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Department of Biological Sciences

bio.sciences.ncsu.edu

The Department of Biological Sciences provides educational opportunities to undergraduate and graduate students and conducts world class research in a variety of areas in modern biology. The Undergraduate Programs in the Department of Biological Sciences have the primary mission of providing our diverse population of students with the opportunity and support to successfully complete their major and prepare for their post-baccalaureate life as independent thinkers, lifelong learners, and contributing members of society. Undergraduates begin with comprehensive studies of the structure, function, behavior, and evolution of cells, organisms, populations, and ecosystems and then have the opportunity to select upper division courses that reflect their intellectual interests and career goals. Those who earn a Bachelor of Science degree in Biological Sciences, Genetics, Microbiology or Zoology gain a strong background in biology and in related fields.  All incoming freshmen interested in majoring in one of these degree programs will start their studies in the NC State Life Sciences First Year Program, and will explore these and related degree options during that first year while they take courses relevant to all life science degree programs at NC State.  The Department of Biological Sciences also offers minors in Biological Sciences, Genetics, Microbiology, Environmental Toxicology, and Zoology.

Specific curriculum requirements for majors are available on the Registration and Records website.  Specific requirements for minors are available on the Office of Undergraduate Courses and Curricula website.  See the Graduate Catalog for a listing of graduate degree programs.

Opportunities

Students who graduate from the Department of Biological Sciences are well prepared for employment in various government agencies and private industries. Graduates may continue their education with studies leading to advanced degrees in many areas of the biological sciences, including cell biology, ecology, microbiology, genetics, zoology, neurobiology, and biomedical disciplines. Many choose to seek advanced degrees in medicine, dentistry, optometry, veterinary medicine and other health-related fields. Students who plan to seek certification for pre-college teaching may want to pursue a second major in the Department of Science, Technology, Engineering & Mathematics Education.

Undergraduate Majors

Bachelor of Science in Biological Sciences

There are five different avenues to earning a B.S. in Biological Sciences at NC State. Students studying for a degree in Biological Sciences can opt for a general curriculum (BLS) or can choose to focus in a particular area by selecting one of four areas of concentration: Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology (MCD), Integrative Physiology and Neurobiology (IPN), Human Biology (HB), or Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology (EEC). The MCD curriculum offers students in-depth studies of the molecular and cellular basis of life and the development of multicellular organisms. The IPN curriculum provides a comprehensive grounding in basic principles of physiology and neuroscience, as well as in-depth exposure to the application of these principles in understanding whole-organism function and the ways in which animals (including humans) cope with challenges presented by their environments. The HB curriculum provides training in those areas of science most important to health-related professions as well as relevant aspects of the humanities and social sciences. It is designed to provide students with a solid education in the scientific and humanistic concepts that underlie modern health sciences and related areas of scientific research. The EEC curriculum offers students in-depth studies in areas of biology at the level of the organism, populations, and ecosystems. It is designed for students who have an interest in whole organisms and their biodiversity — what maintains it, what environmental changes affect it, and how to protect it in the face of various challenges.

Bachelor of Science in Genetics

The Genetics program offers undergraduate majors classroom training in fundamentals of genetics and other sciences, as well as opportunities for meaningful research experience. The degree in genetics is the only genetics major offered in the UNC system.

The genetics major complements other degree programs in the biological and life sciences at N.C. State, as it prepares students for further graduate study, professional schools (such as medical, dental, veterinary, genetic counseling) or careers in industries whose products are based on biological and agricultural research, including biopharmaceutical and biotechnology companies. Building on the strength of N.C. State as a leader in science and technology, students in the program can easily earn a concurrent minor in any of the other life sciences curricula, as well as other programs such as statistics or biotechnology.

Responsible conduct as a scientist and citizen are emphasized in the genetics coursework, and students will also have opportunities for public service and engagement through participation in the genetics outreach program. Students will be challenged to master their coursework while practicing hands-on problem-solving in both the classroom and active research settings.  Genetics students also will be required to read the primary literature and present papers and their research findings, thus gaining valuable experience in scientific communication.

Bachelor of Science in Microbiology

Microbiology is concerned with the growth and development, physiology, classification, ecology, genetics, and other aspects of the life process of an array of microscopic, generally single-celled, organisms and viruses. These organisms frequently serve as model systems for elucidation of fundamental processes that are common to all living cells. Most of the major discoveries that have produced spectacular advances in biology and genomic science during the past decade have resulted from studies of microbial systems. Future developments in biotechnology, production of food and fuel, and human and animal health will rely heavily on understanding microbial processes.

There are 4 avenues to earning a B.S. in Microbiology. Students can opt for a general curriculum (MBIO) or can choose to focus in a particular area by selecting one of three areas of concentration: Microbial Biotechnology (MBIO-MT) or Microbial Research (MBIO-MR) or Microbial Health Sciences (MBIO-HS). These concentrations mirror the three most common career paths of Microbiology majors: work in research laboratories and production facilities, further study in graduate school (at the Masters or Doctoral level), and further study in professional schools such as medical and dental schools.

Bachelor of Science in Zoology

The Bachelor of Science in Zoology curriculum concentrates on organismal biology, with an emphasis on animals. Required courses are designed to develop breadth and depth in core areas, providing a strong base for all Zoology majors. Students acquire a knowledge of zoology from the organizational level of molecules and cells to the organizational level of ecosystems, with flexibility in the selection of upper level courses to specialize or remain generalized, according to individual interests and career goals.

Undergraduate Minors

(find details at oucc.ncsu.edu/minors)

Minor in Biological Sciences

The undergraduate minor in Biological Sciences serves to enhance the programs of students whose major fields are outside the biological sciences and who are interested in obtaining either a broad-based perspective in biology or a more focused exposure to a particular field within biology. It is available to all baccalaureate students except those majoring in Animal Science; Biochemistry; Biological Sciences; Fisheries, Wildlife and Conservation Biology; Genetics; Microbiology; Nutrition Science; Plant Biology; Plant and Soil Sciences; Science Education (Biology Concentration); Turfgrass Science; or Zoology.

Required courses (8 hours) provide an overview of the field of biology, then students select additional courses (at least 7 hours) from approved lists within biological sciences that best match their interests. Students also can complete this minor through Distance Education course offerings. Courses will count toward the minor only if they are completed with a C- or better.

Minor in Environmental Toxicology

Toxicology is an interdisciplinary field of study that integrates many physical, chemical, and biological principles that help us better protect human and ecological health.  The undergraduate minor in Environmental Toxicology is available to all baccalaureate degree students at North Carolina State University. The minor is intended to provide undergraduate students with an understanding of how chemicals and physical agents can adversely affect biological systems and the environment, including the mechanisms of chemically induced toxicity, the fate and effects of chemicals in the environment, and the evaluation of chemical hazards and risks.  The minor is especially appropriate (but not limited to) students majoring in the agricultural sciences, life sciences, physical sciences, or science education.  The Environmental Toxicology minor requires 15 semester hours including 9 hours of required courses and 6 hours from a group of electives. A grade of C- or better is required for all courses taken to fulfill minor requirements.

Minor in Genetics

The undergraduate minor in Genetics provides students with strong preparation in the principles of genetics as well as preparation in ancillary fields such as statistics, biochemistry and microbiology. This minor is appropriate for (but not limited to) students with majors in animal science, biochemistry, biological sciences, crop science, environmental sciences, fisheries and wildlife sciences, food science, forestry, horticultural science, microbiology, plant biology, plant and soil sciences, poultry science, and zoology. The genetics minor requires 18 hours — 12 specified, three restricted electives and three unrestricted electives.  A grade of C or better is required for all courses taken to fulfill minor requirements.

Minor in Microbiology

The undergraduate minor in Microbiology is available to all baccalaureate degree students at North Carolina State University who are not majoring in microbiology. The minor is especially appropriate for (but not limited to) students majoring in the biological sciences, bio-processing, physical sciences, or science education. The minor requires 15 semester hours including 8 hours of required courses and 7 hours from a group of electives. Any prerequisite courses are in addition to these courses. A grade of C- or better is required for all courses taken to fulfill minor requirements.

Minor in Zoology

The objective of the undergraduate minor in Zoology is to provide students with a solid foundation in zoological concepts, including diversity of the animal kingdom, morphology, physiology, evolution, behavior, and ecology. It is available to all baccalaureate students except those majoring in Biochemistry, Biological Sciences (BLS, MCD, IPN, HB, EEC), Environmental Science (Ecology concentration), Microbiology, Plant Biology, or Zoology. Laboratory experiences are an integral part of the minor. Courses will count toward the minor only if they are completed with a grade of C- or better.

Distance Education Certificate in Microbiology

The Undergraduate Certificate in Microbiology offers students the opportunity to further their understanding of microorganisms and the roles they play in the world in which we live. The intended audience of this certificate includes degree-seeking undergraduate students at institutions where a Microbiology major or minor is not available, and non-degree students seeking additional experience in microbiology for career advancement or to enhance their applications to professional, graduate, or allied health schools. This certificate may also improve the ability of K-12 science teachers to compete for positions or teach more effectively. Finally, this certificate provides an in-depth understanding of microbiology for those interested out of personal satisfaction. Degree-seeking students at NCSU and students who have completed or are currently enrolled in a Microbiology degree program (including a minor) are not eligible. The certificate requires 9 credit hours of required courses and 3 credit hours of electives. Courses will count toward the certificate only if they are completed with a grade of C- or better or S.
 

Departmental Administration

E. F. Rissman, Department Head

J. W. Brown, Associate Department Head

J. L. Lubischer, Associate Department Head


Undergraduate Program Coordinators

J. L. Campbell
B.S. in Zoology and Minor in Zoology

J. W. Brown
B.S. in Microbiology and Minor in Microbiology

S. E. Curtis
B.S. in Genetics and Minor in Genetics

S. D. McCulloch
Minor in Environmental Toxicology

W. C. Grant
B.S. in Biological Sciences and Minor in Biological Sciences

R. J. Borski
B.S. in Bio Sci - Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology concentration

J. R. Godwin
B.S. in Bio Sci - Integrative Physiology and Neurobiology concentration

L. D. Parks
B.S. in Bio Sci - Human Biology concentration

R. B. Langerhans
B.S. in Bio Sci - Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology concentration


Graduate Program Directors

S. V. Muse
Bioinformatics

G. A. LeBlanc
Environmental and Molecular Toxicology

D. M. Bird
Functional Genomics

J. W. Mahaffey
Genetics

S. M. Laster
Immunology Concentration under Comparative Biomedical Sciences

E. S. Miller
Microbiology

N. M. Haddad
Zoology


Distinguished University Professor

T. F. C. Mackay


William Neal Reynolds Distinguished Professors

R. R. H. Anholt

N. M. Haddad

E. Hodgson (Emeritus)

T. F. C. Mackay

R. C. Smart

Z-B. Zeng


Alumni Distinguished Undergraduate Professors

J. W. Brown

T. H. Emigh

M. G. Ferzli

W. C. Grant

W. H. Mackenzie (Emeritus)

J. F. Roberts (Emeritus)


Professors

R. R. H. Anholt

W. R. Atchley (Emeritus)

B. L. Black

J. C. Bonner

R. J. Borski

P. C. Bradbury (Emeritus)

P. T. Bromley (Emeritus)

J. W. Brown

D. J. Burke

S. E. Curtis

J. F. Gilliam

J. R. Godwin

W. C. Grant

T. L. Grove (Emeritus)

N. M. Haddad

W. D. Hanson (Emeritus)

H. F. Heatwole

E. Hodgson (Emeritus)

W. E. Kloos (Emeritus)

S. M. Laster

G. A. LeBlanc

R. B. Leidy (Emeritus)

C. S. Levings (Emeritus)

C. F. Lytle (Emeritus)

T. F. C. Mackay

J. W. Mahaffey

V.J. Martin

D. F. Matzinger (Emeritus)

W. H. McKenzie (Emeritus)

J. Ninomiya-Tsuji

I. T. Petty

J. F. Roberts (Emeritus)

J. G. Scandalios (Emeritus)

H. E. Schaffer (Emeritus)

M. H. Schweitzer

D. Shea

T. J. Sheets (Emeritus)

R. C. Smart

D. E. Smith (Emeritus)

S. L. Spiker

C. W. Stuber (Emeritus)

J. L. Thorne

A. C. Triantaphyllou (Emeritus)

Y. Tsuji

J. G. Vandenbergh (Emeritus)

F. A. Wright

Z-B. Zeng


Associate Professors

D. B. Buchwalter

R. R. Dunn

T. H. Emigh

J. A. Hoppin

C. Hoyo

S. W. Kullman

C. J. Mattingly

M. Niedzlek-Feaver

D. M. Nielsen

J. W. Olson

H. B. Patisaul

D. M. Reif

F. Scholle

M. L. Sikes

E. A. Stone


Research Associate Professors

Z. Drobna

P. A. Estes

X. R. Xia


Teaching Associate Professors

M. G. Ferzli

J. F. Flores

M. B. Gardner

J. L. Lubischer

L. D. Parks


Assistant Professors

D. L. Aylor

M. S. Bereman

M. Cowley

R. B. Langerhans

S. D. McCulloch

L. A. McGraw

J. E. Meitzen

A. J. Planchart

R. B. Roberts

N. D. Singh


Research Assistant Professors

J. R. Hall

D. A. Skaar

L. E. Zanno

Y. Zhou


Teaching Assistant Professors

J. L. Campbell

M. D. Engell

C. J. Halweg

M. B. Hawkins

W. M. Jones

M. G. Keen

M. J. Klesath

J. M. Landin

A. M. Lee

M. U. Ramirez


Lecturers

M. Barrier

A. M. Friesland

B. V. Jacquet

W. M. Johnstone, III

L. M. Paciulli


Adjunct Faculty

A.E. Bogan

R. E. Cannon

A. B. Heckert

B.L. Stuart

BIO - Biological Sciences Courses

BIO 105 Biology in the Modern World 3.
Credit is not allowed for BIO 105 and BIO 181 or BIO 125..

Principles and concepts of biology including cellular structure and function, metabolism and energy transformation, homeostasis, reproduction, heredity, diversity of life, ecology, evolution and animal behavior. Emphasis on human affairs and human examples. For non-science students. Students may not receive credit for both BIO 105 and (BIO 115 or BIO 181 or BIO 183).

BIO 106 Biology in the Modern World Laboratory 1.
Corequisite: BIO 105.

Laboratory experience in biological principles to complement BIO 105. For non-science students. Students may not receive credit for both BIO 106 and (BIO 116, BIO 181 or BIO 183).

BIO 140 Survey of Animal Diversity 3.

Classification and phylogeny of animals; patterns of diversification in body design and relationship between body design and the environment; study of selected animal assemblages. Students may not receive credit for both BIO 140 and BIO 350 or BIO 402 or BIO 403 or ZO 150.

BIO 141 Animal Diversity Laboratory 1.
Prerequisite: BIO 140.

Observation of living animals, dissections of preserved specimens, and microscopy; emphasis on classification of animals, patterns of diversification in body design, and relationship between body design and the environment. Students may not receive credit for both BIO 141 and BIO 350 or BIO 402 or BIO 403 or ZO 150.

BIO 165 Introduction to Environmental Research 5.

Introduction to environmental research is a hands-on learning experience for incoming freshmen interested in pursuing scientific research. The course introduces students to scientific methods and research through active participation in research on an environmental problem involving chemicals of environmental concern. Students will explore a topic in this field through guided readings, field samplings, and lab experimentation. Restricted to incoming freshmen who have been accepted into the HHMI RISE program.

BIO 181 Introductory Biology: Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity 4.
Credit is not allowed for BIO 181 and BIO 105 or BIO 125..

Emphasis on interactions of organisms with their environments, evolutionary change and role of natural selection in the evolution of life forms, biological diversity in the context of form and function of organisms, and on critical thinking, problem solving, and effective communication. Cannot receive credit for both BIO 181 and (BIO 105 or BIO 106 or BIO 115 or BIO 116).

BIO 183 Introductory Biology: Cellular and Molecular Biology 4.
Prerequisite: BIO 181 or CH 101.

Basic concepts and principles of molecular, cellular, and developmental biology. Emphasis will be on the physical basis of life, the cell as the fundamental unit of life, the mechanisms involved in the development of multicellular organisms and on critical thinking, problem solving, experimental design, and effective communication. Cannot receive credit for both BIO 183 and (BIO 105 or BIO 106 or BIO 115 or BIO 116).

BIO 212 Basic Human Anatomy and Physiology 4.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 183.

Major emphasis on structure and function of the muscular, skeletal, circulatory and nervous systems of humans. Credit in both BIO 212 and BIO 301 or BIO 302 is not allowed.

BIO 220 Marine Biology 3.
Prerequisite: MEA 200 or BIO 181.

Introduction to marine plants and animals, their adaptations to life in the sea and ecological interactions in selected marine environments (e.g. coral reefs, deep sea, salt marshes). Interactions of man with the sea: food from the seas, biology of diving. Optional trip.

BIO 227 Understanding Structural Diversity through Biological Illustration 3.

Biological concepts of diversity and anatomy taught through direct observation and illustrative techniques. Lecture topics include plant ID and structure, microscopic life forms, animal anatomy and identification. Laboratory work emphasizes close observation of structures and comparative anatomy as well as illustrative techniques to produce accurate drawings of specimens. Students will be required to provide their own transportation for one field trip.

BIO 233 Human-Animal Interactions 3.

This course is designed to explore the relationship humans share with other animals and nature. We will study the early history of animal domestication and the influence of animals on human culture and religion. We will also explore our relationships to animals as pets, food, research subjects, and wildlife. All subjects will be covered through interaction with quest speaker, assigned readings, case studies, and class discussion.

BIO 250 Animal Anatomy and Physiology 4.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 183.

Roles of physical laws, environmental challenges, and evolutionary history in shaping animal structure and function. Selected examples from invertebrates and vertebrates. Laboratory in anatomy and physiology, hypothesis generation and testing and data analysis and presentation.

BIO 267 Research in the Life Sciences I: Research Skills 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 181 and Corequisite: BIO 183.

This course is designed to help first year students learn basic skills associated with scientific research. Class structure is interactive and relies on group collaboration for most projects. Students will become confident in reading and analyzing scientific literature, communicating scientific principles, compiling a poster presentation, presenting at scientific conferences, and attending local scientific symposia as well as practicing some basic laboratory techniques. The 2-semester Research PackTrack Program (BIO 267 and 269) is designed to prepare undergraduates for an original research experience in a scientific laboratory. A B- or better in BIO 267 is required to take BIO 269. Students in BIO 267 are required to attending one research symposium outside of regular class time.

BIO 269 Research in the Life Sciences II: Guided Research 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 183 and B- or better in BIO 267.

This course is designed to provide students with a laboratory framework for conducting original research and (together with BIO 267) preparation to move on to conducting research in a scientific laboratory. Students will explore the binding characteristics of bacterially-expressed estrogen receptor genes by generating their own research goals, writing research proposals, conducting original independent research, and presenting their findings in at least one poster symposium. This course is the second part of the Research PackTrack program, and students in this course will have earned a B- or better in the first course (BIO 267).

BIO 295 Special Topics in Biology 4.00.

Experimental offerings in Biology.

BIO 315 General Parasitology 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 181 and BIO 183.

General principles of parasitic symbiosis. Emphasis on life cycles, epidemiology, and pathology of major parasites of humans and domestic animals.

BIO 317 Primate Ecology and Evolution 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 181 & BIO 183, and one of the following courses: ANT 251, BIO 212, BIO 250, BIO/PB 330, BIO 350, BIO/PB 360, BIO 410 , BIO 422, BIO 424, or BIO 488.

A comprehensive survey of the behavior, evolution, and ecology of nonhuman primates. Special emphasis will be placed in the evolution of cognitive abilities, social systems, and behavioral patterns that are unique to primates, including the evolution of language. Topics include primate taxonomy, evolution of the extant primates, geographic distribution, social behavior, reproductive behavior and strategies, parental behavior, communication, and cognitive. Classes will consist of interactive lectures, films, and class discussions.

BIO 330 Evolutionary Biology 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 181and BIO 183.

Principles and patterns of organic evolution. Topics will include the origin of life, patterns of genetic variation, adaptations, natural selection, and the formation of species, the relationship between micro and macroevolution, and the importance of evolution to humans and medicine.

BIO 333 Captive Animal Biology 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 181 and one of the following (BIO 140 or 250 or 260 or 350 or NTR 301 or ANS 150 or 205 or GN 311).

This course serves to introduce interested students to historical and current captive animal conservation efforts. We will discuss in detail a variety of issues essential to the management of wild animals in a captive setting including ethics, nutrition, reproduction, behavior, and population management.

BIO 350 Animal Phylogeny and Diversity 4.
Prerequisite: A grade of C- or better in BIO 181 and sophomore standing. Credit is not allowed for both BIO 350 and BIO 402/403.

Phylogenetic history and adaptive radiation of animals; contrast of environmental determinants of biodiversity in tropical and polar regions; modern approaches to phylogeny; role of humans in influencing biodiversity. Students may not receive credit for both BIO 350 and BIO 140 or ZO 150 or BIO 402 or BIO 403.

BIO 353 Wildlife Management 3.
Prerequisite:BIO 181.

Historical development of Wildlife Management from anecdotal, observational practices to modern, scientific approaches used around the world. Principles of population analysis, management, protection and conservation of animals, particularly those of conservation, aesthetic, sport or food values in urban, rural and wilderness areas. Ethics of hunting and trapping. Contradictory objectives challenging modern wildlife managers.

BIO 360 Ecology 4.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 181.

The science of ecology, including factors which control distribution and population dynamics of organisms, structure and function of biological communities, and energy flow and nutrient cycling in ecosystems; contrasts among the major biomes; and principles governing ecological responses to global climatic and other environmental changes.

BIO 361 Developmental Biology 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 183.

In this course students will discover the amazing journey that cells must take to get from an egg to an embryo, form a mature adult, and reproduce in order to continue the life cycle. Students will relate science to everyday life using developmental biology as a forum to integrate many aspects of biology from the molecules in single cells to the complete organism and how it is influenced by evolution and the environment.

BIO 370 Developmental Anatomy of the Vertebrates 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 181 or BIO 140.

An integrated study of the functional anatomy, phylogeny, and embryonic development of organ systems in vertebrate animals.

BIO 375 Developmental Anatomy Laboratory 2.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 181 or BIO 140.

A hands-on study of embryonic development and organ systems in vertebrate animals, utilizing microscopic examination of living and preserved embryos, demonstrations of skeletons and mammalian organs, and dissections of preserved shark, salamander, and mink.

BIO 402 Invertebrate Biology 4.
Prerequisite: A grade of C- or better in BIO 181 and BIO 183. Credit is not allowed for both BIO 350 and BIO 402/403..

Over 90% of all animals are invertebrates, and many invertebrate species have proven extremely useful in medical and research applications. This course will survey invertebrate groups or clades (excluding the Protista), and will emphasize their functional biology, phylogeny, ecology, behavior, and use as models in research. Lab will emphasize an experimental approach and will involve work primarily with live material. Students may not receive credit for both BIO 402 and BIO 350 or BIO 140.

BIO 405 Functional Histology 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 183.

Offered only as a distance education course via the internet. Functional Histology describes the cellular structure of tissues and organs. Human organs are emphasized, with brief consideration given to variation in other mammals. Tissue and organ structure is related to function, including examples of malfunction (histopathology). The course is especially appropriate for students planning a career in veterinary science, medicine, or allied health fields. Offered by distance education only.

BIO 410 Introduction to Animal Behavior 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 181and BIO 183.

Studies in animal behavior in vertebrates and invertebrates, focusing on the mechanisms and evolution of animal behavior. Topics include neural, hormonal, and genetic bases of behavior; foraging; anti-predator defenses; mating systems and sexual selection; social behavior; communication; parental care; territoriality and habitat selection.

BIO 414 Cell Biology 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 183 and (CH 221 or CH 225).

The chemical and physical bases of cellular structure and function with emphasis on methods and interpretations.

BIO 421 Advanced Human Anatomy and Physiology 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 250 or BIO 212.

A comprehensive survey of the processes involved in the function of specialized cells, tissues and organ systems. Emphasis on basic concepts with orientation toward mammalian and human systems.

BIO 422 Biological Clocks 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 250 or BIO 212.

The anatomy, physiology, and development of biological clocks in a variety of organisms, including humans. Credit in both BIO 422 and ZO 522 is not allowed.

BIO 424 Endocrinology 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 250 or BIO 212.

This course will explore the function of hormones and bioactive compounds in regulating animal physiology and homeostasis. Topics will include a study of hormones and their mechanism of actions in regulating various biological processes including development and growth; reproduction; feeding, digestion and metabolism; ion and water balance; stress and immunity; and sex determination. The methods used to study hormones and their physiological functions will also be addressed. 80% of enrollment is restricted to Biological Sciences and Zoology students with the remaning 20% open for all other majors.

BIO 425 General Entomology 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 181 or BIO 140 or ZO 150 or BIO 350.

Explores the science of entomology by focusing on the basic principles of systematics, morphology, physiology, development, behavior, ecology, and control of insects. Field trips provide opportunities to collect insects and study their adaptations to a wide variety of natural environments.

BIO 426 Advanced Human Anatomy & Physiology Lab 1.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 212 or BIO 250; Corequisite: BIO 421.

A comprehensive laboratory course surveying the process involved in the function and structure of specialized cells, tissues, and organ systems. Emphasis will be on problem solving and critical thinking skills.

BIO 430 Fisheries and Wildlife Administration 3.
Prerequisite: PS 201, PS 202; FW/BIO 420, FW/BIO 353.

Describes and compares the administrative structures and programs of federal and state fish and wildlife agencies and develops an understanding of the basis on which these agencies function. Evaluates the interrelationships that fisheries-wildlife professionals, special interest groups, public agencies and legislative bodies play in resource management programs.

BIO 434 Hormones and Behavior 3.
Prerequisite:C- or better in BIO 212 or BIO 250 or (ANS 205 & ANS 206).

This course will focus on the field of behavioral neuroendocrinology, which explores mechanisms by which hormones affect and are affected by behavior. The course will use highly interactive lectures and discussions of material from the primary literature (seminal papers and recent exciting contributions). Student participation in class discussions and in-class assignments will be critical components of the learning process.

BIO 440 The Human Animal: An Evolutionary Perspective 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in one of the following: BIO 317, BIO/PB 330, BIO 410, PSY 406, or PSY 416.

An in-depth look at the evolution of a wide range of human behaviors, and some aspects of physiology as well. We will critically explore the perceptions we hold of ourselves and the research that has sought to lend new insights into the fundamental bases of human behavior. New uses of evolutionary theory, including the field of evolutionary psychology, will be examined using a comparative approach and careful readings from primary and secondary literature in evolutionary biology and psychology. Classes will be largely discussion based.

BIO 444 The Biology of Love and Sex 3.
P: C- or better in two of the following: BIO 330, BIO 410, BIO 424, BIO 488, GN 311; R: Junior or Senior Standing.

The need to find and seduce a mate is one of the most powerful forces in biology. In this course, we will examine the biological factors that contribute to love and sex. We will adopt a broad evolutionarily-based perspective, examining a variety of strategies in both human and animal systems. Our readings and discussions will cover current hypotheses and experimental methodologies spanning genetics, neuroscience, and endocrinology.

BIO 449 Principles of Biological Oceanography 3.

Biological productivity and trophic relationships in plankton, nekton and benthos; community ecology of selected habitats (estuaries, intertidal zones, coral reefs, deep sea); and adaptation of organisms to the marine environment. Credit is not allowed for both MEA/BIO 449 and MEA/BIO 549.

BIO 456 Epigenetics, Development, and Disease 3.
Prerequisite: B or better in GN 311.

Scientists are just beginning to fully appreciate how our genes and the environment interact to influence human development and disease. The emerging field of epigenetics offers new insights into these complex connections. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression and phenotypes caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. Topics may include imprinting, mechanisms driving epigenetic modifications, how environmental exposures may influence your grandchildren's health, why identical twins exhibit differences in behavior or disease susceptibility, and epigenetic and environmental bases of diverse diseases. We will also discuss experimental strategies for studying epigenetics. JR or SR standing.

BIO 481 Senior Capstone Project 1.

This course provides students an opportunity to integrate and apply knowledge and skills gained from their major studies in addressing an important challenge or problem that they identify. Emphasis will be placed on (1) reflections on the value of experiences outside of the classroom, (2) using discipline-specific knowledge and approaches from both biology and from the second disciplinary area that they chose to study within the B.A. in Biological Sciences, and (3) peer- and self-critiques based on the intellectual standards of critical and creative thinking. Restricted to seniors who will graduate with a B.A. in Biological Sciences. 17BIOBA majors only.

BIO 482 Capstone Course in Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental Biology 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 361, BIO/PB 414, and one of the following: BCH 351 or BCH 451 or BIT 410 or GN 311..

Topical problems in molecular, cellular, and developmental biology. BIO 482 provides a challenging opportunity for students to integrate and apply knowledge and skills gained from their major studies. Emphasis will be placed on collaborative learning and on effective, professional communication. Topics and instructors will vary from semester to semester. Priority will initially be given to seniors in the MCD curriculum; other students with the necessary prerequisites will be admitted on a space available basis.

BIO 483 Capstone Course in Integrative Physiology and Neurobiology 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 424, BIO 488, and one of the following: BIO/PB 414 or BCH 351 or BCH 451 or GN 311 or ST 311..

Topical problems in integrative physiology and neurobiology. BIO 483 provides a challenging opportunity for students to integrate and apply knowledge and skills gained from their major studies. Emphasis will be placed on collaborative learning and on effective, professional communication. Topics and instructors will vary from semester to semester. Priority will initially be given to seniors in the IPN curriculum; other students with the necessary prerequisites will be admitted on a space available basis.

BIO 484 Capstone Course in Human Biology 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 421, MB 351 and one of the following: BCH 351 or BCH 451 or GN 311 or ST 311..

Topical problems in human biology. BIO 484 provides a challenging opportunity for students to integrate and apply knowledge and skills gained from their major studies. Emphasis will be placed on collaborative learning and on effective, professional communication. Topics and instructors will vary from semester to semester. Priority will initially be given to seniors in the HB curriculum; other students with the necessary prerequisites will be admitted on a space available basis.

BIO 485 Capstone Course in Ecology, Evolution, and Conservation Biology 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO/PB 330, BIO/PB 360, and one of the following: BIO 460 or GN 311 or NR 406 or ST 311..

Topical problems in ecology, evolution, and conservation biology. BIO 485 provides a challenging opportunity for students to integrate and apply knowledge and skills gained from their major studies. Emphasis will be placed on collaborative learning and on effective, professional communication. Topics and instructors will vary from semester to semester. Priority will initially be given to seniors in the EEC curriculum; other students with the necessary prerequisites will be admitted on a space available basis.

BIO 486 Capstone Course in Zoology 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 250, BIO/PB 360, and one of the following: BIO 350 or BIO 402/403 or GN 311 or ST 311..

Topical problems in zoology. BIO 486 provides a challenging opportunity for students to integrate and apply knowledge and skills gained from their major studies. Emphasis will be placed on collaborative learning and effective, professional communication. Topics and instructors will vary from semester to semester. Priority will initially be given to seniors in the SZO curriculum; other students with the necessary prerequisites will be admitted on a space available basis.

BIO 488 Neurobiology 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in BIO 250 or BIO 212.

Overview of the neurosciences, with a focus on fundamental principles in the function, structure, and development of the nervous system. Topics include neuroanatomy, electrical signaling, synaptic transmission, sensory and motor systems, neural development, neural plasticity, and complex brain functions. Multiple levels of analysis, from molecular to behavioral, with an emphasis on the mammalian nervous system.

BIO 492 External Learning Experience 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

Learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework with facilities and resources external to the campus. Contact and arrangements with prospective supervisors by the student. Prior approval by faculty advisor, prospective supervisor, and departmental teaching coordinator.

BIO 493 Special Problems in Biological Sciences 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

Learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework with campus facilities and resources. Contact and arrangements with prospective supervisors by the student. Prior approval by faculty advisor, prospective supervisor, and department teaching coordinator.

BIO 495 Special Topics in Biology 1-6.

Individualized study, under faculty supervision, of biological topics, and developmental course on a trial basis.

BIO 498 Honors Project Part I 3.

Together, BIO 498 and BIO 499 provide a two-semester sequence for honors projects conducted by students in good standing in an honors program within the Department of Biological Sciences. Before enrollment in BIO 498, students (1) identify a project in consultation with a faculty member, (2) work with that mentor to complete a contract describing the expectations for their work together in BIO 498, and (3) have the contract approved by the honors program coordinator. The approved contract will describe the specific requirements and expectations of the BIO 498 experience. Enrollment only by permission of the honors program director.

BIO 499 Honors Project Part 2 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 498.

Together, BIO 498 and BIO 499 provide a two-semester sequence for honors projects by students in good standing in an honors program within the Department of Biological Sciences. Before beginning BIO 499, students will have successfully completed BIO 498 as well as a contract describing the expectations for their work with the mentor in BIO 499. The contract must be approved by the honors program director. The approved contract will describe the specific requirements and expectations of the BIO 499 experience. Enrollment only by permission of honors program director.

BIO 518 Experience and the Brain 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 488 or ZO 588.

This seminar considers how an individual's behavioral interactions with the world (i.e., experience) can alter the structure and/or function of the adult brain. Emphasis will be on reading and critically discussing the primary research literature.

BIO 560 Population Ecology 3.
Co-requisite: ST 511.

Dynamics of natural populations. Current work, theories and problems dealing with population growth, fluctuation, limitation and patterns of dispersion, species interactions, community structure and ecological genetics. One semester of calculus and a junior/senior level ecology course are required.

BIO 561 Conservation Biology 3.

Conservation Biology applies principles from ecology, genetics, and other biological disciplines to the conservation of biological diversity. This course will train students in techniques in population ecology such as population viability analysis; community ecology and theories of biodiversity; and reserve selection algorithms. The class will examine threats to biodiversity such as habitat fragmentation and loss, climate change, and invasion by exotic species. These issues will be considered within the context of economoic, social, and legal constraints. Graduate status or permission of instructor.

EA - Environmental Assessment Courses

EA 502 Environmental Risk Assessment 3.
Prerequisite: Two semester sequence of college biology & college chemistry..

This course provides students with an appreciation and understanding of the principles of environmental risk assessment including: Hazard Identification, Toxicity Assessment, Exposure Assessment, and Risk Characterization. Emphasis is placed on contemporary problems in human health and the environment, and it will be based on the most current methodologies described in the "Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund." Enrollment in the course requires graduate standing or consent of the instructor. Two semester sequence of college biology & college chemistry.

EA 503 Environmental Exposure Assessment 3.
Prerequisite: Two semester sequence of college biology & college chemistry..

Provides students with an appreciation and understanding of the principles of environmental exposure assessment including the sources, transport and fate of chemicals in the environment. Emphasis is on contemporary problems in human health and the environment, covering topics such as: transformation and degradation processes, classes of contaminants a well as predicting environmental fate and exposure. Enrollment in the course requires graduate standing or consent of the instructor. Two semester sequence of college biology & college chemistry.

EA 504 Environmental Monitoring and Analysis 3.
Prerequisite: One Year College Biology and One Year College Chemistry.

Monitoring and analysis of chemical and biological impacts to the environment. Theory of chemical, physical, biological, and ecological monitoring. Planning and conducting environmental sampling and monitoring programs. Management, analysis, and quality assurance and control. Enrollment in the course requires graduate standing or consent of the instructor.

EA 590 Special Topics in Environmental Assessment 1-3.

EA 665 Professional Project 1-6.
Prerequisite: EA 502, EA 503, and EA 504.

Environmental assessment project conducted under the mentorship of a member of the graduate faculty.

GN - Genetics Courses

GN 301 Genetics in Human Affairs 3.

Appreciation and understanding of genetics in everyday life. Genetic perspective on normal human development, birth defects, birth control, cancer, organ transplants, intelligence, mental illness, and radiation and chemical exposure and issues raised by applications of recently developed genetic techniques such as in vitro fertilization, genetic engineering and prenatal monitoring.

GN 311 Principles of Genetics 4.
Prerequisite: BIO 183 or ZO 160.

Basic concepts and principles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genetics. Mendelian inheritance, polygenic inheritance, linkage and mapping, chromosome aberrations, population genetics, evolution, DNA structure and replication, gene expression, mutation, gene regulation, extranuclear inheritance, bacterial and viral genetics, and recombinant DNA technology.

GN 312 Elementary Genetics Laboratory 1.
Corequisite: GN 311.

Genetic experiments and demonstrations using a variety of bacterial, plant and animal organisms. Mendelian inheritance, linkage analysis, population genetics, cytogenetics, biochemical genetics, DNA isolation, electrophoresis, and Southern blotting.

GN 421 Molecular Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in GN 311.

Biological macromolecules and their interactions, DNA topology, eukaryotic genome structure, chromatin and chromosome structure, transcription and transcription regulation, epigenetics, RNAi and RNA processing, recombinant DNA technology, genetic transformation and cloning of plants and animals. Bacteria, viruses, plants, animals and fungi as genetic systems. Students cannot receive credit for both GN 421 and GN 521.

GN 423 Population, Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311 and (MA 131 or MA 141).

This course is an introduction to population, quantitative and evolutionary genetics. This course will acquaint students with basic population genetics models. The course will cover genetic variation; measures of genetic variation; basic and advanced topics of selection; ecological genetics; inbreeding; genetic drift and effective population size; mutation; neutral theory and coalescence; gene flow and population structure; linkage disequilibrium and recombination; quantitative genetics; heritability;' quantitative trait loci; molecular population genetics and evolution.

GN 425 Advanced Genetics Laboratory 2.
Prerequisite: GN 312; Corequisite: GN 421.

This is a challenging advanced genetics laboratory designed to provide research and communication training and in-depth understanding of modern genetics through hands-on activities. Students will participate in a semester-long supervised research project in contemporary genetics using a model genetic organism and state-of-the-art techniques. The project will be directly related to research in the coordinating faculty member's laboratory. The project will require literature review, hypothesis development, experimental design and execution, data analysis and presentation of results in written and oral form.

GN 427 Introductory Bioinformatics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311 and (MA 131 or MA 141) with grades of C- or better.

This course is an introduction to bioinformatics for genetic and biological sciences. The course will provide a foundation in biological computing that includes command line interfaces, reformatting data, creating and editing graphics, automating analyses and database access, and scripting in biological programming languages used for bioinformatics such as Python, Perl, and R. Laptop required.

GN 434 Genes and Development 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in GN 421.

Genes and genetic pathways that control development in animals; overview of early, pivotal experiments in embryology and genetics; use of molecular biology, genomics and bioinformatics to study genes and development; concentration on four model systems; presentation and discussion of major issues in developmental biology.

GN 441 Human and Biomedical Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in GN 421.

This course is an in depth study of human and biomedical genetics and the role of genetics in human health and disease. The course will aquaint students with contemporary knowledge of genetics in disease causation and susceptibility, the use of model organisms to inform human biology and contemporary topics in human genetics research like epigenetics, therapeutic cloning, gene therapy, role of genetics in response to drugs and predictive medicine. Credit cannot be given for both 441 and 541.

GN 451 Genome Science 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in GN 423.

Complementation of modern genomics approaches with classical and molecular genetics; goals of major genome projects in animals, plants, humans, and microorganisms; genomic science opportunities at NCSU and in the Research Triangle; presentation and discussion of current literature; and preparation for careers in genomics-related fields.

GN 461 Advanced Bioinformatics 3.
Prerequisite:GN 427 and ST 311 with grades of C- or better.

This course provides in-depth experience in applying bioinformatic computing techniques to experimental data with a focus on the genetic and biological sciences. The course will provide experience in genome sequence analysis and assembly, extracting, manipulating and visualizing genetic and molecular data, analysis of macromolecular sequences, and generating and visualizing phylogenetic date. Laptop required.

GN 490 Genetics Colloquium 1.
Prerequisite: GN 421.

This course will involve critical study of research in genetics. Students will evaluate primary research publication on prepared topics assigned by instructor, with emphasis on review of recent and current research.

GN 492 External Learning Experience 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes facilities and resources which are external to the campus. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience.

GN 493 Special Problems in Genetics 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes campus facilities and resources. Arrangements must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser and the departmental teaching coordinator.

GN 495 Special Topics in Genetics 1-3.

Offered as needed to present materials not normally available in regular course offerings or for offering of new courses on a trial basis.

GN 513 Advanced Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311.

Biological macromolescules and their interactions. Chromatin and chromosome structure. Bacteria, viruses, plants, animals and fungi as genetic systems. Transcription, RNA processing, genetic code, translation, DNA replication and cell cycle. RFLP mapping. DNA and forensics. Genetic transformation and cloning of plants and animals. Recombinant DNA methodology. Credit for both GN 413 and GN 513 is not allowed.

GN 521 Molecular Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311.

Biological macromolecules and their interactions, DNA topology, eukaryotic genome structure, chromatin and chromosome structure, transcription and transcription regulation, epigenetics, RNAi and RNA processing, recombinant DNA technology, genetic transformation and cloning of plants and animals. Bacteria, viruses, plants, animals and fungi as genetic systems. Students cannot receive credit for both GN 421 and GN 521.

GN 527 Insect Neurogenomics 3.

Sensory processing systems in the insect brain (visual, olfactory, gustatory, and mechanosensory), learning and memory and circadian rhythm. Each process will be considered at the behavioral, anatomical, neural, and genetic level. Examples will bedrawn from multiple insect species, using recent studies. Techniques: quantitative real-time PCR, microarrays, mapping quantitative trait loci, Drosophila transgenics, RNAi, imaging neuronal activity, etc. For Graduate students with background in molecular biology techniques.

GN 541 Human and Biomedical Genetics 3.

This course is an in depth study of human and biomedical genetics and the role of genetics in human health and disease. The course will aquaint students with contemporary knowledge of genetics in disease causation and susceptibility, the use of model organisms to inform human biology and contemporary topics in human genetics research like epigenetics, therapeutic cloning, gene therapy, role of genetics in response to drugs and predictive medicine. Credit cannot be given for both 441 and 541.

GN 685 Master's Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

GN 688 Non-Thesis Masters Continuous Registration - Half Time Registration 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain half-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc.

GN 689 Non-Thesis Master Continuous Registration - Full Time Registration 3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain full-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc. Students may register for this course a maximum of one semester.

GN 690 Master's Examination 1-6.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all other requirements of the degree except preparing for and taking the final master's exam.

GN 693 Master's Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's Student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

GN 695 Master's Thesis Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's Student.

Thesis Research.

GN 696 Summer Thesis Research 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

GN 699 Master's Thesis Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's Student.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements and full-time enrollment for the master's degree and are writing and defending their thesis.

GN 701 Molecular Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311.

A discussion of the structure and function of genetic material at a molecular level. Consideration of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. The aim to describe genetics in terms of chemical principles.

GN 702 Cellular and Developmental Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 701.

Regulation of genes involved in cellular function, differentiation and development in eukaryotes. Presentation of biological systems and model organisms used to study genetic control of cellular and developmental processes.

GN 703 Population and Quantitative Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311 and ST 512.

Mutation and origin of genetic variation. Measuring genetic variation in natural populations. Gene and genotype frequencies. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Values, means, genetic and environmental variance, heritability of quantitative traits. Random genetic drift and inbreeding. Natural and artifical selection. Theory and tests of models of maintenance of genetic variation. Molecular evolution of genes and proteins. Genome evolution.

GN 708 Genetics of Animal Improvement 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311, ST 512.

Emphasis on the utilization of basic principles of population and quantitative genetics in animal improvement. Factors affecting genic and genotypic frequencies and methods of estimating genetic and nongenetic variance, heritabilities and breeding values. The roles of mating systems and selection procedures in producing superior genetic populations.

GN 713 Quantitative Genetics and Breeding 3.

Quantitative and population genetic theory of breeding problems; partitioning of genetic variance, maternal effects, genotype by environment interaction and genetic correlation; selection indexes; design and analysis of selection experiments; marker-assisted selection.

GN 720 Molecular Biology In Plant Breeding 3.
Prerequisite: CS(GN,HS) 741, GN 701.

Theory and principles of molecular biology applied to plant breeding. Experimental approaches to induce genetic change, cytoplasmic recombination, haploid utilization and potentials of molecular techniques for solving breeding problems.

GN 721 Genetic Data Analysis 3.
Prerequisite: ST 430 and GN 311.

Analysis of discrete data, illustrated with genetic data on morphological characters allozymes, restriction fragment length polymorphisms and DNA sequences. Maximum likelihood estimation, including iterative procedures. Numerical resampling. Development of statistical techniques for characterizing genetic disequilibrium and diversity. Measures of population structure and genetic distance. Construction of phylogenetic trees. Finding alignments and similarities between DNA sequences. Locating genes with markers.

GN 725 Forest Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311.

Application of genetic principles to silviculture, management and wood utilization. Emphasis on variation in wild populations, the bases for selection of desirable qualities and fundamentals of controlled breeding.

GN 730 Fungal Genetics and Physiology 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 451, BO 775, GN 311 or PP 501.

Basic concepts of genetics and physiology of fungi, with emphasis on saprophytic and plant pathogenic mycelial fungi. Current literature on evolution, cell structure, growth and development, gene expression, metabolism, sexual and asexual reproduction and incompatibility systems. Laboratory exercises on mutant isolation, sexual and parasexual analysis, genetic transformation, and RFLP and isozyme analysis.

GN 735 Functional Genomics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 701.

Methodology of experimental genomics; genome sequencing, gene expression arrays, genomic screens, proteomics. Aims and achievements of microbial, plant, animal, human genome projects. Applications of genomics including parasitology, breeding, functional genomics, evolutionary genetics. Interface with bioinformatics, data technology.

GN 740 Evolutionary Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 703.

Genetic basis of evolution. Molecular evolution, molecular population genetics, evolutionary genetics of quantitative characters and the genetics of speciation. Critical reading of original research publications and student seminars.

GN 745 Quantitative Genetics In Plant Breeding 1.
Prerequisite: CS(GN, HS) 741, ST 512, course in quantitative genetics recommended.

Theory and principles of plant quantitative genetics. Experimental approaches of relationships between type and source of genetic variability, concepts of inbreeding, estimations of genetic variance and selection theory.

GN 746 Breeding Methods 2.
Prerequisite: CS (GN, HS) 741, ST 512.

Theory and principles of plant breeding methodology including population improvement, selection procedures, genotypic evaluation, cultivar development and breeding strategies.

GN 750 Developmental Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 701, GN 702.

Action and regulation of genes and gene-products in development and differentiation. Examples from microorganisms, plants and animals. Emphasis on molecular and biochemical aspects of mechanisms controlling gene expression in eukaryotic cell differentiation.

GN 755 Population Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 703.

Theoretical population genetics and its relationship to natural and experimental populations. Single locus and multilocus systems, history of a gene in a population, diffusion approximations, suitability of models to natural and experimental populations.

GN 756 Computational Molecular Evolution 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311 and ST 511.

Phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide and protein sequence data. Sequence alignment, phylogeny reconstruction and relevant computer software. Prediction of protein secondary structure, database searching, bioinformatics and related topics. Project required.

GN 757 Statistics for Molecular Quantitative Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: ST 512 and GN 703 or ST 721.

Genetic mapping data. Linkage map reconstruction, quantitative genetical models. Statistical methods and computer programs for mapping quantitative trait loci and estimating genetic architecture of quantitative traits.

GN 758 Microbial Genetics & Genomics 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 451 or GN 311.

Structure and function in microbial genetics, with emphasis on microbial genome organization, stable maintenance and evolution. DNA mutation and repair pathways, transcriptional and translational regulation, DNA replication and recombination and characterization of recombinant DNA molecules. Applications of genetic and genomic analysis methods to microbial processes, including strain construction, genome manipulation, and enhancement of gene expression.

GN 761 Advanced Molecular Biology Of the Cell 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 703 and 705.

An advanced treatment involving integrated approaches to biological problems at the molecular level, encompassing biochemistry, cell biology and molecular genetics. Broad, multidisciplinary approaches to solving research problems in biology and thecritical study of primary scientific literature, the development of a research proposal, oral presentations and class discussions.

GN 768 Nucleic Acids: Structure and Function 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 701 and 703.

An advanced treatment involving integrated approaches to biological problems at the molecular level, encompassing biochemistry, cell biology and molecular genetics. Broad, multidisciplinary approaches to solving research problems in biology and thecritical study of primary scientific literature, the development of a research proposal, oral presentations and class discussions.

GN 801 Seminar 1.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Informal group discussion of prepared topics assigned by instructor.

GN 809 Colloquium in Genetics 2.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Informal group discussion of prepared topics assigned by instructor.

GN 810 Special Topics in Genetics 1-4.

Critical study of selected areas and special topics of current interest in genetics and related fields.

GN 820 Special Problems 1-3.
Prerequisite: Advanced Graduate standing.

Special topics designed for additional experience and research training.

GN 850 Professionalism and Ethics 1.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

The course is designed to give students background in professionalism, scientific ethics and responsible conduct of science. Topics include the role of the scientist in society, ethical theory, data acquisition and ownership, scientific midconduct,authorship, peer review, conflicts of interest and commitment, intellectual property, ethics of teaching and mentoring, ethical treatment of animal and human subjects, ethics of genetics research, job hunting and interviewing.

GN 860 Plant Breeding Laboratory 1.
Prerequisite: CS(GN,HS)741.

Visitation of plant breeding projects in the Depts. of CS and HS at NC State, along with commercial seed companies. Discussion and viewing of breeding objectives, methods and equipment and teaching and practice of hybridization methods.

GN 861 Plant Breeding Laboratory 1.
Prerequisite: CS(GN,HS)741.

Visitation of plant breeding projects in the Depts. of CS and HS at NC State, along with commercial seed companies. Discussion and viewing of breeding objectives, methods and equipment and teaching and practice of hybridization methods.

GN 885 Doctoral Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

GN 890 Doctoral Preliminary Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who are preparing for and taking written and/or oral preliminary exams.

GN 893 Doctoral Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

GN 895 Doctoral Dissertation Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Dissertation Research.

GN 896 Summer Dissertation Research 1.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

GN 899 Doctoral Dissertation Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements, full-time enrollment, preliminary examination, and residency requirements for the doctoral degree, and are writing and defending their dissertations.

MB - Microbiology Courses

MB 101 Introduction to Microbiology and Biochemistry Laboratory Practices 3.

Curricular bridge between high school and college for high school and transitional students. A "hands on" introduction to fundamentals in Microbiology and Biochemistry. Bacterial isolation, identification and growth using aseptic technique, microscopy, and metabolic analysis. Experiments with DNA isolation and analysis, protein isolation, and purification, and enzyme kinetics. Lectures and readings on background, theory and applications of these techniques. Field trips to university and industry research laboratories. This course is part of the Summer College in Biotechnology and Life Sciences (SCIBLS) as well as other pre-college, transitional and early-college programs and is offered as 4 week intensive course. Applicants should have completed high school courses in biology and chemistry. Students must have completed no more than 30 credit hours. Departmental approval is required for current NCSU students.

MB 103 Introductory Topics in Microbiology 1.

Introduction to scope and objectives of university education. Emphasis on microbiology. Career opportunities, computers, university resources.

MB 180 Introduction to Microbial Bioprocessing 3.

Curricular bridge between high school and college for high school and transitional students. Fundamental cell biology concepts pertaining to biomanufacturing. Students gain an understanding of the basic principles of microbiology, culture preparation, physiology, and genetics of microbial cell cultures. Team-based decisions, collaborations and consideration of multiple perspectives are emphasized. Practical experience in laboratory and culture techniques used in biomanufacturing. Transportation will be provided for field trips. This course is part of the Summer College in Biotechnology and Life Sciences (SCIBLS), as well as other pre-college, transitional and early-college programs. Suitable for students with less than 30 credit hours.

MB 200 Microbiology and World Affairs 3.

An integrated and comprehensive study of the microbial world and its influence on global events and human affairs.

MB 210 Phage Hunters 3.

This course offers first-year students an opportunity for mentored research. Students will apply the scientific method to make novel discoveries. Students will isolate and characterize naturally-occurring bacteriophage (viruses that infect bacteria, but not humans) from the environment. They will present their data to each other, and the genome of one phage will be sequenced. Students have the option to continue in a second semester to annotate that genome, culminating in a submission to genbank and a poster presentation. Students in the course are part of the National Genome Research Initiative funded by The Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Student should have had a high school biology course before taking this course.

MB 211 Phage Genomics 2.
Prerequisite: BIT(MB) 210.

This course offers first-year students an opportunity for mentored research. Student will apply the scientific method to make novel discoveries. Students will build on the work they began in BIT/MB 210; The novel phage isolated in the previous semester will undergo genome sequencing over winter break, and in this course students will learn to analyze and annotate the genome sequence. This semester will culminate in a submission to genbank and a poster presentation. Students in the course are part of the national genome research initiative funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute.

MB 320 Fundamentals of Microbial Cell Culture 2.
Prerequisite: BIO 183.

This is a half-semester course. This introductory module addresses fundamental cell biology concepts and enables students to gain an understanding of the basic principles of microbiology, culture preparation, physiology and genetics of microbial cell cultures. The lab portion of the course provides students with practical experience in basic laboratory and culture techniques. Students who have completed either MB 352 or MB 354 may not take this course for credit.

MB 325 Fundamentals of Microbial Cell Biotransformations 2.
Prerequisite: BEC(MB) 320 or MB 352.

This is a half-semester course. Basic microbial cell culture theory and practice: cell physiology, mass balances, and metabolic control as seen in a dynamic bioreactor culture. The biological understanding, mathematical models, and engineering controls that enable a bioreactor process to be scalable, consistent, and robust. The lab portion of the course provides students with hands-on experience in culture techniques using bioreactors. Students who have completed BIT(CHE) 463 may not take this course for credit.

MB 351 General Microbiology 3.
Prerequisite: One Biology course (BIO 181, BIO 183, ZO 150 or ZO 160) and one Organic Chemistry course (CH 221 or CH 220).

Rigorous introduction to basic principles of microbiology for students in biological and agricultural sciences and for all students planning to take further courses in microbiology.

MB 352 General Microbiology Laboratory 1.
Corequisite: MB 351.

Laboratory experience in general microbiology. Aseptic technique, isolation and identification of bacteria, staining and microscopy. Enumeration of bacteria and viruses. Students who have completed either MB (BEC) 320 or MB 354 may not take this course for credit.

MB 354 Inquiry-Guided Microbiology Lab 1.
Corequisite: MB 351.

Inquiry-guided laboratory experience in general microbiology, for microbiology majors and honors students, and those desiring a more rigorous exposure to this topic. Aseptic technique, isolation and identification of bacteria, staining and microscopy, and Koch's postulates. Restricted to microbiology majors and honor's students. Others require departmental permission. Credit is not allowed for both MB 354 and either MB 320 or MB 352.

MB 360 Scientific Inquiry in Microbiology: At the Bench 3.
Prerequisite:CH 101 and BIO 183.

Scientific questions, controls and variables, designing, preparing for and carrying out experiments, keeping a notebook, interpreting results, and presenting their findings: i.e. the pragmatic things a student must know in order to work efficiently in a research lab regardless of the discipline. The experimental system of choice for this class is the bacterial growth curve. Prior or current enrollment in MB 352 or MB 354 recommended.

MB 405 Food Microbiology 3.
Prerequisite: MB 351.

Microorganisms of importance in foods and their metabolic activities. Source of microbial contamination during food production, processing and storage. Microbial spoilage; foods as vectors of human pathogens. Physical and chemical destruction of microorganisms in foods and the kinetics involved. Conversions of raw foods by microorganisms into food products. Microbiological standards for regulatory and trade purposes. Credit will not be given for both FS/MB 405 and FS/MB 505.

MB 406 Food Microbiology Lab 1.
Prerequisite: MB 351 and Corequisite: FS 405 or FS 505.

Laboratory experience to complement FS/MB 405. Skills in detecting and quantitating microorganisms and their toxins in foods. Application of colony and direct microscopic counts, most probable numbers, enzyme immunoassays, nucleic acid probes and computer modeling are used to understand the numbers and types of microorganisms or microbial end products in foods. Laboratory safety and oral and written reports are emphasized.

MB 411 Medical Microbiology 3.
Prerequisite: MB 351.

Comprehensive study of microbial pathogenesis and mammalian host resistance. Diagnosis, prevention, and therapy of common human diseases of microbial origin.

MB 412 Medical Microbiology Laboratory 1.
Prerequisite: MB 352 or MB 354 and Corequisite: MB 411.

Laboratory experience to complement MB 411. Techniques of detection, growth and identification of bacteria and viruses relevant in clinical microbiology laboratories. Good laboratory practices (GLP) and safety stressed.

MB 414 Microbial Metabolic Regulation 3.
Prerequisite: MB 351 and either BCH 351 or 451.

An integrative perspective on bacterial physiology and metabolism through an analysis of metabolic regulatory functions.

MB 420 Fundamentals of Microbial Cell Biotransformations 2.
Prerequisite: MB 352 OR Corequisite of BEC(MB) 320.

This is a half-semester course. Basic microbial cell culture theory and practice: cell physiology, mass balances, and metabolic control as seen in a dynamic bioreactor process to be scalable, consistent, and robust. The lab portion of the course provides students with hands-on experience in culture techniques using bioreactors. Students who have completed MB(BEC) 520 may not take BEC (MB) 420 for credit.

MB 435 Bacterial Pathogenesis 3.
Prerequisite: MB 411 and Jr, Sr, or Graduate Standing.

Focuses on basic principles of bacterial pathogenesis, including mechanisms utilized by these microbes to attach/adhere, internalize or invade, and disseminate through their animal hosts. Bacterial strategies to subvert hos defenses and persist within their animal hosts defense mechanisms, and virulence gene regulation will also be discussed. Students cannot get credit for both MB 435 and MB 535. Graduate status required for MB 535.

MB 441 Immunology 3.
P: C- or better in (MB 351 or BCH 351 or BCH 451 or BIO 414 or PB 414 or BIO 421).

Introduction to principles of molecular immunology. Overview of immune system development and function, and discussions of ongoing scientific research regarding immune regulation.

MB 451 Microbial Diversity 3.
Prerequisite: MB 411 and (GN 311 or BCH 351 or BCH 451).

Molecular, biochemical, and evolutionary diversity of the microbial world, including Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryotes. Evolutionary perspective on microbial relationships, molecular methods of study and classical and modern biotechnological methods utilizing this genetic diversity to explore the microbial world and use the resulting insight to meet the needs of our own species.

MB 452 Microbial Diversity Lab 2.
Prerequisite: MB 412; Corequisite: MB 451.

This lab course is project-oriented. Students perform a series of classical enrichments and isolations, starting from environmental samples collected by the students themselves. Some of these isolations serve as the starting materials for a series of modern molecular biology experiments, in which students purify DNA, amplify ribosomal DNA by PCR, and have a portion of this gene sequenced. This sequence information is the starting point for the term project, a detailed molecular phylogenetic analysis of the isolated organisms. Students will be required to provide their own transportation during non-scheduled class time for local field sample collection.

MB 455 Microbial Biotechnology 3.
Prerequisite: MB 351 and GN 311.

Introduction to industrial microbiology with focus on biotechnology including developments employing recombinant nucleic acid and monoclonal antibody techniques. Bioremediation, industrial enzymes, transgenic plants, biopesticides, medical diagnostics, recombinant vaccines production of important secondary metabolites, and other topics. Field trips to local biotechnology companies.

MB 461 Molecular Virology 3.
Prerequisite: MB 351, MB 411.

Introduction to principles of molecular virology. Overview of classification and nomenclature, virus structure, interaction of viruses with cells, organisms (immunology, pathology), and populations (epidemiology). Detailed case studies from major groups of viruses; picornaviruses, togaviruses, orthomyxoviruses, retroviruses, polyomaviruses, and herpesviruses.

MB 480 Current Issues in Microbiology 1.
Prerequisite: SMB majors or minors, Senior standing, and MB 351.

Library research on current topics in all areas of microbiology. Presentation of research results orally and in the form of a major term paper.

MB 492 External Learning Experience 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes facilities and resources which are external to the campus. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience.

MB 493 Special Problems in Microbiology 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes campus facilities and resources. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator and the academic dean prior to the experience.

MB 495 Special Topics in Microbiology 1-3.

Offered as needed to present materials not normally available in regular course offerings or for offering of new courses on a trial basis.

MB 501 Biology of Plant Pathogens 3.
Prerequisite: PP 315, or PP 318, or an introductory course in microbiology.

Biology of microbes that cause plant diseases. The ecology, genetics, physiology, taxonomy, and mechanisms of parasitism, pathogenicity and virulence of bacteria (and other prokaryotes), fungi (and oomycetes), nematodes, and viruses that cause plant diseases. Prepares graduate students for advanced courses in plant pathology, host-parasite interactions, and provides a knowledge base for students in other disciplines involved with plant pathogens or who seek to broaden their knowledge of microbes.

MB 505 Food Microbiology 3.
Prerequisite: MB 351.

Microorganisms of importance in foods and their metabolic activities. Source of microbial contamination during food production, processing and storage. Microbial spoilage; foods as vectors of human pathogens. Physical and chemical destruction of microorganisms in foods and the kinetics involved. Conversions of raw foods by microorganisms into food products. Microbiological standards for regulatory and trade purposes. Credit will not be given for both FS/MB 405 and FS/MB 505.

MB 506 Food Microbiology Lab 1.
Prerequisite: MB 351 and Corequisite: FS 405 or FS 505.

Laboratory experience to complement FS/MB 405. Skills in detecting and quantitating microorganisms and their toxins in foods. Application of colony and direct microscopic counts, most probable numbers, enzyme immunoassays, nucleic acid probes and computer modeling are used to understand the numbers and types of microorganisms or microbial end products in foods. Laboratory safety and oral and written reports are emphasized.

MB 520 Fundamentals of Microbial Cell Biotransformations 2.

This is a half-semester course. Basic microbial cell culture theory and practice: cell physiology, mass balances, and metabolic control as seen in a dynamic bioreactor process to be scalable, consistent, and robust. The lab portion of the course provides students with hands-on experience in culture techniques using bioreactors. Students who have completed MB(BEC) 520 may not take BEC (MB) 420 for credit.

MB 532 Soil Microbiology 4.
Prerequisite: MB 351, CH 220.

Soil as a medium for microbial growth, the relation of microbes to important mineral transformations in soil, the importance of biological equilibrium and significance of soil microbes to environmental quality.

MB 535 Bacterial Pathogenesis 3.
Prerequisite: MB 411, Graduate standing.

Focuses on basic principles of bacterial pathogenesis, including mechanisms utilized by these microbes to attach/adhere, internalize or invade, and disseminate through their animal hosts. Bacterial strategies to subvert hos defenses and persist within their animal hosts defense mechanisms, and virulence gene regulation will also be discussed. Students cannot get credit for both MB 435 and MB 535. Graduate status required for MB 535.

MB 555 Microbial Biotechnology 3.
Prerequisite: Undergraduate microbiology, genetics, and biochemistry course: MB351, BCH 351, and GN 311.

Overview of industrial microbiology focusing on current biotechnology methods (bacteria, yeast, fungi) employing rDNA, optimization of heterologous gene expression, microbial metabolic pathway engineering, metabolomics, protein engineering and recombinant antibodies. Genetic and pathway engineering strategies for developing new microbes to screen for new therapeutic compounds or overproduce: primary metabolites, antibiotics, biotherapeutic proteins, industrially useful enzymes, medical diagnostics, recombinant vaccines, biopolymers. Utilization of biofilms, methods to immobilize biocatalysts, and microbial kinetics are also covered. Field trip to local biotechnology company. Students cannot receive credit for both 455 and 555.

MB 575 Introduction to Mycology 4.
Prerequisite: BS 125 or BS 181 and 183 or BO 200 or PP 315 or PP 318.

A survey of the fungal kingdom in context of phyla and classes. Systematics, ecology, biology and utilization. Illustrative material, cultural techniques in laboratories. Collection and paper required.

MB 585 Industry Case Studies in Microbial Biotechnology 3.

Project-based course directly working with biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. Students work in teams on a company-specific project. Projects range from developing business or marketing plans for new products; writing Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grants or white papers; creating procedures, protocols, and/or process improvements for a company-specific process; and studying intellectual property issues. Written and oral communication skills as well as teamwork, flexibility, and ambiguity management are emphasized. Restricted to MBT students.

MB 590 Topical Problems 1-3.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Informal group discussion of prepared topics assigned by instructor.

MB 601 Seminar 1.

MB 610 Special Topics Microbiology 1-3.

MB 620 Special Problems 1-3.

MB 624 Topical Problems 1-3.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

MB 670 Laboratory Research Methods 1-3.

Directed research of microbiology graduate students in departmental laboratories prior to selecting thesis research topic. Selection of a minimum of three laboratories for research experience lasting 3 to 5 weeks. Acquisition of research methods relevant to each laboratory. Microbiology graduate students only.

MB 680 Microbiology Research Presentations 1.

Essential elements of structure, delivery, data presentation and use of media in scientific research seminars. Presentation and evaluation of student seminars. Coverage of topical material in microbiology as determined by instructor. Microbiology graduate students only.

MB 685 Master's Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

MB 686 Teaching Experience 1.
Prerequisite: Microbiology Graduate student.

Faculty mentoring in didactic and methodological aspects of teaching, including instructional technology as well as design and grading of assessment instruments. Provision of individual performance evaluations to encourage enhancement of teaching skills. Microbiology graduate students only.

MB 688 Non-Thesis Masters Continuous Registration - Half Time Registration 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain half-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc.

MB 689 Non-Thesis Master Continuous Registration - Full Time Registration 3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain full-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc. Students may register for this course a maximum of one semester.

MB 690 Master's Examination 1-6.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non thesis master's programs who have completed all other requirements of the degree except preparing for and taking the final master's exam.

MB 693 Master's Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

MB 695 Master's Thesis Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Thesis research.

MB 696 Summer Thesis Research 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

MB 699 Master's Thesis Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements and full-time enrollment for the master's degree and are writing and defending their theses.

MB 714 Microbial Metabolic Regulation 3.
Prerequisite: MB 351 and either BCH 351 or 451.

An integrative perspective on bacterial physiology and metabolism through analysis of metabolic regulatory functions.

MB 715 Applied Evolutionary Analysis of Population Genetic Data 3.

This course will introduce nonparametric and model-based methods for making inferences on population processes (mutation, migration, drift, recombination, and selection). The goal is to provide a conceptual overview of these methods and hands-on training on how to implement and interpret the results. Sample data sets in computer laboratories will integrate summary statistic, cladistic, coalescent, and bayesian approaches to examine population processes in different pathosystems with specific emphasis on eukaryotic microbes, viruses and bacteria.

MB 718 Introductory Virology 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 451 or GN 411 or MB 351.

Introduction to principles of virology including: classification and nomenclature, epidemiology, structure, genome replication, gene expression strategies and cellular infection cycle. Major groups of viruses including those with DNA genomes and positive-sense or negative-sense RNA genomes.

MB 725 Fermentation Microbiology 3.

Fermentation bioprocessing and characteristics, function and ecology of responsible microorganisms. Fermentative activities, growth responses and culture interactions related to metabolism, physiology and genetics of lactic acid bacteria and selected yeasts and molds. Current developments in starter culture technology and genetics; application to food and industrial fermentations.

MB 730 Fungal Genetics and Physiology 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 451, BO 775, GN 411 or PP 501.

Basic concepts of genetics and physiology of fungi, with emphasis on saprophytic and plant pathogenic mycelial fungi. Current literature on evolution, cell structure, growth and development, gene expression, metabolism, sexual and asexual reproduction and incompatibility systems. Laboratory exercises on mutant isolation, sexual and parasexual analysis, genetic transformation, and RFLP and isozyme analysis.

MB 751 Immunology 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 451, GN 411, MB 351.

Introduction to mechanisms of immunity in man and animals. Emphasis on interactions between cells of the immune system in production of immune responses and the molecules in control of these interactions.

MB 758 Microbial Genetics & Genomics 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 451, GN 411.

Structure and function in microbial genetics, with emphasis on microbial genome organization, stable maintenance and evolution. DNA mutation and repair pathways, transcriptional and translational regulation, DNA replication and recombination and characterization of recombinant DNA molecules. Applications of genetic and genomic analysis methods to microbial processes, including strain construction, genome manipulation, and enhancement of gene expression.

MB 774 Phycology 3.

Introduction to taxonomy, morphology, reproduction and ecological importance of organisms which may be included in the algae. Attention to local freshwater flow and physiology of selected species in relation to algal blooms, water quality and nutrient loading in aquatic habitats.

MB 783 Advanced Immunology 3.
Prerequisite: MB (IMM) 751.

In depth study of the basic cellular and molecular mechanisms of immunity, including antigen processing and presentation, T cell development, initiation of the immune response, effector mechanisms, and immunological memory. The course is designed for advanced graduate students who wish to focus on the current concepts in immunology.

MB 790 Topical Problems 1-3.

MB 801 Seminar 1.

MB 810 Special Topics Microbiology 1-3.

MB 820 Special Problems 1-3.

MB 824 Topical Problems 1-3.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

MB 870 Doctoral Lab Rotations 1-3.

Directed research of microbiology graduate students in departmental laboratories prior to selecting thesis research topic. Selection of a minimum of three laboratories for research experience lasting 3 to 5 weeks. Acquisition of research methods relevant to each laboratory. Microbiology graduate students only.

MB 880 Doctoral Microbiology Research Presentations 1.

Essential elements of structure, delivery, data presentation and use of media in scientific research seminars. Presentation and evaluation of student seminars. Coverage of topical material in microbiology as determined by instructor. Microbiology graduate students only.

MB 885 Doctoral Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

MB 886 Teaching Experience 1.
Prerequisite: Microbiology Graduate student.

Faculty mentoring in didactic and methodological aspects of teaching, including instructional technology as well as design and grading of assessment instruments. Provision of individual performance evaluations to encourage enhancement of teaching skills. Microbiology graduate students only.

MB 890 Doctoral Preliminary Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who are preparing for and taking written and/or oral preliminary exams.

MB 893 Doctoral Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

MB 895 Doctoral Dissertation Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Dissertation research.

MB 896 Summer Dissertation Research 1.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

MB 899 Doctoral Dissertation Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who have completed all credit hour, full-time enrollment, preliminary examination, and residency requirements for the doctoral degree, and are writing and defending their dissertations.

TOX - Toxicology Courses

TOX 121 Pesticides and Their Utilization 3.

Basic characterization, classification, chemical and physical properties of pesticides. Use of pesticides including environmental effects; Federal and State laws and regulations relating to their manufacture, distribution and use; safety procedures including handling and storage; and application equipment including types, calibration, use and maintenance. TOTH.

TOX 201 Poisons, People and the Environment 3.

Introduction to the fascinating world of chemical poisons including their many and varied effects on people as well as the environment. Learn how and why poisons have played an important role in history, how to critically evaluate the chemical risk information reported in the media, and the underlying principles of "the basic science of poisons.".

TOX 401 Principles of Toxicology 4.
Prerequisite: CH 220 or CH 221 or CH 225; BIO 181 or ZO 160.

Introduce students to the basic principles of toxicology. Will cover the history and scope of the field; absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of toxicants; types and mechanisms of toxic action; carcinogenesis; environmental toxicology as well as human and ecological risk assessment.

TOX 415 Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 4.
Prerequisite: CH 220 or CH 221 or CH 225; BIO 181 or ZO 160 recommended.

Environmental toxicology and chemistry including the sources, fate, and effects of chemicals in the environment. Emphasis on contemporary problems in human health and the environment.

TOX 495 Special Topics in Toxicology 1-3.

Offered as needed to present materials unavailable in regular course offerings or for offering new courses on a trial basis.

TOX 499 Undergraduate Research in Toxicology 1-3.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing or higher.

Research for students in Toxicology. In lieu of a syllabus, student and professor will prepare a contract which details the research and how the results will be disseminated.

TOX 501 Principles of Toxicology 4.
Prerequisite: (CH 220 or CH 221 or CH 225) and (BIO 181 or ZO 160).

Introduction to basic principles of toxicology, including the history and scope of the field; absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination of toxicants; types and mechanisms of toxic action; carcinogenesis; environmental toxicology as well as human and ecological risk assessment. Students cannot obtain credit for both TOX 401 and TOX 501.

TOX 515 Environmental Toxicology 4.
Prerequisite: Two years of biology.

Evaluation of the nature, distribution and significance of microchemical contamination. Emphasis on current, relevant problems.

TOX 595 Special Topics 1-3.

TOX 601 Toxicology Seminar 1.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

TOX 620 Special Problems 1-3.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Topics include responsibility in science, environmental fate of chemicals, developmental toxicology, lab rotations, journal club and wildlife toxicology.

TOX 660 Free Radicals In Toxicology 1.
Prerequisite: BCH 451 and TOX 710.

Introduction to the field of free radicals and their role in toxicology and health; chemical and physical properties of partially reduced oxygen intermediates and the natural biological defense mechanisms.

TOX 688 Non-Thesis Masters Continuous Registration - Half Time Registration 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain half-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc.

TOX 689 Non-Thesis Master Continuous Registration - Full Time Registration 3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain full-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc. Students may register for this course a maximum of one semester.

TOX 690 Master's Exam 1-6.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non thesis master's programs who have completed all other requirements of the degree except preparing for and taking the final master's exam.

TOX 693 Master's Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

TOX 695 Master's Thesis Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Thesis research.

TOX 696 Summer Thesis Research 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

TOX 699 Master's Thesis Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements and full-time enrollment for the master's degree and are writing and defending their theses.

TOX 701 Fundamentals of Toxicology 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 451, Senior standing or Graduate standing.

The basis of toxic action at cellular and molecular levels covering the absorption, distribution, elimination and metabolism of toxicants; toxic action (acute toxicity, carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, organ toxicity, etc.); chemical classes of toxicants; and toxicity testing.

TOX 704 Chemical Risk Assessment 1.
Prerequisite: TOX 701, a ST course.

Concepts and vocabulary of risk assessment. Risk assessment models and techniques used in cancer and non-cancer risk assessment and strategies for successful risk communications. Case studies of risk assessment and issues of current interest. Utilization of background in toxicology and statistics to examine a critical end-point in toxicological science, the quantitative risk assessment.

TOX 705 Immunotoxicology 2.
Prerequisite: TOX 701.

Concepts in the study of adverse effects of chemicals on the immune system, including allergic responses, autoimmunity and immunosuppression. Significance of immunotoxic effects resulting from environmental or workplace exposure. Role of immunotoxicity in risk assessment.

TOX 710 Molecular and Biochemical Toxicology 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 451; TOX 701.

Fundamental understanding of biochemical, molecular and cellular mechanisms through which xenobiotics alter cellular homeostasis, produce toxicity and alter organ function. Current biochemical, molecular and cellular experimental approaches for study of biochemical mechanisms of toxicity.

TOX 715 Environmental Toxicology 3.
Prerequisite: Two years of biology.

Evaluation of fundamental processes relating fate and effects of chemicals in the environment. Emphasis on effects of pollutants on non-human species, environmental risk assessment and historically relevant incidents of environmental contaminants.

TOX 725 Pesticide Chemistry 1.
Prerequisite: (CH 201 or CH 203) and (CH 221 or CH 225).

Chemical properties of pesticides including hydration and solvation, ionization, volatilization, lipophilicity, molecular structure and size, and reactivity and classification according to chemical description, mode of action or ionizability. Taughtduring the first 5 weeks of semester. Drop date is last day of 3rd week of the minicourse.

TOX 727 Pesticide Behavior and Fate In the Environment 2.
Prerequisite: CS(HS,SSC,TOX) 725, SSC 200.

Sorption/desorption, soil reactivity, movement, volatilization, bioavailability, degradation and stability of pesticides in the environment. Taught during the last 10 weeks of semester. Drop date is last day of 3rd week of the minicourse.

TOX 771 Cancer Biology 4.
Prerequisite: CBS 770.

A comprehensive graduate course focusing on the molecular and cellular bases of cancer. Targets of oncogenic mutations will be discussed as well as their impact on cell proliferation, cell survival, and the invasion of normal tissues by tumorigeniccells. State-of-the-art technologies to detect oncogenic mutations and characterize transformed cells will be discussed as well as therapeutic strategies for the rational treatment of cancer.

TOX 795 Special Topics in Toxicology 1-3.

TOX 801 Toxicology Seminar 1.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

TOX 820 Special Problems In Toxicology 1-3.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Topics include responsibility in science, environmental fate of chemicals, developmental toxicology, lab rotations, Journal Club, and wildlife toxicology.

TOX 860 Free Radicals in Toxicology 1.
Prerequisite: BCH 451 and TOX 710.

Introduction to the field of free radicals and their role in toxicology and health; chemical and physical properties of partially reduced oxygen intermediates and the natural biological defense mechanisms.

TOX 890 Doctoral Preliminary Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who are preparing for and taking written and/or oral preliminary exams.

TOX 893 Doctoral Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

TOX 895 Doctoral Dissertation Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Dissertation research.

TOX 896 Summer Dissertation Research 1.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

TOX 899 Doctoral Dissertation Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who have completed all credit hour, full-time enrollment, preliminary examination, and residency requirements for the doctoral degree, and are writing and defending their dissertations.

ZO - Zoology Courses

ZO 492 External Learning Experience 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes facilities and resources which are external to the campus. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer and the departmental teaching coordinator prior to the experience.

ZO 493 Special Problems/Research Exploration 1-6.
Prerequisite: Sophomore standing.

A learning experience in agriculture and life sciences within an academic framework that utilizes campus facilities and resources. Contact and arrangements with prospective employers must be initiated by student and approved by a faculty adviser, the prospective employer, the departmental teaching coordinator prior to the experience.

ZO 495 Special Topics in Zoology 1-3.

Offered as needed for development of new courses in various areas of zoology.

ZO 503 General Physiology I 3.
Prerequisite: Senior standing or Graduate standing, the following courses are recommended: ZO 421, BCH 451, a yr. of physics.

Discussion of general principles of homeostasis, emphasizing importance of integrative action. Following systems studied: muscular, cardiovascular and nervous systems.

ZO 504 General Physiology II 3.
Prerequisite: PHY (ZO) 503.

Discussion of general principles of homeostasis, emphasizing importance of integrative action. Following systems studied: alimentary, renal, respiratory and endocrine systems.

ZO 509 Biology of Aquatic Insects 3.
Prerequisite: ENT 425.

Life history descriptions and identification of aquatic insects. Emphasis on behavioral and physiological adaptations to diverse habitats and the role of insects in aquatic ecosystem function and as indicators of water quality.

ZO 512 Animal Symbiosis 3.
Prerequisite: 12 hrs. of biology and zoology.

Symbiotic associations of animals including mutualism, commensalism and parasitism. The morphological, physiological, behavioral and ecological adaptations of symbionts and the complex interactions between partner species.

ZO 513 Comparative Physiology 3.
Prerequisite: ZO 421.

Comparative study of the organ systems of vertebrates and physiological processes involved in maintaining homeostatic state. Various compensatory mechanisms employed during environmental stress included.

ZO 518 Experience and the Brain 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 488 or ZO 588.

This seminar considers how an individual's behavioral interactions with the world (i.e., experience) can alter the structure and/or function of the adult brain. Emphasis will be on reading and critically discussing the primary research literature.

ZO 522 Biological Clocks 3.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

The anatomy, physiology and development of biological clocks in a variety of organisms, including humans. Required readings in primary literature.

ZO 524 Comparative Endocrinology 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 421 or PO 405.

Basic concepts of endocrinology, including functions of major endocrine glands involved in processes of growth, metabolism and reproduction.

ZO 542 Herpetology 3.
Prerequisite: ZO 250 and ZO 421.

The biology of the amphibians and reptiles: systematics, life history, anatomy, behavior, physiology and ecology.

ZO 544 Mammalogy 4.
Prerequisite: BIO 250.

The biology of mammals: evolution, functional morphology, reproduction, behavior, ecology, population biology, classification and identification. One weekend field trip planned.

ZO 549 Principles of Biological Oceanography 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 181.

Environmental dependencies, biological productivity, and trophic relationships in plankton, nekton and benthos; Sampling methods and experimental design; Human impacts on marine systems.Credit is not allowed for both MEA 449 and MEA(ZO)549.

ZO 553 Principles Of Wildlife Science 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 260 or BIO/PB 360.

The principles of wildlife management and their application studied in the laboratory and in the field.

ZO 582 Medical and Veterinary Entomology 3.
Prerequisite: ENT 425 and ZO 315.

The morphology, taxonomy, biology and control of the arthropod parasites and disease vectors of man and animals. The ecology and behavior of vectors in relation to disease transmission and control.

ZO 588 Neurobiology 3.
Prerequisite: BIO 250 or BIO 212 and Graduate standing.

Overview of the neurosciences, with a focus on fundamental principles in the function, structure, and development of the nervous system. Topics include neuroanatomy, electrical signaling, synaptic transmission, sensory and motor systems, neural development, neural plasticity, and complex brain function. Multiple levels of anaylsis, from molecular to behavioral, with an emphasis on the mammalian nervous system.Students may not receive credit for both BIO 488 and ZO 588.

ZO 592 Topical Problems 1-3.

Organized, formal lectures and discussion of a special topic.

ZO 601 Seminar 1.

The presentation and defense of original research and current literature.

ZO 602 Seminar In Biology Of Reproduction 2.
Prerequisite: ANS(PHY) 702.

Current topics in animal reproduction presented by reproductive physiologists from various Research Triangle institutions. Student presentations of research projects or library projects in area of animal reproduction.

ZO 624 Topical Problems 1-3.

Organized, formal lectures and discussion of a special topic.

ZO 631 Special Topics 1-6.
Prerequisite: Twelve hours ZO.

A directed individual investigation of a particular problem in zoology, accompanied by a review of the pertinent literature. A maximum of three hours allowed toward master's degree.

ZO 685 Master's Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

ZO 688 Non-Thesis Masters Continuous Registration - Half Time Registration 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain half-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc.

ZO 689 Non-Thesis Master Continuous Registration - Full Time Registration 3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain full-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc. Students may register for this course a maximum of one semester.

ZO 690 Master's Examination 1-6.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non thesis master's programs who have completed all other requirements of the degree except preparing for and taking the final master's exam.

ZO 693 Master's Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

ZO 695 Master's Thesis Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Thesis research.

ZO 696 Summer Thesis Research 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

ZO 699 Research In Zoology 1-9.
Prerequisite: Twelve semester credits in ZO.

Credits Arranged.

ZO 710 Sampling Animal Populations 3.
Prerequisite: ST 512.

Statistical methods applicable to sampling of wildlife populations, including capture-recapture, removal, change in ratio, quadrant and line transect sampling. Emphasis on model assumptions and study design.

ZO 718 Community Ecology 3.
Prerequisite: BO 360 or ZO 260, BO(ZO) 760; BO(ZO) 365.

Animal community structure and function. Effects of competition, predation, coevolution and disturbance on community composition. Emphasis on ecological and evolutionary controversies from empirical and theoretical approaches.

ZO 750 Marine Benthic Ecology 3.

Marine benthic systems in deep sea and in shallow waters, focusing upon abiotic and biotic processes regulating density, diversity and taxonomic and functional composition. Discussions of benthic-pelagic coupling, predation, interspecific competition, biogeography, sampling problems, evolutionary trends, trophic structure and community organization.

ZO 756 Ecology Of Fishes 3.

Physiological ecology of fishes emphasizing energetics, production and adaptations to aquatic mediums. Ecological classification of fishes and theory of resource partitioning in freshwater, estuarine and marine realms.

ZO 770 Advanced Topics In Ecology I 3.

Development of subject matter in major fields of ecology through seminars and lectures and principles illustrated by laboratory exercises and field trips. Microenvironment, population biology, community ecology, ecosystems and nutrient cycling.

ZO 790 Special Topics 1-3.

ZO 791 Topics In Animal Behavior 3.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Intensive examination of selected aspects of animal behavior and their relationship to physiology, ecology and other biological fields. May be repeated for credit when topic changes.

ZO 792 Topical Problems 1-3.

Organized, formal lectures and discussion of a special topic.

ZO 802 Seminar In Biology Of Reproduction 2.
Prerequisite: ANS(PHY) 702.

Current topics in animal reproduction presented by reproductive physiologists from various Research Triangle institutions. Student presentations of research projects or library projects in area of animal reproduction.

ZO 824 Topical Problems 1-3.

Organized, formal lectures and discussion of a special topic.

ZO 829 Special Topics 1-3.
Prerequisite: Twelve hours ZO.

A directed individual investigation of a particular problem in zoology, accompanied by a review of the pertinent literature. A maximum of three hours allowed toward master's degree.

ZO 831 Special Topics 1-6.
Prerequisite: Twelve hours ZO.

A directed individual investigation of a particular problem in zoology, accompanied by a review of the pertinent literature. A maximum of three hours allowed toward master's degree.

ZO 885 Doctoral Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

ZO 890 Doctoral Preliminary Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For student who are preparing for and taking written and/or oral preliminary exams.

ZO 893 Doctoral Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

ZO 895 Doctoral Dissertation Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Dissertation research.

ZO 896 Summer Dissertation Research 1.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

ZO 899 Doctoral Dissertation Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who have completed all credit hour, full-time enrollment, preliminary examination, and residency requirements for the doctoral degree, and are writing and defending their dissertations.