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Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences

http://www.meas.ncsu.edu/

The Department of MEAS covers a broad range of disciplines with one overarching goal: a deeper understanding of the Earth’s environment. MEAS takes an interdisciplinary approach to studying our planet’s air, earth and water, combining meteorology, earth science, and oceanography in a single department.

This interdisciplinary viewpoint is particularly important today, in light of accelerating global changes and increasing corporate and public interest in environmental health and wise use of natural resources. Many pressing questions require more than narrow training in a single discipline. MEAS graduates can be equipped for tasks as diverse as improving severe storm forecasting; assessing potential effects of oil exploration; modeling global climate trends or coastal flooding; understanding the transport of tree-killing air pollutants from industrial centers to the North Carolina mountains; developing non-polluting technology for mining; ascertaining dinosaurian physiology and ecological niches; investigating global ozone depletion, or devising plans to minimize erosion and pollution of coastlines.

MEAS offers degrees in meteorology, geology, marine sciences, and natural resources. Marine science majors learn how the oceans, solid earth, and atmosphere interact. Marine sciences courses are highly interdisciplinary and are available in chemical oceanography, physical oceanography, biological oceanography, coastal geology, and marine meteorology. Earth science courses encompass the entire earth, from the core, through the crust, to the minerals, sediments, ground water, and land forms of the surface. Tools learned allow students to understand and characterize the physical and historical earth. Course work in all areas of geology equips students to reduce potential disasters from geological hazards and to ameliorate the negative impact of human society on the geological resources of the earth. Selection of a paleontology focus produces graduates knowledgeable about the evolution of the earth’s ecosystems. The meteorology program stresses a quantitative understanding of atmospheric structure and processes. It addresses problems like air pollution, climate changes, and severe weather, such as thunderstorms, tornadoes, winter storms, and hurricanes. Forecasting and climate studies are enhanced by using real-time satellite imagery, radar-data products, and state-of-the-art computer technology. MEAS majors in Natural Resources fill a unique need in today’s society as experts who can interpret their science to public policy shapers and decision makers. The training they receive in economics, political science, and policy issues, and management equips MEAS graduates to interact with industry and with regulatory and conservation agencies.

Planet Earth is MEAS’ natural laboratory. While most scientists conduct experiments under controlled conditions designed to replicate some facets of nature, we use ships, submarines, aircraft, satellites, and unattended monitoring instruments to directly and remotely probe the natural environment itself. Computer modeling helps us visualize the real-world information, and to design the next experiments. Field study is an integral part of MEAS educational programs, enabling students to apply concepts learned in the classroom to projects in the field. Summer field courses take students to the Southwest or to the North Carolina coast for intensive training in field methods. Shorter field trips are part of classes in all disciplines.

Opportunities

MEAS undergraduate degree programs provide talented students with the foundation of scientific knowledge for careers in government, industry, or academe. Many students pursue graduate degrees.

Marine Sciences graduates can go on to become oceanographers, to manage our coastal resources, model air-sea interaction, and explore global climate change. They may conduct pure and applied research, serving as environmental consultants for industry and governmental agencies, policy and management experts for governmental agencies, and environmental science educators. Graduates with a Natural Resources degree are versed in the fundamental processes and interdisciplinary nature of the coastal zone. As scientists, managers, administrators, and regulators, they make decisions regarding use and conservation of coastal and marine resources.

Geology graduates address society’s needs for dealing effectively with earth processes, such as water supply and water quality (from ecosystem health in rivers and estuaries to residential and industrial supply and disposal), or assessment of stability of land forms. They work for engineering firms and permit-issuing agencies, and they are recruited by industries that rely on geological resources. Paleontologists are familiar with the evolution of ecosystems through time, and provide a perspective on potential long-term reactions of the biosphere to both past and current changes and stresses. Their expertise is used in education, including museums, and in theoretical and practical study of biosphere response. Those who concentrate in Environmental Geology are trained to assess and monitor geological resources like ground water contamination. Marine geologists are experts in the complex issues facing industry, municipalities, and residents in the dynamic and ecologically vulnerable coastal zone.

Meteorology graduates may enjoy careers in areas such as weather forecasting, air quality assessment, development of weather products and services, broadcast communications, and advanced research. Marine meteorologists study ocean-generated weather systems. Their research is yielding practical benefits like refined prediction of storm surge, which has streamlined evacuation efforts during severe storms along the Carolina coast. Meteorology graduates with an air quality emphasis may work for environmental firms, regulatory agencies, and in applied research. Study of air quality and how air pollution is transported and dispersed is a rapidly expanding field in the atmospheric sciences.

MEAS graduates play a key service role for the State of North Carolina, assisting in everything from forecasting severe storms and analyzing the impact of atmospheric pollutants on agriculture and our estuaries, to determining the effects of toxic waste disposal on quality of surface and ground water.

Honors Program

Participants receive enhanced coverage of academic material and are involved in research. Eligibility is based on scholastic achievement. Minimum requirements are a GPA of 3.5 overall and 3.5 in the major, including required mathematics, chemistry, and physics courses taken to date. Students are reviewed for eligibility after the first semester of the sophomore year and again as first semester juniors. Participation is optional. To successfully complete the honors program, a student will acquire a minimum of 9 credit hours of honors work, including 3 to 6 hours of independent study culminating in a written scientific report, and one of the following options:

  1. Oral presentation in the department.
  2. A poster presentation at the university's Undergraduate Research Symposium or equivalent professional conference.
  3. Presentation at a professional meeting.

The remaining honors credit is earned in honors’ sections of undergraduate courses, and in advanced (graduate) courses. Students must graduate with a 3.4 grade point average overall.

Undergraduate Research, Cooperative Education, and Internships

Examples of past undergraduate research projects include studies of coral reef fish in the Bahamas to understand age, growth, and life history transitions; assessment of Lake Victoria’s impact on the climate of East Africa; examination of the relationship between atmospheric ozone and meteorological parameters as measured with instrumented balloons; experiments on generation of oxygen from moon rocks to supplement a manned moon station; and reconstruction of events during past volcanic eruptions on Hawaii. Outstanding MEAS students can receive career training with pay through the NC State Cooperative Education program, after completing the first year of undergraduate studies. Co-op and internship students have completed assignments with the National Weather Service, US Geological Survey, US Air Force, US Environmental Protection Agency, NC Museum of Natural Sciences, NC State Climate Office, NC Division of Marine Fisheries, NASA, local environmental consulting firms, and other state and federal agencies. Many students co-op or intern at the internationally renowned Research Triangle Park. After graduation, co-op students often are hired full-time by the same companies or agencies.

Facilities

The home base of MEAS is Jordan Hall, an award-winning structure that accommodates regular and tele-video classrooms, teaching laboratories, computing facilities, and offices of faculty and staff. Jordan Hall has several facilities housing networked computers, some for unstructured student use, and some, like the Weather Analysis and Forecasting Laboratory, for teaching. This laboratory houses 50 workstations providing access to real-time and archived satellite, radar, surface, and upper-air observations plus a wide variety of numerical model fields. From the rooftop Weather Observatory, detailed weather measurements are automatically logged and archived and weather balloons are launched. Other structures include the Research III building on NC State’s Centennial Campus, which houses the State Climate Office, where many students gain skills in instrumentation, data acquisition, data analysis, and interaction with the public. For class work and field research in coastal settings, students may travel to NC State’s Center for Marine Sciences and Technology on the shore of Bogue Sound, in Morehead City.

Students who attend a research-intensive (“Research I”) university benefit from the opportunity to engage in research as undergraduates and to study with professors whose involvement in research keeps their knowledge and enthusiasm fresh. The faculty members in MEAS are internationally acknowledged research scientists, and the department maintains an extensive inventory of both laboratory and field research equipment and facilities. As a member of the Duke/UNC Oceanographic Consortium, MEAS has access to the R/V Cape Hatteras, a 135’ coastal oceanographic research vessel, which serves as a platform for work on the physics, chemistry, geology, biology and meteorology of the sea offshore. Training cruises on the R/V Cape Hatteras occur each year, providing practical experience in oceanography for marine science majors.

Specialized equipment in the department supports teaching and research in:

  • geological materials (electron microprobe)
  • X-ray fluorescence spectrometer
  • an automated X-ray diffractometer
  • neutron activation analysis)
  • geophysical measurements (GPS, gravimeter, magnetometer, seismic reflection)
  • high-resolution sub-bottom profiler (Chirp Sonar) and swath bathymetric sonar system)
  • sedimentology (microcomputer-controlled grain-size analysis)

Stable- and radio-isotope laboratories support research in biogeochemical cycling, paleoclimatology and paleontology. Paleontology also employs molecular techniques. Ecological studies are supported by a motion analysis system, a biotelemetry laboratory, and the departmental membership in the Cooperative Institute of Fisheries Oceanography, a joint venture of NOAA’s National Marine Fisheries Service and a number of universities within the state. Advancements in air-sea interactions come through the Satellite Oceanography and Image Analysis Laboratory; the Physical Oceanographic Research Laboratory with its complement of equipment to monitor the ocean’s motion and composition; the Planetary Boundary-Layer Laboratory with its instrumentation for monitoring physical processes at the land-air and sea-air interfaces; and the center for Marine Sciences and Technology at the coast in Morehead City, NC.

Curricula

The department offers several curricula in each of the areas of marine, earth and atmospheric sciences. Each prepares students for employment at graduation or for further professional training. There are two Bachelor of Science (B.S.) curricula in atmospheric sciences: Meteorology, and Marine Meteorology. Most students in meteorology are employed with private companies and public agencies. In the marine sciences, students can pursue a B.S. in marine science with one of five concentrations:

  1. Biological Oceanography
  2. Chemistry
  3. Geology
  4. Meteorology
  5. Physics

The B.S. in natural resources, with a concentration in marine and coastal resources, combines marine sciences with economics, politics, policy, and management, to prepare scientists who can interface with policy-makers and regulators. Earth sciences house two curricula: B.A. (Bachelor of Arts) and B.S. in Geology. The B.A. and B.S. degree programs require similar core courses, but the B.A. contains more social sciences and humanities, and the B.S. more mathematics and other physical sciences. An environmental geology concentration is offered within the B.A. and combines core knowledge in the science with economics, politics, and policy. Geologists are employed in both the private and public sector.

Specific curriculum requirements are available on the Registration and Records website.

Minor in Geology

The Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences offers a Minor in Geology to majors in any field except geology.  This program provides a means of recognition for students in any field who have a curiosity about the materials, structures and processes of the solid earth.

Requirements

At least 15 hours of geologic coursework which must include:
A gateway course (MEA 100, MEA 101, MEA 120, MEA 140, MEA 150, or MEA 200)
MEA 110
MEA 202 
MEA 211
A grade of "C" or better in all course work used toward minor.

Program Administrator and Contact:

Dr. James Hibbard
Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
2131 Jordan Hall
919.515.7242
jphibbar@ncsu.edu

Minor in Meteorology

The Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences offers a Minor in Meteorology to majors in any field except meteorology. Admission to the program requires a grade of C or better in the following courses:

MA 141Calculus I4
MA 241Calculus II4
MA 242Calculus III4
PY 205Physics for Engineers and Scientists I4
PY 208Physics for Engineers and Scientists II4

Successful completion of the program requires a grade of C- or better in the following courses:

MEA 213Introduction to Atmospheric Sciences I *2
MEA 214Introduction to Atmospheric Sciences II2
MEA 312Atmospheric Thermodynamics4
MEA 421Atmospheric Dynamics I3

*

MEA 130 may serve as a substitute

Program Administrator and Contact:
Dr. Matthew Parker
Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences
5149 Jordan Hall, Box 8208
Phone: (919) 513-4367

Head

W.A. Robinson, Professor


Director of Undergraduate Programs

C. J. Thomas, Research Associate Professor


Director of Graduate Programs

G.M.Lackmann, Professor


Director, CMAST

D.B. Eggleston, Professor


Director, NC-CICS-Asheville

O. Brown, Research Professor


Director, State Climate Office

R. Boyles, Extension Assistant Professor


University Distinguished Scholar

R.R. Braham

T.F. Malone


Professors

V.P. Aneja

D.J. DeMaster

D.B. Eggleston

R.V. Fodor

J.C. Fountain

D.P. Genereux

R. He

J.P. Hibbard

D.L. Kamykowski

G.M. Lackmann

E.L. Leithold

D.A. McConnell

W.A. Robinson

M.H. Schweitzer

F.M. Semazzi

W.J. Showers

L. Xie

S.E. Yuter

Y. Zhang


Research Professor

O. Brown

K.E. Kunkle


Adjunct Professor

K.V. Alapaty

J.J. Bates

N.E. Blair

S.W. Chang

T.F. Clark

W.J. Cooper

R. Dzisak

R.S. Harmon

D. Kingsmill

S.E. Koch

S.K. Leduc

R. Leung

J.M. Morrison

S.T. Rao

R. Rotunno

M.L. Strobel

J.T. Wells

C. Ziegler


Professors Emeriti

S.P. Arya

R. Braham

H.S. Brown

V.V. Cavaroc

J.M. Davis

G.C. Janowitz

L.J. Langfelder

C.J. Leith

L.J. Pietrafesa

S. Raman

C. Welby

T.G. Wolcott


Research Professor Emeritus

T.F. Clark

T.S. Hopkins

D.A. Russell


Associate Professor

A.R. Aiyyer

S. Basu

D. Bohnenstiehl

M.M. Kimberley

J.P. Liu

N. Meskhidze

H. Mitasova

M.D. Parker

A. Schnetzer

P.T. Shaw


Research Associate Professor

A.J. Newell

C.J. Thomas

P. Thorne


Associate Professor Emeritus

C.E. Knowles

A.J. Riordan

E.F. Stoddard

G.F. Watson

D.L. Wolcott


Adjunct Associate Professor

C.R. Benitez-Nelson

S.A. Braun

A.G. Brooks

S. Bulusu

D.R. Corbett

B.K. Eder

B.S. Ferrier

A.F. Hanna

C.D. Harrington

C. Jang

C. Konrad

A.G. Laing

J. Ling

J. Luczkovich

R. Nair

J.C. Reid

J. Rudek

L. Sun

J. Walker

J.C. Warner

R.W. Wiener

L. Zanno


Assistant Professor

C.L. Osburn

D.M. Petters

K.W. Wegmann


Research Assistant Professor

D.T. Ksepka

B. Liu

Z. Xue


Adjunct Assistant Professor

G.W. Bell

M. Brennan

P. Brinkman

A.M. Carlton

J.J. Charney

C.J. Coats

B. Etherton

S. Gasso

A.F. Hanna

G.J. Kirkpatrick

A.J. Lewitus

H. Liu

J.E. McNinch

D. Mecham

D.S. Niyogi

S.B. Phillips

R.E. Reed

P.A. Roelle

B.A. Schaeffer

G. Sinclair

C.R. Smith

R.C. Tacker

Q. Tong


Adjunct Lecturer

R.M. Wooten


Interinstitutional Adjunct Faculty

P.J. Robinson


Visiting Scholar

K. Hogan

J. McHenry

D.T. Olerud

J.M. Vukovich


Affiliates

J.M. Burkholder, Associate-MEAS, Associate Professor, Dept. of Biology

W.F. Clark, Associate-MEAS and Legal Specialist, NC Sea Grant College Program

Courses

MEA 100 Earth System Science: Exploring the Connections 4.

An introduction to the processes of and linkages among major components of planet Earth. Geosphere, hydrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere as dynamic and interdependent systems. Influence of human activity on earth systems. Optional weekend field trip.

MEA 101 Geology I: Physical 3.

Systematic consideration of processes operating on and below the earth's surface and the resulting features of landscape, earth structures, and earth materials. Occurrences and utilization of the earth's physical resources.

MEA 110 Geology I Laboratory 1. Corequisite: MEA 101 or Prerequisite: MEA 100, MEA 101, MEA 120, MEA 140 or MEA 200.

Scientific methodology applied to the study of common rock-forming minerals, common rocks, topographic maps, geologic structures and geological maps. Field trips.

MEA 120 The Dinosaurian World 3.

Evolution and ecology of dinosaurs related to broader features of Earth history, including plate tectonics, paleoclimatology, mass extinction and the long-term effects of natural selection.

MEA 121 The Dinosaurian World Lab 1. Corequisite: MEA 120.

Companion to lecture course on "The Dinosaurian World." Adaptive significance of osteological characteristics, ecological correlates of body weight and physical environmental variables, and concepts relating to natural selection, fitness, biodiversity and changes in the planetary environment on various time scales. Discussion, specimen demonstrations and problem solving.

MEA 130 Introduction to Weather and Climate 3.

Explores the structure, physical causes, and climatology of weather systems including the jet streams, mid-latitude cyclones, hurricanes, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. Clouds and precipitation, air pollution, climate modification, optical effects (rainbows, halos) and weather instruments. Weather systems and forecasting techniques are illustrated through daily weather map discussions.

MEA 135 Introduction to Weather and Climate Laboratory 1. Corequisite: MEA 130.

Experiments include effects of air pressure change on temperature and density (gas law); measurement of atmospheric moisture; formation of clouds and hail; effects of variable solar heating. Graphical display and interpretation of data; weather instruments and observations; weather map analysis; forecasting principles.

MEA 140 Natural Hazards and Global Change 3.

The science of natural hazards and global change: the impact on human civilization of events in the lithosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere (e.g., earthquakes, hurricanes, red tides, and floods), and the impact of humans on the global environment (e.g., global warming).

MEA 150 Environmental Issues in Water Resources 4.

The science of current environmental concerns, particularly those related to water resources. Major topics include weather and climate, natural resource cycles, resource depletion and contamination, societal impacts. Scientific aspects of environmental issues. Required field trips.

MEA 200 Introduction to Oceanography 3. Corequisite: Recommended that MEA 210 be taken concurrently..

The ocean as a part of our environment including interactions between atmosphere and ocean, ocean circulation, physical and chemical properties of sea water, marine geology and marine biology.

MEA 202 Geology II: Historical 3. Prerequisite: (MEA 100, MEA 101, MEA 120, MEA 140 or MEA 200 )and MEA 110; Corequisite: Recommended that MEA 211 be taken concurrently.

The second semester of the basic introductory sequence in geology. Utilization of the principles of geology to reconstruct and understand the earth's history. Geologic events that cause modification of the earth's crust, emphasizing North America. History of life and the environmental significance of changes in animal and plant life through geologic time.

MEA 210 Oceanography Lab 1. Corequisite: MEA 200.

Complements the lecture course in Oceanography. Numerous demonstrations and resource materials visualize basic oceanographic concepts such as geological processes operating in the marine realm, the chemical properties of seawater, oceanic circulation, tides and waves, as well as processes affecting the biology of the oceans.

MEA 211 Geology II Laboratory 1. Corequisite: MEA 202.

Reconstruction and interpretation of events in the history of the earth. Interpretation of sedimentary rocks, construction and interpretation of geological maps, identification of fossil organisms and utilization of fossils in the reconstruction of earth history.

MEA 213 Introduction to Atmospheric Sciences I 2. Corequisite: MA 141.

Introduction to the atmospheric environment. Fundamental concepts and applications of atmospheric physics and dynamics and how they relate to day-to-day and seasonal weather as well as climate change.

MEA 214 Introduction to Atmospheric Sciences II 2. Prerequisite: MEA 213.

Second course in a series introducing the atmospheric environment. Topics include midlatitude weather systems from planetary scale to mesoscale, climate and climate change, implications and impacts of the climate change, and air pollution.

MEA 220 Marine Biology 3. Prerequisite: MEA 200 or BIO 181.

Introduction to marine plants and animals, their adaptations to life in the sea and ecological interactions in selected marine environments (e.g. coral reefs, deep sea, salt marshes). Interactions of man with the sea: food from the seas, biology of diving. Optional trip.

MEA 250 Introduction to Coastal Environments 3. Prerequisite: MEA 200/210 or MEA 101/110.

A global survey of coastal habitats, the processes that shape these dynamic environments, and the physicochemical controls that regulate their indigenous biological communities.

MEA 251 Introduction to Coastal Environments Laboratory 1. Corequisite: MEA 250.

Complements the lecture course Introduction to Coastal Environments (MEA 250). Experiments involving the physical, chemical and biological processes that shape a variety of coastal environments.

MEA 300 Environmental Geology 4. Prerequisite: MEA 101 or MEA 150 or MEA 140 or SSC 200.

Geologic aspects of the environment. Effects of humans upon or interactions with geologic processes. Geologic considerations in land use planning, waste disposal, water resources, and natural resources. A field and lab oriented course with combined lecture/laboratory. Inquiry-based learning approach to study the basic processes of environmental geology and develop research skills. Required field trips.

MEA 312 Atmospheric Thermodynamics 4. Prerequisite: MA 141, PY 205; Corequisite: MA 241, PY 208.

Introduction to atmospheric thermodynamics for meteorology majors. Topics include the equation of state for mixture of gases; first and second laws of thermodynamics; diabatic and adiabatic processes for dry and moist air; measurement and phase changes of water vapor. Atmospheric statics: static stability of moist air; CAPE and vertical acceleration. Focus will be on applying the rigorous framework of classical thermodynamics to derive and solve quantitatively the governing equations describing these processes.

MEA 315 Mathematics Methods in Atmospheric Sciences 4. Prerequisite: MA 116, MA 141, MA 241; Corequisite: MA 242.

For sophomore meteorology and marine science students. A complement to MA 242 designed to prepare students for quantitative atmospheric applications. Topics include an introduction to vectors and vector calculus, atmospheric waves, phase and group velocity, perturbation analysis, fourier decomposition, matrix operations, chaos and predictability. For MY, MMY, and MRM majors only.

MEA 320 Fundamentals of Air Pollution 3. Prerequisite: MA 121 or MA 131 or MA 141, CH 201, PY 131 or PY 201 or PY 205 or PY 211.

Air pollution sources, and the influence of natural and anthropogenic processes on the atmosphere. Roles of local, state and federal governments in air pollution control and importance of the Clean Air Act and it amendments.

MEA 321 Fundamentals of Air Quality and Climate Change 3. Prerequisite: CH 101, CH 201, MA 141, MA 241; Corequisite: PY 205.

An intermediate-level introduction, for meteorology majors, to the physical and chemical environment of the atmosphere and to climate change. Topics include the atmosphere's chemical composition; atmospheric chemical reaction processes in gas phase, liquid phase, and on particle surfaces.

MEA 323 Earth System Chemistry 3. Prerequisite: CH 201 and (CE 373 or any MEA course).

Chemistry of the earth with an emphasis on the interactions of the biosphere, geosphere and atmosphere. The origin and chemical evolution of the solar system, chemical cycles in the environment, and the impact of man on biogeochemical processes.

MEA 369 Terrestrial Paleontology 4. Prerequisite: BIO 181 or MEA 202 or MEA 120.

Evolution of terrestrial life traced through geologic time, accenting the functional significance of adaptations and the history of terrestrial ecosystems. Required field trips.

MEA 410 Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology 4. Prerequisite: (MEA 100, MEA 101, MEA 120, MEA 140 or MEA 200), and MEA 110 and CH 101/102.

Introduction to the fundamentals of mineralogy, optical mineralogy, and igneous and metamorphic petrology. Description and identification of minerals, using physical properties and geological associations. Optical properties of non-opaque rock-forming minerals, emphasizing petrographic thin sections. Introduction to igneous and metamorphic environments and rocks. Description and classification of common crystalline rocks. Required overnight field trips; additional expenses required.

MEA 411 Marine Sediment Transport 3. Prerequisite: MEA 101 or MEA 200, MA 241, PY 201 or PY 205.

Quantitative study of sediment transport in the marine environment including an introduction to fluid mechanics and sediment transport theory. Discussion of the processes and products of sediment transport in specific marine environments from estuaries to the deep sea and interpretation of sediment transport processes from sedimentary structures. Credit not allowed for both MEA 411 and MEA 562.

MEA 412 Atmospheric Physics 3. Prerequisite: MA 242, PY 208.

Physical and analytical descriptions of atmospheric aerosols, clouds/fogs, and precipitation processes; size distribution and sources of atmospheric aerosols; impact of aerosols on visibility and climate; microstructure of warm and cold clouds and their interaction with solar and terrestrial radiation; collision-coalescence and ice phase mechanisms of precipitation formation; atmospheric electricity; planned and inadvertent weather modification; weather radar; atmospheric optics.

MEA 415 Climate Dynamics 3. Prerequisite: MEA 412 and MEA 422.

A physically based treatment of climate change, climate variability, and climate models, for upper-level undergraduate meteorology majors. Topics include Earth's energy balance and the greenhouse effect, drivers of future and past climate change, and climate model projections of global warming and its implications. Cannot receive credit for both MEA 415 and MEA 515.

MEA 421 Atmospheric Dynamics I 3. Prerequisite: MA 242 and PY 208 and MEA 312.

Meteorological applications of fluid kinematics: divergence, vorticity, deformation, advection, mass continuity and vertical motion. Atmospheric dynamics: the equation of motion on a rotating earth; component equations in Cartesian, polar-sphericaland pressure coordinates. Scale analysis and simplifications. Cases of horizontal flow: geostrophic and gradient wind, ageostrophy and acceleration; thermal wind and vorticity.

MEA 422 Atmospheric Dynamics II 3. Prerequisite: MEA 421.

Vorticity and potential vorticity equations; dynamics of synoptic-scale motions; quasi-geostrophic theory; atmospheric waves including shallow water, internal gravity, inertia-gravity, and Rossby waves; finite difference methods; numerical weather prediction; atmospheric instabilities including static, Kelvin-Helmholtz, inertial, symmetric, barotropic, and baroclinic instabilities.

MEA 425 Introduction to Atmospheric Chemistry 3. Prerequisite: MA 141, CH 201, (PY 205, PY 211 or MEA 320).

The course covers history, regulations, sources, physics, and chemistry of major air pollutants and factors affecting their transport and fate. Emphasis is placed on atmospheric chemistry and physics underlying five major air pollutant problems including urban outdoor air pollution, indoor air pollution, acid deposition, stratospheric ozone reduction, and global climate change. Credit will not be allowed for MEA 425 and MEA 525.

MEA 433 Forensic Geology 4. Prerequisite: MEA 101.

Application of geology to crime investigation, ranging from violent crime to fraud and liability in property management. Role of a geologist as expert witness. Application of analytical techniques, e.g., petrographic microscopy, trace-element analysis, remote sensing, digital mapping, and image analysis. Tour of the SBI lab and a certified gemology lab. Identification of art fraud by pigment analysis and a corresponding tour of the NC Museum of Art.

MEA 435 Engineering Geology 3. Prerequisite: MEA 101 and Junior standing in Colleges of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Engineering, Natural Resources, College of Sciences or Textiles.

Application of both geology and geotechnical engineering to engineering projects. Illustrations of relevant materials properties and techniques utilized in describing subsurface conditions.

MEA 440 Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology 4. Prerequisite: MEA 410.

The study of rocks formed by the crystallization of magmas (igneous) and by the recrystallization of existing rocks (metamorphic), with emphasis on whole-rock and mineral compositions, classification, petrography, hand-sample and thin-section identification, and the rock origins in terms of magma genesis and emplacement and tectonics. Field trips are required.

MEA 443 Synoptic Weather Analysis and Forecasting 4. Prerequisite: MEA 421.

Analysis and forecasting of mid-latitude weather systems with emphasis on simplified models and methods. Barotropic model, Rossby waves; baroclinic structure, upper-level wave evolution, forecasting; surface cyclone evolution, Sutcliffe-Petterssen model. Numerical computation methods; numerical weather prediction and operational models, subjective and objective analysis of meteorological fields.

MEA 444 Mesoscale Analysis and Forecasting 4. Prerequisite: MEA 443.

Analysis and forecasting of mid-latitude weather systems with emphasis on mesoscale phenomena. Definition of the mesoscale, approximations to the governing equations, basic measurements and techniques; observations, basic governing dynamics, and forecasting of mesoscale phenomena, including drylines, low-level jets, conditional symmetric instability, crographically-induced circulations, thunderstorms, mesoscale convective, and severe convective weather.

MEA 449 Principles of Biological Oceanography 3.

Biological productivity and trophic relationships in plankton, nekton and benthos; community ecology of selected habitats (estuaries, intertidal zones, coral reefs, deep sea); and adaptation of organisms to the marine environment. Credit is not allowed for both MEA/BIO 449 and MEA/BIO 549.

MEA 450 Introductory Sedimentary Petrology/Stratigraphy 4. Prerequisite: MEA 410.

Properties, classification, geologic occurrences, and origin of minerals and rocks formed by physical, chemical, and biologic processes at and near the earth's surface. Principles of division of stratified terrains into natural units, correlation of strata, interpretation of depositional environments and facies. Required field trips.

MEA 451 Structural Geology 4. Prerequisite: MEA 410.

Basic principles of geometric, kinematic and dynamic analysis as applied to fractures, shear zones, folds, and fabrics of deformed rock bodies. Considers both brittle and ductile realms of the crust from microscale to regional tectonics. Required overnight field trips.

MEA 454 Marine Physical-Biological Interactions 3. Prerequisite: MEA 460 and MEA/ZO 449.

Space-time relationships between physics and biology; influence of Reynolds Number on aquatic life style; aspects of physical and biological mathematical modeling; influence of biology on physical phenomena; influence of static physical/chemical properties on biology; influence of dynamic physical phenomena (turbulence, waves and advection) on biology within the water column and its boundaries. Credit is not allowed for both MEA454 and 554.

MEA 455 Micrometeorology 3. Prerequisite: MEA 422 or MAE 308.

Energy budget near the earth's surface; soil temperatures and heat transfer; air temperature, humidity, and wind distribution in the planetary boundary layer; fundamentals of viscous flows and turbulence; semiempirical theories of turbulence; exchanges of momentum, heat and moisture in the atmospheric surface layer; air modification due to changes in surface properties; agricultural and forest micrometeorology.

MEA 458 Introduction to Tropical Meteorology 3. Prerequisite: MEA 422.

Introduction to tropical meteorology using phenomenological examples. Thermodynamic structure of the mean tropical atmosphere, Hadley circulation, equatorial waves and the Madden Julian oscillation, El Nino-Southern oscillation, monsoons and tropical cyclones. Meteorology majors only. Meteorology majors only.

MEA 459 Field Investigation of Coastal Processes 5. Prerequisite: MEA 250 and MEA 251.

Coastal zone processes and dynamics with emphasis on the forcing factors that regulate changing coastal landforms, the ecology and physicochemical character of coastal ocean water-masses, seabed morphologies, landscape academes, etc. Field observations and field techniques will be emphasized in tidal-freshwater coastal wetlands, estuaries, barrier island, tidal inlets, continental shelves and shelf-margin habitats. Additional feeds required.

MEA 460 Principles of Physical Oceanography 3. Prerequisite: MA 241 or MA 231; Corequisite: PY 203,PY 208 or PY 212..

Introduction to principles and practices of physical oceanography. Equation of state of seawater; energy transfer to the ocean by thermal, radiative and mechanical processes; the heat budget; oceanic density distribution; oceanic boundary conditions; conservations equation; air-sea interaction; global fluxes and general description of major ocean currents. Credit is not allowed for both MEA 460 and MEA 540.

MEA 461 Undergraduate Cruise Experience 1. Corequisite: MEA 200 or MEA 220.

Broad exposure to planning and execution of oceanographic research operations, including demonstration of techniques and equipment regularly used aboard ships and familiarization with acquisition and processing of oceanographic data via preparation for and participation in a demonstration cruise under the guidance of NCSU oceanography faculty members.

MEA 462 Observational Methods and Data Analysis in Marine Physics 3. Prerequisite: MEA 460.

Practical experience in the observational techniques used by physical oceanographers. Basic instrumentation described, emphasizing principles rather than detailed descriptions. Both direct and indirect techniques used to define the three-dimensionalcirculation of the ocean as a function of time.

MEA 463 Fluid Physics 3. Prerequisite: MA 341 and PY 208.

A derivation of the basic equations governing fluid motion in a rotating coordinate system. Equations include conservation of mass or the continuity equation, momentum equations, thermodynamic energy equation and the vorticity equation. Application of equations to simplified oceanic flows which include surface gravity waves, inertial motion, geostrophic motion, Ekman dynamics and vorticity dynamics.

MEA 464 Ocean Circulation Systems 3. Prerequisite: MEA 460.

Dynamical processes governing ocean circulation. Driving of ocean currents by the atmosphere, currents on a rotating spherical earth. Mid-ocean gyre, western boundary currents, equatorial current systems, and polar circulation. Currents in coastal regions and shallow-water processes.

MEA 465 Geologic Field Camp 4. Prerequisite: MEA 450 and MEA 451.

Introduction to field instruments and techniques used in geological sciences. Geologic field mapping in areas ranging from undeformed sedimentary rocks to complexly deformed crystalline rocks. May include field techniques specific to engineering geology, geophysics, hydrogeology, and paleontology. Preparation of maps and reports. Four-week course taught off-campus, typically out-of-state. Additional fees required.

MEA 467 Marine Meteorology 3. Prerequisite: MEA 422 or MEA 460.

Basic equation and concepts. Review of ocean and atmospheric circulations. Ocean mixed layer, air-sea interaction and coastal ocean and meteorological processes, marine boundary layer and cloud processes.

MEA 469 Ecology of coastal Resources 3. Prerequisite: MEA 250 and MEA 220 or MEA 449.

Anthropogenic impacts on estuarine and coastal marine ecosystems. Survey of basic biological, physical, chemical and geological mechanisms underlying habitat-specific functioning, followed by discussion, in-class presentation, and critique of real and hypothetical case studies involving anthropogenic impacts.

MEA 470 Introduction to Geophysics 3. Prerequisite: PY 208 or 212.

Structure of the earth, a dynamic and evolving entity, as inferred from seismology, gravity, magnetism and heat flow. Geodynamic processes responsible for continental drift; plate tectonic theory; regional geophysics of selected areas.

MEA 471 Exploration and Engineering Geophysics 3. Prerequisite: PY 208 or PY 211.

Geophysical methods applied to exploring the earth's shallow sub-surface. Principles of gravity, magnetic, electrical, and seismic exploration surveys. Planning, conducting, and interpreting geophysical surveys.

MEA 473 Principles of Chemical Oceanography 3. Prerequisite: CH 201.

Chemical processes controlling the composition of oceans, including discussions of chemical equilibria, biological cycling of nutrients and use of chemical tracers in marine environment; consideration of origin and chemical history of oceans. Creditis not allowed for both MEA 473 and MEA 573.

MEA 476 Worldwide River and Delta Systems: Their Evolution and Human Impacts 3. Offered in Fall Only.

Survey of major world rivers and deltas, such as the Amazon, Mississippi, Yello, Yangtze, Mekong, Ganges-Brahmaputra, Indus, Nile, etc. Descriptions of their initiation, development, and evolution processes. Definitions of the impacts caused by climate changes and human activities. Examination of the river-ocean interactions and sedimentary and geochemical processes in terms of sea-level change, monsoon, and sediment dispersal and deposition.

MEA 479 Air Quality 3. Prerequisite: CE 373,CE 382; or CHE 311(CHE Majors); or MEA 421 (MEA Majors), Corequisite: ST 370 ; ST 380 (MEA Majors).

Introduction to: risk assessment, health effects, and regulation of air pollutants; air pollution statistics; estimation of emissions; air quality meteorology; dispersion modeling for non-reactive pollutants; chemistry and models for tropospheric ozone formation; aqueous-phase chemistry, including the "acid rain: problem; integrated assessment of air quality problems; and the fundamentals and practical aspects of commonly used air quality models. Credit is allowed only for one of CE/MEA 479 or CE/MEA 579.

MEA 481 Geomorphology: Earth's Dynamic Surface 3. Prerequisite: (MEA 100, MEA 101, MEA 120, MEA 140 or MEA 200) and MEA 110.

Landforms and the processes responsible for their origin. Emphasis on the geologic principles involved in interpreting the origin and evolution of various landforms, and discussion of North American geomorphic process.

MEA 485 Introduction to Hydrogeology 3. Prerequisite: (MEA 101 or MEA 202), (MA 131 or MA 141), CH 201, and (PY 201, PY 205, or PY 211).

Basic science of groundwater flow in geological media. Saturated and unsaturated flow, Darcy's equation, heterogeneity and anisotrophy, flownets, storage properties of geological materials, effective stress, equations for steady and unsteady flow, recharge, groundwater exchange with surface water, groundwater flow to pumping wells, estimation of hydraulic properties of aquifers, contaminant plumes and chemical transport in groundwater.

MEA 493 Special Topics in MEAS 1-6.

Directed individual study or experimental course offering.

MEA 495 Senior Seminar in the Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences 1.

Emphasis on student professional development. Discussions of professional opportunities, resources, and ethics. Professionals from the public and private sectors introduce students to career options in marine, earth and atmospheric sciences.. Strategies for finding jobs and graduate programs are presented. Students reflect on future career goals and plans.

MEA 498 Internship in MEAS 1-6.

Awards academic credit for learning that occurs during internships. Requires daily journal and written summary report. Successful completion of the course based on review of summary report by an MEAS faculty, who shall be identified by the studentprior to the internship. Transportation expenses may be incurred. MEAS majors only.

MEA 510 Air Pollution Meteorology 3. Prerequisite: MAE 308 or MEA 455 or MEA 700.

Wind structure in atmospheric surface layer and planetary boundary layer; temperature structure and stability; mixed layer and inversions; turbulence intensity and scale; meteorological factors affecting dispersion of pollutants; diffusion theories and models; diffusion and transport experiments; plume rise, fumigation and trapping; removal processes; effects of buildings and hills; effects of local winds.

MEA 511 Introduction to Meteorological Remote Sensing 3.

Meteorological remote sensing data sets used in operational forecast and research applications. Sensor physical principles. Emphasis is on understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the different types of observational data so that the student can judge adequacy of purpose for their applications.

MEA 512 Satellite Meteorology 3. Prerequisite: MA 241, Corequisite: MEA 443.

Basic background in satellite orbits, coordinate systems and image navigation; description of sensors and techniques for quantitative measurement of atmospheric variables. Applications of satellite data in analysis of weather systems; evolution of convective systems, tropical disturbances and mid-latitude cyclones as revealed by visible and infrared imagery; current research in satellite applications.

MEA 513 Radar Meteorology 3. Prerequisite: MEA 412, MEA 422, CSC 112, ST 380.

Principles of radar operations and analysis. Application of radar to observing stormy and clear weather. Conventional weather radar; Doppler, polarimetric and wind profiling radars. Precipitation estimation, hydrometeor identification, air motion analysis using radar. Practical radar imagery interpretation using computer-based learning and case studies. Radar observations and analyses of thunderstorms, mesocylones, tornadoes, fronts, hurricanes, boundary layer phenomena.

MEA 514 Advanced Physical Meteorology 3. Prerequisite: MEA 412, MEA 421.

Fundamental laws and concepts of thermodynamics and electromagnetic radiative transfer considered in an atmospheric context. Application of these principles to a number of meteorological problems, including radiative climate models, the global energy balance, atmospheric aerosols, lidar/radar backscatter and remotely sensed temperature fields.

MEA 515 Climate Dynamics 3. Prerequisite: MEA 412 and MEA 422.

A physically based treatment of climate change, climate variability, and climate models, for upper-level undergraduate meteorology majors. Topics include Earth's energy balance and the greenhouse effect, drivers of future and past climate change, and climate model projections of global warming and its implications. Cannot receive credit for both MEA 415 and MEA 515.

MEA 525 Introduction to Atmospherice Chemistry 3. Prerequisite: MA 141, CH 201, (PY 205, PY 211 or MEA 320).

The course covers history, regulations, sources, physics, and chemistry of major air pollutants and factors affecting their transport and fate. Emphasis is placed on atmospheric chemistry and physics underlaying five major air pollutant problems including urban outdoor air pollution, indoor air pollution, acid depostion, stratospheric ozone reduction, and global climate change. Credit will not be allowed for MEA 425 and MEA 525.

MEA 540 Principles of Physical Oceanography 3. Prerequisite: MA 231 and PY 212.

Introduction to principles and practice of physical oceanography. The equation of state of seawater; energy transfer to the ocean by thermal, radiative and mechanical processes; the heat budget; oceanic boundary conditions; geographical distributionof oceanic properties; observational methods; conservation equations; simple waves and tides; physical oceanography of North Carolina coastal zone. Application of Fourier analysis techniques to interpretation of low-frequency motions in ocean and atmosphere. Review of Fourier method. Filtering of tidal signals. Spectral estimates and calculation of current ellipses. Identification of coherent motions and their empirical orthogonal modes. Data from field experiments used in lectures and homeworkassignments. Credit is not allowed for both MEA 460 and MEA 540.

MEA 549 Principles of Biological Oceanography 3. Prerequisite: BIO 181.

Environmental dependencies, biological productivity, and trophic relationships in plankton, nekton and benthos; Sampling methods and experimental design; Human impacts on marine systems.Credit is not allowed for both MEA 449 and MEA(ZO)549.

MEA 554 Marine Physical-Biological Interactions 3. Prerequisite: MEA 460/560 and MEA 449 or MEA(ZO) 549.

Space-time relationships between physics and biology; influence of Reynolds Number on aquatic life style; aspects of physical and biological mathematical modeling; influence of biology on physical phenomena; influence of static physical/chemical properties on biology; influence of dynamic physical phenomena (turbulence, waves and advection) on biology within the water column and its boundary. Credit is not allowed for both MEA 454 and 554.

MEA 562 Marine Sediment Transport 3. Prerequisite: MEA 101 or MEA 200, MA 241, PY 201 or PY 205.

Quantitative study of sediment transportation in the marine environment including introduction to fluid mechanics and sediment transportation theory. Processes and products of sediment transportation in specific marine environments from estuaries todeep sea and the interpretation of sediment transport processes from sedimentary structures. Credit not allowed for both MEA 411 and MEA 562.

MEA 570 Geological Oceanography 3.

A comprehensive overview of the geological aspects of oceanography. Topics include: a) marine geophysics and the evolution of ocean basins, b) sedimentological processes and the formation of marine deposits, c) marine geochemistry and authigenic sedimentation, d) paleoceanography and the interpretation of marine stratigraphy.

MEA 573 Principles of Chemical Oceanography 3. Prerequisite: CH 201.

Chemical processes controlling the composition of oceans, including discussions of chemical equilibria, biological cycling of nutrients and use of chemical tracers in marine environment; consideration of origin and chemical history of oceans. Creditis not allowed for both MEA 473 and MEA 573.

MEA 574 Advanced Igneous Petrology 3. Prerequisite: MEA 440.

Physicochemical principles related to igneous petrogenesis. General principles and specific problems including origin, differentiation and emplacement of magmas and the possible relationships of igneous processes to global tectonics.

MEA 577 Electron Microprobe Analysis of Geologic Material 2. Prerequisite: MEA 410.

Theory of quantitative analysis of geologic material by electron beam application; laboratory operation of electron microprobe to acquire chemical composition and x-ray images of geologic material.

MEA 579 Principles of Air Quality Engineering 3. Prerequisite: CE 373,CE 382; or CHE 311(CHE Majors); or MEA 421(MEA Majors), Corequisite: ST 370; ST 380(MEA Majors).

Introduction to: risk assessment, health effects, and regulation of air pollutants; air pollution statistics; estimation of emissions; air quality meteorology; dispersion modeling for non-reactive pollutants; chemistry and models for tropospheric ozone formation; aqueous-phase chemistry, including the "acid rain" problem; integrated assessment of air quality problems; and the fundamentals and practical aspects of commonly used air quality models. Credit is allowed only for one of CE/MEA 479 or CE/MEA 579.

MEA 580 Air Quality Modeling and Forecasting 4. Prerequisite: CSC 112, MEA 425/525, CE 479/579.

Topics include numerical solutions to ODEs/PDEs, atmospheric chemistry, cloud and aerosol microphysics, emission modeling, meteorological modeling, and model design, applications, and evaluation. It is targeted for students who would like to learn about air quality modeling and who are prospective air quality model users.

MEA 581 Fluid Mechanics in Natural Environments 3. Prerequisite: CE 382 or MEA 463 or permission of instructor.

Free surface flows of water and air occurring in natural fluid systems and influencing environmental transport and mixing. Review of fundamental principles of fluids, covering the scales relevant to both engineering and geo-physical applications. Topics and examples include waves, instability, stratification, turbulent boundary layers, jets and plumes, and open channel flows. Cannot receive credit for both CE 581 and MEA 581.

MEA 582 Geospatial Modeling and Analysis 3.

The course explains digital representation and analysis of geospatial phenomena and provides foundations in methods and algorithms used in GIS analysis and modeling. Special focus is on terrain modeling, geomorphometry, watershed analysis and introductory GIS-based modeling of landscape process (water, sediment). This course includes analysis from lidar data, 3D visualization, and principles of open source GIS. Introductory level knowledge of GIS or surveying/ geomatics principles is required.

MEA 585 Physical Hydrogeology 3. Prerequisite: MEA 101, MEA 110, MA 241, and PY 201 or PY 205.

Physical aspects of groundwater flow in geological media. Saturated and unsaturated flow, Darcy's equation, heterogeneity and anisotropy, storage properties of geological materials, effective stress, governing equations for steady and unsteady flow, recharge, groundwater exchange with surface water, groundwater flow to well,s estimation of hydraulic properties of aquifers.

MEA 591 Special Topics in Marine Science 1-3.

Opportunity for advanced undergraduate and graduate students to study timely special problem areas in Marine Science and Engineering.

MEA 592 Special Topics in Earth Sciences 1-6.

Special topics in earth sciences, provided to groups or to individuals.

MEA 593 Special Topics in Atmospheric Science 1-3.

Special topics in atmospheric science, provided to groups or to individuals.

MEA 599 Regional Geology of North America 1-6. Prerequisite: MEA 101 or MEA 120, Senior standing.

Field study of classic geologic localities and geomorphic processes not indigenous to North Carolina. Typical areas: New England and adjacent Canada, northern Mexico and southwestern United States and Pacific Northwest. Representative subjects include Canadian Shield, Precambrian mineral deposits, San Andreas fault, desert geomorphology, Grand Canyon stratigraphy, modern and ancient reefs and glaciated volcanoes. Mineral, rock and fossil collecting. Required student reports.

MEA 601 Seminar 1.

Presentation by each student of one seminar on his/her current research.

MEA 611 Special Topics in Marine Sciences 1-6.

Special topics in earth sciences, provided to groups or to individuals.

MEA 612 Special Topics in Earth Sciences 1-3.

Special topics in atmospheric science, provided to groups or to individuals.

MEA 613 Special Topics Atmospheric Sciences 1-6.

MEA 615 Graduate At-Sea Laboratory 1.

Specialized experience in planning and execution of oceanographic research operations, including practice with techniques and equipment regularly used aboard ships and familiarization with acquistition and processing of oceanographic data via preparations for and participation in a research cruise under the guidance of NCSU faculty members.

MEA 685 Master's Supervised Teaching 1-3.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

MEA 688 Non-Thesis Masters Continuous Registration - Half Time Registration 1.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain half-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc.

MEA 689 Non-Thesis Master Continuous Registration - Full Time Registration 3.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all credit hour requirements for their degree but need to maintain full-time continuous registration to complete incomplete grades, projects, final master's exam, etc. Students may register for this course a maximum of one semester.

MEA 690 Master's Examination 1-6.

For students in non thesis master's programs who have completed all other requirements of the degree except preparing for and taking the final master's exam.

MEA 693 Master's Supervised Research 1-9.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

MEA 695 Master's Thesis Research 1-9.

Thesis Research.

MEA 696 Summer Thesis Research 1.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

MEA 699 Master's Thesis Preparation 1-3.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements and full-time enrollment for the master's degree and are writing and defending their thesis. Credits Arranged.

MEA 700 Environmental Fluid Mechanics 3. Prerequisite: MA 241, PY 208.

Basic concepts and laws governing motion of atmosphere and oceans developed from first principles, including approximations valid for environmental flows, kinematics, dynamics and thermodynamics of fluid flows as well as introduction to environmental turbulence. Credit is not allowed for both MEA 463 and MEA 700.

MEA 702 Advanced Cloud and Precipitation Physics 3. Prerequisite: MEA 421 or MEA 412.

Analysis of microstructure of warm and cold clouds and precipitation, cloud microphysics-dynamics interactions, formation of cloud droplets, growth of cloud droplets by condensation, initiation of rain in nonfreezing clouds, formation and growth of ice crystals, precipitation theories, planned and inadvertent weather modification, and the problem of acid rain.

MEA 703 Atmospheric Aerosols 3. Prerequisite: CH 201 and PY 205 or 211, Corequisite: MEA 412.

An understanding of aerosols as primary air pollutants, indoor versus outdoor pollution, transformation processes, prediction of atmospheric concentrations, scavenging of aerosols, transport of air pollutants on a regional scale, discussion of national experiments to characterize and study impact of urban-industrial pollution, tropospheric aerosol and weather, stratospheric aerosol, effect of aerosols on atmospheric warming and cooling and air-quality models.

MEA 705 Dynamic Meteorology 3. Prerequisite: MEA 422.

Brief review of classical and physical hydrodynamics; scale analysis of dynamic equations; atmospheric instabilities; dynamics of tropical convections; perturbation theory and approximations for atmospheric wave motions.

MEA 706 Meterology of the Biosphere 3. Prerequisite: PY 205 or 211; CH 201; MA 101 or 111.

For graduate students in the life sciences, presenting physical principles governing the states and processes of atmosphere in contact with earth's surface of land, water and life. Exchanges of heat, mass and momentum analyzed for various conditionsof atmosphere and surface and as function of season, time and geographic location.

MEA 707 Planetary Boundary Layer 3. Prerequisite: MEA 455 or MEA 721.

Review of basic equations and concepts of planetary boundary layers. The closure problem and semi-empirical theories of turbulence, buoyancy effects on mean flow and turbulence, instrumentation and observational platforms for PBL experiments, observed characteristics of atmospheric boundary layers, numerical and physical modeling of PBL and its parameterization in large-scale atmospheric circulation models.

MEA 708 Atmospheric Turbulence 3. Prerequisite: MAE 550 or MEA 700 or MEA 707.

Statistical description of turbulence, including probability, correlation and spectrum functions. Statistical theory of homogeneous turbulence, spectral dynamics and Kolmogorov's local similarity hypotheses. Effects of shear, thermal stratification and earth's rotation. Observed structure and scales of turbulence in PBL and free atmosphere. Higher-order closure models and large eddy simulations of atmospheric turbulence.

MEA 710 Atmospheric Dispersion 3. Prerequisite: MAE 550 or MEA 700 or MEA 510.

Lagrangian vs. Eulerian descriptions of turbulence and diffusion. Statistical theories of absolute and relative diffusion from continuous and instantaneous releases. Effects of shear, thermal stratification and earth's rotation on atmospheric dispersion. Lagrangian similarity theories of diffusion in the surface layer and mixed layer. Random walk, Monte Carlo and large eddy simulations of atmospheric dispersion. Urban and regional dispersion models.

MEA 712 Mesoscale Modeling 3. Prerequisite: MEA 705.

Modeling mesoscale weather phenomena including midlatitude cyclones, mesoscale convective complexes and squall lines. Application of finite difference, spectral and implicit methods and coordinate transforms to these problems. Utilization of explicit representations of moist processes. Development of parameterizations of convective clouds, planetary boundary layer and moist processes.

MEA 713 Mesoscale Dynamics 3. Prerequisite: MEA 700 and MEA 705.

Inertia-gravity waves. Mechanical and thermally forced waves. Generation, circulation and maintenance of mesoscale convective storms and systems. Symmetric instability. Wave-CISK, quasi-geostrophic and semi-geostrophic fronts and fronto-genesis. Meso-B/Y frontogenesis. Lee and coastal cyclogenesis.

MEA 714 Atmospheric Convection 3. Prerequisite: MEA 412, MEA 700, MEA 705.

Structure, physics and dynamics of convective clouds and cloud systems; fundamental equations for modeling convection; microphysical parameterization schemes; influence of instabilities on convective cloud systems; severe thunderstorms dynamics; tornadogenesis theories; mesoscale convective systems; upscale feedback effects of convection; cumulus parameterization schemes.

MEA 715 Dynamics of Mesoscale Precipitation System 3. Prerequisite: MEA 444.

Frontogenesis theory; inertial and conditional symmetric instability; mesoscale gravity waves and wave-CISK; conveyor belts; seeder-feeder processes and precipitation generating cells; classification and dynamics of precipitation band types.

MEA 716 Numerical Weather Prediction 3. Prerequisite: MEA 705, CSC (MA) 427 and some FORTRAN programming experience.

Physical and mathematical basis of numerical weather prediction with computer experiments to demonstrate principles and techniques. Derivation of sets of prediction equations consistent with scale analysis and dynamical constraints; atmospheric waves and filtered equations; numerical methods and computational instabilities; filtered and primitive equation models; NWS operational models.

MEA 717 Advanced Weather Analysis 3. Prerequisite: MEA 444, MEA 705.

Evolution of physical and dynamic structure of synoptic and sesoscale storm systems occurring in middle and high latitudes. Recent advances in understanding these storm systems through intensive field experiments and computer modeling. Introduction to contemporary analysis techniques through laboratory exercises shedding light on storm structure, dynamics and scale interaction.

MEA 719 Climate Modeling 3. Prerequisite: MEA 705.

Climate system. Fundamental equations and time scales. Atmosphere, ocean, biosphere, cryosphere, lithosphere and hydrosphere subsystems. Computational numerical methods. Physical processes; atmosphere-ocean coupling, role of radiation, clouds and land surface processes. Climate anomalies due to changes in atmospheric composition, boundary conditions and extra-terrestrial forcing. Model validation, climate change detection, past climates and future climate scenarios.

MEA 720 Coastal Meteorology 3. Prerequisite: MEA 455.

Importance and complexity of coastal meteorological processes; modification induced by surface inhomogeneities; development of internal boundary layers; thermally induced internal boundary layers; coastal fumigation processes; structure and development of sea and land breezes; analytical and numerical modeling of sea breezes; coastal fronts; storm surges; prediction models for storm surges; cold air outbreaks; baroclinic boundary layer processes near coastal areas.

MEA 721 Air-Sea Interaction 3. Prerequisite: MEA 422 or MEA 560.

Review of basic equations and concepts of turbulent transfer in geophysical flows, air-sea interaction processes and their importance to man's activities, theory and observation of wind-generated ocean surface waves, turbulent transfers in planetaryboundary layer of marine atmosphere, oceanic mixed layer, development of thermocline and inversion.

MEA 725 Geophysical Fluid Mechanics 3. Prerequisite: MAE 701.

The principles of fluid mechanics applied to geophysical systems. Special emphasis placed on those features of these systems, such as almost rigid rotation and stable stratification, which produce unique and important effects. The effects of almost rigid rotations on homogeneous and stratified flows examined in detail.

MEA 726 Advanced Geophysical Fluid Mechanics 3. Prerequisite: MAE 725.

Principles of fluid mechanics applied to geophysical systems. Special emphasis on role of stable stratification on the flows in these systems. Detailed study of generation, interaction, propagation and dissipation of internal gravity waves. Studyof other geophysically important flows.

MEA 735 Fourier Analysis of Geophysical Data 3. Prerequisite: MA 341 and ST 511.

Application of Fourier analysis to interpretation of low-frequency motions in ocean and atmosphere. Review of Fourier method. Filtering of tidal signals. Spectral estimates and calculation of current ellipses. Identification of coherent motions and their empirical orthogonal modes. Data from field experiments used in lectures and homework assignments.

MEA 741 Synpotic Physical Oceanography 3. Prerequisite: MEA 560.

Basic discussion of the techniques and terminology of synoptic physical oceanography; focus on water characteristics and their relationship to currents in the individual oceans; a systematic quantitative description of the character of ocean waters and their movements.

MEA 743 Ocean Circulation 3. Prerequisite: MEA 700 or PY 411.

Basic study of mechanics of ocean circulation with emphasis on various simple models of circulation systems.

MEA 744 Dynamics of Shelf Circulation 3. Prerequisite: MEA 700.

Description and models of dynamic processes on the shelf, including seiches and tides in gulfs, propagation of tides and storm surges, wind-induced coastal upwelling, continental shelf waves and coastally trapped waves. Steady circulation driven by winds, river plumes and density forcing, formation of shelf-break fronts; and influence from deep-ocean currents.

MEA 750 Marine Benthic Ecology 3. Prerequisite: ZO 402, ZO 509 or ZO 760 or MEA(ZO) 550.

Marine benthic systems in deep sea and in shallow waters, focusing upon abiotic and biotic processes regulating density, diversity and taxonomic and functional composition. Discussions of benthic-pelagic coupling, predation, interspecific competition, biogeography, sampling problems, evolutionary trends, trophic structure and community organization.

MEA 752 Marine Plankton Ecology 3. Prerequisite: BCH 451 and MA 121 and ZO 419.

Examination of worldwide relationships between physical-chemical environment and planktonic organisms. Organism descriptions; effects of light, temperature, salinity, density, water motion and chemical constituents on organisms; interactions among different organisms emphasizing competition and predation; community structure, distribution and succession; and mathematics models of distribution, production and interaction.

MEA 754 Advances In Marine Community Ecology 3. Prerequisite: ZO 402 or ZO 760 or MEA(ZO) 750.

Current research and biological and physical processes structuring shallow and deep water benthic communities. Recent research on competition, predation, disturbance, succession, animal-sediment-flow interactions, life history tactics and experimental design in marine benthic biology. Student discussion of current issues and critique of recent papers.

MEA 759 Organic Geochemistry 3.

Sources and fates of organic material in the geochemical environment. Microbial transformations of organic compounds. The use of biomarkers to study depositional environments. Petroleum, natural gas and coal formation. Extraterrestrial organic geochemistry.

MEA 760 Biogeochemistry 3.

Processes involved in the biogeochemical cycling of C, N, S and related biogenic elements. Stable isotopic and other geochemical signatures of biological processes. Introduction to modeling chemical distributions in sediments. The impact of biogeochemical processes on atmospheric chemistry.

MEA 762 Marine Geochemistry 3. Prerequisite: CH 331, MEA 560.

Detailed examination of chemical processes occurring in marine environment. Chemical evolution of the oceans, continental and submarine weathering, particle scavenging of reactive elements from water, column, formation of biogenic and metaliiferousdeposits, sediment diagenesis and marine geochronology.

MEA 763 Geochemistry 3. Prerequisite: CH 331 or 431.

Quantitative distribution of elements in earth's crust, hydrosphere and atmosphere. Application of laws of chemical equilibrium and resultant chemical reactions to natural earth systems. Geochemical application of Eh-pH diagrams. Geochemical cycles.Isotope geochemistry.

MEA 779 Advanced Air Quality 3. Prerequisite: CH 201 and MEA(CE) 479.

Local, regional and global scale chemical interactions, transport and behavior of trace gases (sulfur carbon, nitrogen, hydrocarbon, and photo-chemical oxidants) in the atmosphere. covers three primary elements of air quality: anthropogenic and natural emissions of trace gases; interactions of the pollutants in the atmosphere; and monitoring and sampling of gaseous and particulate pollutants.

MEA 785 Chemical Hydrogeology 3. Prerequisite: CH 201, and MEA 585 or CE 584.

Quantitative analysis of hydrological, geological, and geochemical factors controlling the transport and fate of organic and inorganic chemicals in groundwater. Acid-base, precipitation-dissolution, weathering, redox, complexation, sorption, and gas exchange reactions. Advection, diffusion, and dispersion in porous media, analytical solutions to the advection-dispersion equation. Non-aqueous-phase (organic) liquids.

MEA 788 Advanced Structural Geology 3. Prerequisite: MEA 451.

Principles of rock mechanics and their application in solving geologic problems; finite strain analysis of deformed rocks; advanced techniques of structural analysis; petrofabrics; development of various geologic structures. Emphasis upon application of principles and techniques in the field.

MEA 789 Topics In Appalachian Geology 3. Prerequisite: MEA 440, 450 and 451.

Examination of geology of areas within Appalachian orogenic belt. Lectures, discussions, reading and review of current literature and consideration of ideas concerning geological evolution of region. Required field trips.

MEA 790 Geotectonics 3. Prerequisite: MEA 440, 450, 451.

In-depth examination of current ideas in plate tectonic theory. Plate tectonic controls on orogeny, orogenic belts, magmatism and metallogeny.

MEA 791 Advanced Special Topics in Marine Science 1-3.

Opportunity for advanced undergraduate and graduate students to study timely special problem areas in Marine Science and Engineering.

MEA 792 Advanced Special Topics in Earth Sciences 1-3.

Special topics in earth sciences, provided to groups or to individuals.

MEA 793 Advanced Special Topics in Atmospheric Science 1-3.

Special topics in atmospheric science, provided to groups or to individuals.

MEA 794 Regional Tectonics 3. Prerequisite: MEA 440, 450, 451.

Methods of study of tectonic history of major geologic regions in North America and other areas of world through the application of stratigraphy, petrology and structural geology. Synthesizing regional tectonic patterns and events.

MEA 796 Exploration And Engineering Geophysics 3. Prerequisite: MEA 470 or PY 208.

Geophysical methods as applies to exploring the earth's mineral and energy resources and to investigating subsurface geological structure and physical properties. Principles, measurements, analyses, and interpretations of gravity, magnetic, electric, electromagnetic, seismic methods. Required research paper.

MEA 801 Seminar 1.

Presentation by each student of one seminar on his/her current research.

MEA 810 Special Topics 1-3.

MEA 811 Special Topics in Marine Sciences 1-6.

Special topics in earth sciences, provided to groups or to individuals.

MEA 812 Special Topics in Earth Sciences 1-3.

Special topics in atmospheric science, provided to groups or to individuals.

MEA 813 Special Topics in Atmospheric Sciences 1-6.

Special topics in earth sciences, provided to groups or to individuals.

MEA 885 Doctoral Supervised Teaching 1-3.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planing for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

MEA 893 Doctoral Supervised Research 1-9.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

MEA 895 Doctoral Dissertation Research 1-9.

Dissertation Research.

MEA 896 Summer Dissertation Research 1.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

MEA 899 Doctoral Dissertation Preparation 1-3.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements, full-time enrollment, preliminary examination, and residency requirements for the doctoral degree, and are writing and defending their dissertations.