber and forest products; use linear programming to prepare a long-term management plan subject to economic,social, and ecological constraints; assess economic and environmental impacts of potential actions; and report results orally and in writing.

FOR 411 Forest Tree Genetics and Biology 3.
Prerequisite: Junior standing.

Genetics as it is applied in forest management for both conifers and hardwoods. The variation, evolution and genetics of forest trees. Methods for selection, breeding, seed production, and vegetative propagation. Exotics, wood properties, and tree improvement as a forest management tool.

FOR 414 World Forestry 3.

Management of global forest resources; distribution and trends in forest cover; role of forests in economic development; international production and trade of forest products; current policy issues, including tropical deforestation, certification, and carbon sequestration; social forestry and non-timber forest products; international institutions and aid for conservation and development; identification and evaluation of sources of current information on global forestry issues.

FOR 415 World Forestry Study Tour 1.
Corequisite: FOR 414.

Field trip to Mexico and/or Central America for seven days over spring break. Examine tropical forestry issues through field visits to timber concessions, plantations, nurseries, wood products firms, protected areas, and agroforestry projects; meetings with representatives of forest research institutes, government agencies, timber industry, cooperatives, and environmental organizations; and interaction with local people. Fee for field trip determined annually.Offered during spring break, as aone week field trip to Mexico and/or Central America.

FOR 420 Watershed and Wetlands Hydrology 4.
Prerequisite: SSC 200, BIO 360.

Principles of hydrologic science; classification and assessment of watersheds and stream networks; hydrologic, erosion, and water quality processes in natural and managed watersheds; wetlands hydrology; hydrologic measurements and data analysis; applications of hydrology and water quality management for forest agriculture, and urban ecosystems; watershed restoration. Emphasis field study of watersheds and hydrologic measurements. Two weekend field trips are required. Credit will not be given for both FOR(NR)420 and FOR(NR)520.

FOR 422 Consulting Forestry 3.
Prerequisite: Senior standing in Forest Management.

Forest land acquisition and ownership: ownership, appraisal, legal considerations, financial management and planning. Producing forest resources: timber, wildlife, recreation, farm products, water, minerals, specialty products, and development. Marketing forest resources: timber, recreation, farm leases, minerals, specialty products, and developed property. Forest resources consulting: forms of organization, pricing of services, consultant client relationships (Law of Agency), professional ethics and continuing education.

FOR 430 Forest Health and Protection 3.
Prerequisite: PB 200 or BIO 181 or BIO 183 or FOR 260 or BIO 360 or PB 360 (or other Biology or Plant Biology course)..

This course will introduce students to the major insect and disease problems of North American forests, both native and introduced, with an emphasis on the recognition and management of pests and the damage they cause. Wild land fire, invasive plants, and climate change and their interactions with forest insect and diseases will also be covered.

FOR 434 Forest Operations and Analysis 3.
Junior standing or above.

Management science and operational techniques in forestry. Logging road layout and construction, and machine systems: harvesting machine optimization and selection. Harvesting, production and forest planning. Decision and inventory theory, and other techniques for solving problems typically encountered in forest operations management. Required overnight weekend field trip.

FOR 450 Professional Development IV: Leadership 1.
Prerequisite: Junior standing..

Concepts and applications of leadership principles with emphasis on leadership challenges and opportunities for professionals in natural resources management. Assessment and development of leadership skills.

FOR 491 Special Topics in Forestry and Related Natural Resources 1-4.

Independent (or group) study or research of a forestry or related natural resources topic with a faculty supervisor of the student's choice. Also courses offered on a trial basis.

FOR 493 Independent Study in Forest Management 1-6.

Independent Study for Forest Management students at the advanced level developed under the direction of a faculty member. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a "Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses" be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

FOR 494 Independent Study in Forest Management 1-6.

Independent Study for Forest Management students at the advanced level developed under the direction of a faculty member. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a "Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses" be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

FOR 501 Dendrology 3.
Prerequisite: PB 200.

Identification and natural history of eastern woody species with studies of their taxonomic classification, physical characteristics, and typical habits. Laboratories stress sight recognition and use of identification keys and trips to natural forest communities.

FOR 502 Forest Measurements 1.

One-third semester mini-course. Forest measurements covering principles, terminology, and practical field applications. Land area measurement, units of timber measure (cubic feet, cords, weight, board feet), estimating volume of standing trees, sampling techniques for forest inventory (strips, plots, points), measures of site quality and stand density, methods for projecting future timber volumes.

FOR 503 Tree Physiology 1.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

One-third semester mini-course. Fundamental principles of physiological processes in forest trees affecting tree and stand growth and development in natural forests and managed plantations. Concepts of whole plant physiological processes includingphotosynthesis, respiration, water relations, nutrition, periodic growth, sexual and vegetative reproduction, and seedling quality with forestry examples of each process.

FOR 505 Forest Management 4.

Fundamental principles and analytical techniques necessary in planning, management and optimization of forest operations. Formulation of objectives and constraints, yield forecasting, forest regulation, procurement and marketing, inventory methods,and management plan preparation. Written and oral reporting.Credit not allowed for both FOR 505 and FOR 405.

FOR 507 Silviculture Mini Course 1.

One-third semester mini-course. A condensed version of silviculture. Ecological processed affecting establishment and growth of forest stands with particular emphasis on forest types of southeastern United States. Forest stand productivity, how productivity influenced by site, stand, climatic factors, and application of site specific prescriptions to establish and manipulate composition, growth, and health of forest stands.

FOR 509 Forest Resource Policy 1.

One-third semester mini-course. Principles of forest policies and processes. Political processes, institutional and interest group participation, forestry laws and programs, current issues, and policy analyses.

FOR 510 Introduction to GPS 1.

One-third semester mini-course. Introduction to collection and use of mapping grade global positioning satellite systems data. Includes review of cartographic properties, mission planning, hands-on collection of GPS points, lines, and areas, differential correction, editing, and exporting GPS files to a GIS.

FOR 513 Silviculture for Intensively Managed Plantations 3.
Prerequisite: FOR 507.

This course provides an up-to-date understanding of the ecological and physiological bases of forest stand productivity and a silvicultural systems framework to use this knowledge for making site specific prescriptions that are cost effective and environmentally sustainable.

FOR 519 Forest Economics 3.
Prerequisite: Basic course in economics.

Economics applied to problems in forest management, including timber demand and supply models, optimal rotation length, benefit-cost analysis of forestry projects, impacts of forest taxation and consideration of non-market forest goods and services.

FOR 520 Watershed and Wetlands Hydrology 4.
Prerequisite: SSC 200, BIO 360.

Principles of hydrologic science; classification and assessment of watersheds and stream networks; hydrologic, erosion, and water quality processes in natural and managed watersheds; wetlands hydrology; hydrologic measurements and data analysis; applications of hydrology and water quality management for forest, agriculture, and urban ecosystems; watershed restoration. Field study of watersheds and hydrologic measurements. Two weekend field trips required. Credit for both FOR(NR) 420 and FOR(NR) 520 is not allowed.

FOR 522 Consulting Forestry 3.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Forest land acquisition and ownership: ownership, appraisal, legal considerations, financial management and planning. Producing forest resources: timber, wildlife, recreation, farm products, water, minerals, specialty products, and development. Marketing forest resources: timber, recreation, farm leases, minerals, specialty products, and developed property. Forest resources consulting: forms of organization, pricing of services, consultant client relationships (Law of Agency), professional ethics and continuing education. To receive graduate credit, a student must write a term paper on a topic mutually agreed upon with the instructor.Credit for both FOR 422 and FOR 522 is not allowed.

FOR 531 Wildland Fire Science 3.

Physical, chemical, biological, and ecological processes associated with wildland fire, particular emphasis on fire behavior, fuels, weather, climate and the associated effects on ecology, management, fire suppression, prescribed fire, and smoke emissions and exposure. Fire's effect on national policy, social and natural history of North America. In-depth exercises in fire and smoke modeling using established predictive systems.

FOR 534 Forest Operations and Analysis 3.

Management science and operational techniques in forestry. Road layout, construction, and machine systems: harvesting machine optimization and selection. Harvesting, production and forest planning. Linear programming, queuing, decision and inventory theory, and other techniques for solving problems typically encountered in forest operations management. Credit not allowed for both FOR 534 and FOR 434.

FOR 540 Advanced Dendrology 3.
Prerequisite: BO 403 or FOR 339.

Identification and life histories of native and naturalized woody plants. Use of taxonomic manuals and literature. Identification of problematic groups. Concentration on North America, with discussion of other continents. Overnight field trips to natural forest communities.

FOR 561 Forest Communities of the Southeastern Coastal Plain 1.
Prerequisite: FOR 212, FOR 501.

Species composition, distribution, site requirements, and succession of principal forest communities of southeastern Coastal Plain. Identification of important member plant species. Overnight field trips to typical examples.

FOR 562 Forest Communities of the Southern Appalachians 1.
Prerequisite: FOR 212, FOR 501.

Species composition, distribution, site requirements, and succession of principal forest communities of southern Appalachians. Identification of important member plant species. Overnight field trips to typical examples.

FOR 575 Advanced Terrestrial Ecosystem Ecology 3.

Views organisms and physical environment as integrated system. Outlines processes governing assimilation and cycling of energy, carbons, nutrients, and water. Evaluates ecosystem responses to intensive management, global climate change, air pollution, biofuels production, fragmentation, large-scale land use change. Illustrates application of ecosystem science approach to important regional and global questions through scaling of empirical, ecosystem-level data, ongoing research. Provides experience in hypothesis testing and experimental design, data analysis and interpretation, proposal development, and publication for research professionals. Graduate Standing.

FOR 583 Tropical Forestry 3.
Prerequisite: Senior standing.

Principles of tropical ecology, dendrology and agroforestry. Primary emphasis on establishment and management of tropical plantations with lesser emphasis on natural stands. Operation and management of tropical nurseries.

FOR 595 Special Topics 1-6.

Individual students or groups of students, under direction of a faculty member, may explore topics of special interest not covered by existing courses. Format may consist of readings and independent study, problems or research not related to thesis.Also used to develop and test new 500-level courses.

FOR 601 Graduate Seminar 1.

Weekly seminar in which students registered for course present the results of research and special projects. Invitation to all graduate students and faculty in department to attend and join discussion.

FOR 603 Research Methods in Forestry and Environmental Resources 1.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Philosophy and objectives of scientific research and steps in the research process. Basic and applied research, inductive and deductive reasoning and need for hypothesis development and testing as a basis for scientific research. Special emphasis on preparation of study plans, graduate theses, published articles and technical presentations.

FOR 610 Special Topics In Forestry 1-6.

Individual students or groups of students, under direction of a faculty member, may explore topics of special interest not covered by existing courses. Format may consist of readings and independent study, problems or research not related to thesis.Also used to develop and test new 500-level courses.Credits Arranged.

FOR 620 Woodland Stewardship 3.

An introduction and overview of non-industrial private forestry in the Southeast United States with emphasis on active forest management. Topics include history of human impact on forests, evolution of forest, forestry practices, timber and non timber management objectives, financial aspects of forest land management, and management planning. One required all day field trip.

FOR 685 Master's Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

FOR 688 Non-Thesis Masters Continuous Registration - Half Time Registration 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain half-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc.

FOR 689 Non-Thesis Master Continuous Registration - Full Time Registration 3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain full-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc. Students may register for this course a maximum of one semester.

FOR 690 Master's Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non thesis master's programs who have completed all other requirements of the degree except preparing for and taking the final master's exam.

FOR 693 Master's Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

FOR 695 Master's Thesis Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Thesis research.

FOR 696 Summer Thesis Research 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

FOR 699 Master's Thesis Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements and full-time enrollment for the master's degree and are writing and defending their theses.

FOR 713 Advanced Topics In Silviculture 3.
Prerequisite: FOR 304.

Critical examination of selected silvicultural topics, with special emphasis on concepts and phenomena distinguishing forests from other biotic communities and silviculture from other fields of applied biology. Emphasis on intensive silviculture in United States and selected international locations. A required written research proposal.

FOR 725 Forest Genetics 3.

Application of genetic principles to silviculture, management and wood utilization. Emphasis on variation in wild populations, the bases for selection of desirable qualities and fundamentals of controlled breeding.

FOR 726 Advanced Topics In Quantitative Genetics and Breeding 3.
Prerequisite: ST 511, Corequisite: ST 512.

Advanced topics in quantitative genetics pertinent to population improvement for quantitative and categorical traits with special applications to plant and animal breeding. DNA markers - phenotype associations. The theory and application of linear mixed models, BLUP and genomic selection using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Pedigree and construction of genomic relationships matrices from DNA markers and application in breeding.

FOR 727 Tree Improvement Research Techniques 3.
Prerequisite: FOR 411 or GN 411.

Research methods involved in forest tree breeding and genetics programs. Emphasis on laboratory, greenhouse and field research techniques. Stress also on summary and presentation of research results.

FOR 728 Quantitative Forest Genetics Methods 3.
Prerequisite: GN 703, ST 701.

Applications of basic quantitative genetic methods in forest tree breeding and genetic research. Principles and procedures for partitioning experimental variance, estimating genetic parameters from different mating and test designs. Predicting breeding value and gain and developing breeding strategies.

FOR 734 Advanced Forest Management Planning 3.
Prerequisite: FOR 405 or FOR 434 or OR 501, Corequisite: FOR 772.

History, principles, structures and use of modern forest management planning and decision-making techniques. Emphasis on optimization procedures and public forest management.

FOR 750 Ecological Restoration 3.
Prerequisite: BO 360, SSC 200, Corequisite: BO 565.

Historical bases and philosophical examination of concepts of ecosystem restoration. Mechanics of restoring soils, hydrology, plant community composition and structure, and landscape levels ecosystem functions. Quantitative evaluations of restoration success.

FOR 753 Environmental Remote Sensing 3.
Prerequisite: FOR 353.

Principles and applications of remote sensing technology to earth resources and environmental studies. Electromagnetic energy, data acquisition platforms, sensors and scanners, processing of digital remotely sensed data, error analysis and accuracyassessments, and integration of remotely sensed data with other data types used in natural resource management.

FOR 784 The Practice Of Environmental Impact Assessment 4.

Impact assessment principles, practices and their evolution. Lectures and field practicums concerning problems addressed by environmental assessment practitioners. Practical implications of current regulatory requirements, especially concerning endangered species and wetlands, as they affect environmental practitioners' performance. Required reports combine varied technical tasks and documentation for regulatory process review.

FOR 795 Advanced Special Topics in Forestry 1-6.

Individual students or groups of students, under direction of a faculty member, may explore topics of special interest not covered by existing courses. Format may consist of readings and independent study, problems or research not related to thesis.Also used to develop and test new 700-level courses.

FOR 801 Seminar 1.

Weekly seminar in which students registered for course present the results of research and special projects. Invitation to all graduate students and faculty in department to attend and join discussion.

FOR 803 Research Methods in Forestry and Environmental Resources 1.
Prerequisite: Grad. standing.

Philosophy and objectives of scientific research and steps in the research process. Basic and applied research, inductive and deductive reasoning and need for hypothesis development and testing as a basis for scientific research. Special emphasis onpreparation of study plans, graduate theses, published articles and technical presentations.

FOR 810 Special Topics In Forestry 1-6.

Individual students or groups of students, under direction of a faculty member, may explore topics of special interest not covered by existing courses. Format may consist of readings and independent study, problems or research not related to thesis.Also used to develop and test new 800-level courses.

FOR 885 Doctoral Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

FOR 890 Doctoral Preliminary Exam 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who are preparing for and taking written and/or oral preliminary exams.

FOR 893 Doctoral Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

FOR 895 Doctoral Dissertation Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Dissertation research.

FOR 896 Summer Dissertation Research 1.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

FOR 899 Doctoral Dissertation Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who have completed all credit hour, full-time enrollment, preliminary examination, and residency requirements for the doctoral degree, and are writing and defending their dissertations.

FW - Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences Courses

FW 221 Conservation of Natural Resources 3.

This course examines the importance of natural resources and their role in the progress of human civilization. Physical, biological and ecological principles are described that underlie sustainability of natural resources, particularly as these relate to the consequence of human impacts as resources are used to meet societal needs. The course emphasizes renewable natural resources, the importance of habitat, and a broadly-international context. The course has an optimistic perspective that life on Earth can and will be better in the future if we learn and practice good resource management today.

FW 293 Independent Study in Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology 1-6.

Independent Study for Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology students at the freshman and sophomore level developed under the direction of a faculty member. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a "Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses" be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

FW 294 Independent Study in Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology 1-6.

Independent Study for Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology students at the freshman and sophomore level developed under the direction of a faculty member. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a "Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses" be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

FW 311 Piedmont Wildlife Ecology and Management 3.

This 3-week course will involve relationships of wildlife and habitat, the use of GIS and GPS, use of new technology (PIT tags, radio telemetry), and field identification of habitats and animals. This course is taught off-campus at Hill Forest. It is a 3 week residential camps with side trips and overnight trips. Class meets all day for 3 weeks. Additional charge for room and board. Students must provide their own transportation to Hill Forest. Junior standing in one of the following: FOM, NRE, SFW, SFF, SZO, ESC.

FW 312 Fisheries Techniques and Management 1.
Corequisite: FW 311 and FW 313.

Field exercises in aquatic environments emphasizing assessment of habitat, fish, invertebrates, plants, and ecological relationships to form the basis of describing and solving management dilemmas. Taught off-campus at Hill Forest. 5 day residential camp. Local travel required to various aquatic ecosystems. Additional charges for room and board.

FW 313 Mountain Wildlife Ecology and Management 1.
Corequisite: FW 311 and FW 312.

Visit different mountain communities along an elevation gradient from 2,000 to 6,000 feet and observe changes in plant and animal communities. Discuss wildlife and fisheries management issues, interact with agency personnel responsible for managingmountain fisheries and wildlife. One-week field trip to the North Carolina mountains. Additional charges for room and board.

FW 314 Coastal Ecology and Management 1.
Prerequisite: BIO 181.

Hands-on study of the fishery and wildlife resources associated with North Carolina coastal plain habitats. These habitats will include estuarine, ocean, longleaf pine savanna, pocosin, and Carolina bays. Common techniques and concepts used in terrestrial, marine, and estuarine ecology and management will be taught. Field identification of habitats, animals, and plants. Use of multiple sampling gear including bottom trawl, beam trawl, beach seine, gill nets, and coverboards. Use of water quality measurement equipment. This course meets all day for 1 week off-campus at CMAST in Morehead City, NC. Additional charge for room and board and boat rental. Students must provide their own transportation to CMAST.

FW 333 Conservation Biology in Practice 3.
Prerequisite: FW 221 or PB 360 or BIO 360 or FOR 260.

An introductory course designed to focus on the scientific fundamentals of conservation biology, including population dynamics, extinction and its causes, metapopulations, modeling, population viability analysis, the design and management of protected areas, rare species management, and captive breeding and release programs. Students will participate in active learning exercises, projects, and debates. Projects will require students to make their own arrangements for transportation to field locations within Wake County.

FW 353 Wildlife Management 3.
R: Sophomore Standing.

Historical development of Wildlife Management from anecdotal, observational practices to modern, scientific approaches used around the world. Principles of population analysis, management, protection and conservation of animals, particularly those of conservation, aesthetic, sport or food values in urban, rural and wilderness areas. Ethics of hunting and trapping. Contradictory objectives challenging modern wildlife managers.

FW 373 Vertebrate Natural History 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 360 or PB 360.

This course provides an introduction to the natural history of vertebrates, including fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals. The emphasis is on systematics, identification, and natural history of each vertebrate group.

FW 403 Urban Wildlife Management 3.
Prerequisite: Junior standing..

Issues facing wildlife in urbanizing landscapes and the general courses of action to minimize the negative effects of urbanization on native wildlife. Large-scale planning and zoning for roads, developments and open space; meso-scale planning and landscaping of new neighborhoods and other developments; and small-scale landscaping for backyard habitats. Coexistence between wildlife and humans in urban environments and management of wildlife damage to human property.

FW 404 Forest Wildlife Management 3.
Prerequisite: Junior standing.

Relationships between forest and wildlife management and the effects of silvicultural systems on wildlife. Species-habitat requirements, forest wildlife management techniques, and forest-wildlife policies and economics.

FW 405 Tropical Wildlife Ecology in Nicaragua 3.

This 9-week course provides an overview of tropical wildlife ecology and management, sustainable land use, and the Nicaraguan culture. The course addresses the challenges of natural resource conservation in a developing country and the sustainable approaches that may be used to conserve natural resources there. Various methods to sample wildlife will be employed in Nicaragua, but emphasis will be on the use of mist nets in long-term bird monitoring program in a shade-grown coffee plantation. Expenses associated with this course are the responsibility of the student. Requires instructor approval.

FW 411 Human Dimensions of Wildlife and Fisheries 3.
Juniors and Seniors Only.

Study of human interactions with wildlife and fisheries, including principles important for understanding and addressing wildlife management and conservation challenges. Discussions of wildlife at the urban fringe, human attitudes towards hunting and fishing, and the public trust approach to wildlife management are included.

FW 415 Professional Development in Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology 1.

This course provides guidance for students in the fall semester of their senior year in preparation for graduate school or a career in the field of Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology. Junior or Senior standing.

FW 444 Mammalogy 3.
Prerequisite: PB 360 or BIO 360 or FOR 260.

The biology of mammals: evolution, functional morphology, reproduction, behavior, ecology, population biology, classification and identification. One weekend field trip planned. One independent field research project is required. Graduate students will prepare a full written report of their research projects, which will not be required of the undergraduates.

FW 445 Human Dimensions of Conservation Biology in the Bahamas 3.
Prerequisite: One 200-level or higher course in BIO, ES, ET, FOR, FW, NR, PB, PRT, or ZO..

This course examines the fundamental concepts, problems, and methods regarding human dimensions of conservation biology in The Bahamas. Combining lecture, lab, and fieldwork, students directly experience the process of science, with students conducting semester-long, group research projects tackling important unanswered questions involving conservation biology in The Bahamas. Gaining first-hand experience at the interface of basic and applied sciences, students will spend eight weeks on campus and two weeks in the largely undeveloped Andros Island in The Bahamas, home to the third largest coral reef in the world and over 1.5 million acres of national parks.

FW 453 Principles of Wildlife Science 4.
Prerequisite: FW 353 and ST 311.

Principles and applications of population dynamics and biology to the management of terrestrial vertebrates. Predicting population levels, composition and growth rates with and without management constraints. Strategies for wildlife conservation, utilization, and enhancement. Laboratories stress the collection and analysis of data, and often meet in outdoor environments.

FW 460 International Wildlife Management and Conservation 3.
Prerequisite: Junior standing and above..

An international perspective on wildlife management and conservation through investigation and comparison of historical events, policies, international conservation organizations and transfrontier conservation areas. Fundamental principles necessaryin managing the African savannah ecosystem, protected areas and game ranches. Identifying global biomes, zoogeography and the impacts of ecotourism.Cannot receive credit for both FW 460/560.

FW 465 African Ecology and Conservation 4.
Prerequisite: One 200-level or higher course in ES, ET FOR, FW, NR, PB, PRT, or ZO.

This course provides an international perspective on desert ecology, the African savanna ecosystem, African wildlife ecology and management. In addition, the management of a large national park of international importance, conservation of predators and their conflict with humans, and international tourism are discussed. Various sampling techniques are practiced during field work. A combination of lectures, field lectures, field work, field excursions, data analyses and home work form an integral part of the course.

FW 492 External Learning Experience 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes facilities and resources which are external to the campus. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience.

FW 493 Independent Study in Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology 1-6.

Independent Study for Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology students at the advanced level developed under the direction of a faculty member. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a "Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses" be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

FW 494 Independent Study in Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology 1-6.

Independent Study for Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology students at the advanced level developed under the direction of a faculty member. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a "Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses" be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

FW 495 Special Topics in Fisheries and Wildlife Science 1-3.

Offered as needed to present materials not normally available in regular course offerings or for offering of new courses on a trial basis.

FW 511 Human Dimensions of Wildlife and Fisheries 3.

Study of human interactions with wildlife and fisheries, including principles important for understanding and addressing wildlife management and conservation challenges. Discussions of wildlife at the urban fringe, human attitudes towards hunting and fishing, and the public trust approach to wildlife management are included.

FW 515 Fish Physiology 3.
Prerequisite: GN 411, ZO 420, 421, 441.

The biology of fishes: physiology, anatomy, endocrinology, behavior and genetics. Designed especially for graduate students in fisheries. Several trips to research laboratories taken.

FW 544 Mammalogy 3.

The biology of mammals: evolution, functional morphology, reproduction, behavior, ecology, population biology, classification and identification. One weekend field trip planned. One independent field research project is required. Graduate students will prepare a full written report of their research projects, which will not be required of the undergraduates.

FW 553 Principles Of Wildlife Science 3.
Prerequisite: BO 360 or ZO 260.

The principles of wildlife management and their application studied in the laboratory and in the field.

FW 560 International Wildlife Management and Conservation 3.
Prerequisite: One course in wildlife management or zoology or biology or natural resources or forestry or botany, Graduate standing.

An international perspective on wildlife management and conservation through investigation and comparison of historical events, policies, international conservation organizations and transfrontier conservation areas. Fundamental principles necessaryin managing the African savanna ecosystem, protected areas and game ranches. Identifying global biomes, zoogeography and the impacts of ecotourism. Cannot receive credit for both FW 460 and FW 560.

FW 565 African Ecology and Conservation 4.

This course provides an international perspective on desert ecology, the African savanna ecosystem, African wildlife ecology and management. In addition, the management of a large national park of international importance, conservation of predators and their conflict with humans, and international tourism are discussed. Various sampling techniques are practiced during field work. A combination of lectures, field lectures, field work, field excursions, data analyses and home work form an integral part of the course.

FW 586 Aquaculture 3.
Prerequisite: BO 360 or ZO 260 or Graduate standing or Senior standing.

Biological and general principles of aquaculture. Emphasis on the present status of aquaculture, species involved, techniques employed, and problems encountered. Discussion of recent advances in research and development and identification of areas of future research and development.

FW 587 Aquaculture Laboratory 1.
Prerequisite: BO 360 or ZO 260 or Graduate standing or Senior standing, Corequisite: ZO 586.

Methods and techniques of cultivating aquatic organisms. Field trips and reports on local hatcheries and facilities required. (Three to four overnight field trips taken on week days to coastal areas, state hatcheries, and private hatcheries; students responsible for shared room costs and their meals. Four field trips also taken on laboratory day within driving range of Raleigh.).

FW 595 Special Topics in Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences 1-6.

Special topics in various aspects fisheries and wildlife sciences are developed under the direction of a graduate faculty member. Also used to test and develop new courses.

FW 602 Seminar In Wildlife Management 1.

Current topics and issues in wildlife biology and management. Students select and research topics, give seminars and lead group discussions.

FW 610 Special Topics in Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences 1-6.

Special topics in various aspects of fisheries and wildlife science are developed under the direction of a graduate faculty member. Also used to develop new courses.

FW 685 Master's Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

FW 690 Master's Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non thesis master's programs who have completed all other requirements of the degree except preparing for and taking the final master's exam.

FW 693 Master's Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

FW 695 Master's Thesis Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Thesis research.

FW 696 Summer Thesis Research 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

FW 699 Master's Thesis Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements and full-time enrollment for the master's degree and are writing and defending their theses.

FW 720 Epidemiology of Wildlife Diseases 3.

Concepts related to infectious disease outbreaks in free-ranging species of wildlife. Numerous examples of wildlife diseases will be used to illustrate factors affecting host-agent-environment interactions in fish, amphibians, birds, and both aquatic and terrestrial mammals. Enrollment in the Fisheries and Wildlife graduate program or Masters of Veterinary Public Health program; clinical residents or veterinary students at the College of Veterinary Medicine.

FW 726 Quantitative Fisheries Management 3.

Current methods for assessment and management of exploited fish populations, including sampling methods, data analysis and modeling. A required research paper or project.

FW 730 Ethics in Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences 2.

Students will explore historical and current thinking concerning the search for truth about natural systems, and the complex ethics scientists and practitioners who operate in the public sector must consider. Standards of professional and ethical behavior specific to Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences will be addressed. Faculty will introduce topics and guide discussions; students will give seminars and lead some discussions. For doctoral students in Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences.

FW 801 Issues in Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences Doctoral Seminar 2.

Current topics and issues in Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences Research. Students select and research topics, give seminars on Ph.D. proposals, and lead group discussions. For doctoral students in Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences.

FW 802 Seminar in Fisheries and Wildlife 1.

Current topics and issues in fisheries and wildlife biology and management. Students select and research topics, give seminars, and lead group discussions. For doctoral students in Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences.

FW 810 Special Topics in Fisheries and Wildlife 1-6.

Individual students or groups of students, under direction of a faculty member, will explore topics of special interest not covered by existing courses. Format may consist of readings and independent study, problems or research not related to dissertation. Also used to develop and test new 800-level courses. For doctoral students in Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences.

FW 885 Doctoral Supervised Teaching 1-3.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment. For doctoral students in Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences.

FW 890 Doctoral Preliminary Exam 1-9.

For students who are preparing for and taking written and/or oral preliminary exams.

FW 893 Doctoral Supervised Research 1-9.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty. For doctoral students in Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences.

FW 895 Doctoral Dissertation Research 1-9.

Dissertation Research. For doctoral students in Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences.

FW 896 Summer Doctoral Dissertation Research 1.

Summer Dissertation Research. For doctoral students in Fisheries and Wildlife Sciences.

FW 899 Doctoral Dissertation Preparation 1-9.

For students who have completed all credit hour, full-time enrollment, preliminary examination, and residency requirements for the doctoral degree, and are writing and defending their dissertations.

NR - Natural Resources Courses

NR 100 Introduction to Natural Resources 2.

Orientation to natural resources management. Case study of a current natural resource management issue including biophysical, economic, social and political dimensions. Field experience with local natural resources issues. Career orientation and counseling. Open only to first year Department of Forestry and Environmental Resources students or by permission of instructor.

NR 293 Independent Study in Natural Resources 1-6.

Independent Study for Natural Resources students at the freshman and sophomore level developed under the direction of a faculty member. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a "Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses" be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

NR 294 Independent Study in Natural Resources 1-6.

Independent Study for Natural Resources students at the freshman and sophomore level developed under the direction of a faculty member. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

NR 295 Special Topics in Natural Resources 1-3.

Special Topics in Natural Resources at the 200 level for offering of courses on an experimental basis.

NR 300 Natural Resource Measurements 4.
Prerequisite: (PB 360 or BIO 360) and ST 311.

Theory and practice of measuring, analyzing, and describing the characteristics of natural ecosystems. Surveying and mapping, inventory of vegetation, soils, wildlife habitat, and hydrology. Sampling, data analysis, and presentation of data. Use of geographic information systems to store, analyze, and present environmental data. Intensive instruction and practice in communication of technical information.

NR 301 Practicum for Professional Development I 1.
Prerequisite: Junior standing, NR Majors.

Instruction in professional report writing and presentation, resume preparation and interview skills, professional ethics and practices, job searching skills; review and critique of professional seminars and coduments from NR 501 students; preparation for summer work experience.

NR 303 Humans and the Environment 3.

Interactions among human populations in the biophysical system and the environment. Emphasis on current issues, ecological principles and their relationships to basic biophysical processes; considers food, population dynamics, public land and common resources, renewable natural resources, pollution, water resources, energy and non-renewable resources.

NR 350 International Sustainable Resource Use 4.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

Study of sustainable use of natural resources in a global economy with consideration of consumption choices, sustainable production issues, conservation of various managed landscapes, and cross cultural perspectives. Specific topics vary somewhat byyear and study location. Travel in North America in even years and to Sweden in odd years. Domestic or international travel overnight. Depending upon travel location, possible additional expense for passport, health certificate, insurance and domestic or international travel.

NR 360 Internship Experience 3.
Prerequisite: NR 301 and Junior standing.

Internship experience with a natural resource agency or company. Most internships require working and living off-campus. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

NR 400 Natural Resource Management 4.
Prerequisite: Senior standing in NR, ETM, FOM, or FW.

Theory and practice of integrated natural resource management. Quantitative optimization, economics of multiple-use, compounding and discounting, optimal rotations, linear programming. Public and private management case studies and team projects.

NR 401 Practicum for Professional Development II 1.
Prerequisite: NR majors, NR 360.

Preparation and presentation of journal on summer work experience, final report and oral presentation of summer work activities; instruction in presentation techniques; review and critique of seminars and documents; mentoring NR 301 students.

NR 406 Conservation of Biological Diversity 3.
Prerequisite: Junior standing.

Population biology concepts fundamental to understanding the properties of the objects of conservation. Genetic diversity in agriculture, forestry, and animal breeding; the ethical and international policy issues in preservation and management.

NR 420 Watershed and Wetlands Hydrology 4.
Prerequisite:SSC 200 and (PB 360 or BIO 360).

Principles of hydrologic science; classification and assessment of watersheds and stream networks; hydrologic, erosion, and water quality processes in natural and managed watersheds; wetlands hydrology; hydrologic measurements and data analysis; applications of hydrology and water quality management for forest agriculture, and urban ecosystems; watershed restoration. Emphasis field study of watersheds and hydrologic measurements. Two weekend field trips are required. Credit will not be given for both FOR(NR)420 and FOR(NR)520.

NR 421 Wetland Assessment, Delineation and Regulation 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200, (PB 360 or BIO 360), and (FOR 339 or PB 405).

Wetland definitions and systems of classification and functional assessment; methods for assessing ecological functions of wetlands; identification and delineation of jurisdictional wetlands in accordance with US Army Corps of Engineers procedures; application of federal and state regulatory programs. Five Saturday field trips are required. Credit will not be given for both NR 421 and NR 521.

NR 460 Renewable Natural Resource Management and Policy 3.
Prerequisite: Junior standing..

The interaction of legal principles and governmental institutions in the development and implementation of natural resource policy and management. Legal principles, constitutional provisions and the location and organization of governmental programs. Examples from both historic and current case studies.

NR 484 Environmental Impact Assessment 4.
Prerequisite: ET 310 or NR 300 or FOR 260 or SSC 442.

Impact assessment principles, practices, and their evolution. Lectures and field practicums concerning problems addressed by environmental assessment practitioners. Practical implications of current regulatory requirements, especially endangered species and wetlands.

NR 491 Special Topics in Forestry and Related Natural Resources 1-4.

Independent (or group) study or research of a forestry or related natural resources topic with a faculty supervisor of the student's choice. Also courses offered on a trial basis.

NR 493 Independent Study in Natural Resources 1-6.

Independent Study for Natural Resources students at the advanced level developed under the direction of a faculty member. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a "Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses" be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

NR 494 Independent Study in Natural Resources 1-6.

Independent Study for Natural Resources students at the advanced level developed under the direction of a faculty member. Individualized/Independent Study and Research courses require a "Course Agreement for Students Enrolled in Non-Standard Courses" be completed by the student and faculty member prior to registration by the department.

NR 500 Natural Resource Management 3.
Prerequisite: ARE 336 and either ST 311 or ST 350; Graduate standing.

Theory and practice of integrated natural resource management. Quantitative optimization, economics of multiple-use, compounding and discounting, optimal rotations, linear programming. Public and private management case studies and team projects.Graduate students expected to provide more in-depth critique of planning process. Credit will not be allowed for both NR 400 and NR 500.

NR 512 Land Use Policy & Management 3.
Restriction: undergraduate degree or instructor approval.

Graduate course reviewing the history, formation and implementation of major natural resource laws and policies that impact land uses. This course will provide an overview of federal laws and policies that affect decision making by land managers. Weekly lectures will be followed by student presentations of a selected case study of their choosing in the final weeks of the course. Current natural resource / land management (including forestry, air, water, wildlife, climate change and energy) programs and institutions are discussed, analyzed and related to current land use and management policy challenges.

NR 521 Wetland Assessment, Delineation, and Regulation 3.
Prerequisite: SSC 200, BO 360, FOR 212 or BO 405, and FOR 420.

Wetland definitions and systems of classification and functional assessment; methods for assessing ecological functions of wetlands; identification and delineation of jurisdictional wetlands in accordance with US Army Corps of Engineers procedures; application of federal and state regulatory programs. Two required weekend field trips.

NR 548 Historical Environments 3.

Course examines how we know and what we know about historical environments. Compares and contrasts contributions by various disciplines and interdisciplinary approaches to historical ecology and environmental history. Readings drawn from science, social science and humanities literature. Individual investigation projects required.

NR 554 Introduction to Data Analysis in Natural Resources 3.
Prerequisite: ST 512.

Data examination for errors, data cleaning, data summary, statistical analyses options using various procedures of the SAS software and R with an emphasis on natural resource applications. Interpretation of SAS program outputs. Discussions of individual data problems. Hands-on use of computers and the SAS and R software.

NR 571 Current Issues in Natural Resource Policy 3.

Seminar providing an overview of current natural resource issues for the world and the U.S. Population, sustainable development, food and agriculture, forests, rangelands, biodiversity, energy resources, water resources, atmosphere and climate, international policies and instructions.

NR 595 Special Topics in Natural Resources 1-6.

Individual students or groups of students, under direction of a faculty member, may explore natural resources related topics of special interest not covered by existing courses. Format may consist of readings and independent study, problems, or research not related to thesis. Also used to develop and test new 500-level courses.

NR 601 Graduate Seminar 1.

Weekly seminar in which students registered for course present the results of research and special projects. Invitation to all graduate students and faculty in department to attend and join discussion.

NR 610 Special Topics in Natural Resources 1-6.

Individual students or groups of students, under direction of a faculty member, may explore natural resources related topics of special interest not covered by existing courses. Format may consist of readings and independent study, problems, or research not related to thesis. Also used to develop and test new 600-level courses.

NR 685 Master's Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

NR 690 Master's Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all other requirements of the degree except preparing for and taking the final master's exam.

NR 693 Master's Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

NR 695 Master's Thesis Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Thesis Research.

NR 696 Summer Thesis Research 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

NR 699 Master's Thesis Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements and full-time enrollment for the master's degree and are writing and defending their thesis.