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Genetics (GN)

GN - Genetics Courses

GN 301 Genetics in Human Affairs 3.

Appreciation and understanding of genetics in everyday life. Genetic perspective on normal human development, birth defects, birth control, cancer, organ transplants, intelligence, mental illness, and radiation and chemical exposure and issues raised by applications of recently developed genetic techniques such as in vitro fertilization, genetic engineering and prenatal monitoring.

GN 311 Principles of Genetics 4.
Prerequisite: BIO 183 or ZO 160.

Basic concepts and principles of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genetics. Mendelian inheritance, polygenic inheritance, linkage and mapping, chromosome aberrations, population genetics, evolution, DNA structure and replication, gene expression, mutation, gene regulation, extranuclear inheritance, bacterial and viral genetics, and recombinant DNA technology.

GN 312 Elementary Genetics Laboratory 1.
Corequisite: GN 311.

Genetic experiments and demonstrations using a variety of bacterial, plant and animal organisms. Mendelian inheritance, linkage analysis, population genetics, cytogenetics, biochemical genetics, DNA isolation, electrophoresis, and Southern blotting.

GN 421 Molecular Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in GN 311.

Biological macromolecules and their interactions, DNA topology, eukaryotic genome structure, chromatin and chromosome structure, transcription and transcription regulation, epigenetics, RNAi and RNA processing, recombinant DNA technology, genetic transformation and cloning of plants and animals. Bacteria, viruses, plants, animals and fungi as genetic systems. Students cannot receive credit for both GN 421 and GN 521 ');">GN 521.

GN 423 Population, Quantitative and Evolutionary Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311 and (MA 131 or MA 141).

This course is an introduction to population, quantitative and evolutionary genetics. This course will acquaint students with basic population genetics models. The course will cover genetic variation; measures of genetic variation; basic and advanced topics of selection; ecological genetics; inbreeding; genetic drift and effective population size; mutation; neutral theory and coalescence; gene flow and population structure; linkage disequilibrium and recombination; quantitative genetics; heritability;' quantitative trait loci; molecular population genetics and evolution.

GN 425 Advanced Genetics Laboratory 2.
Prerequisite: GN 312; Corequisite: GN 421.

This is a challenging advanced genetics laboratory designed to provide research and communication training and in-depth understanding of modern genetics through hands-on activities. Students will participate in a semester-long supervised research project in contemporary genetics using a model genetic organism and state-of-the-art techniques. The project will be directly related to research in the coordinating faculty member's laboratory. The project will require literature review, hypothesis development, experimental design and execution, data analysis and presentation of results in written and oral form.

GN 427 Introductory Bioinformatics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311 and (MA 131 or MA 141) with grades of C- or better.

This course is an introduction to bioinformatics for genetic and biological sciences. The course will provide a foundation in biological computing that includes command line interfaces, reformatting data, creating and editing graphics, automating analyses and database access, and scripting in biological programming languages used for bioinformatics such as Python, Perl, and R. Laptop required.

GN 434 Genes and Development 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in GN 311.

Overview of pivotal experiments in embryology and developmental genetics; genes and genetic pathways that control development in animal model systems and humans; focus on the application of molecular genetic approaches to the study of genes and development; reading and discussion of primary scientific literature.Cannot receive credit for both GN 434 and BIO 361.

GN 441 Human and Biomedical Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in GN 421.

This course is an in depth study of human and biomedical genetics and the role of genetics in human health and disease. The course will aquaint students with contemporary knowledge of genetics in disease causation and susceptibility, the use of model organisms to inform human biology and contemporary topics in human genetics research like epigenetics, therapeutic cloning, gene therapy, role of genetics in response to drugs and predictive medicine. Credit cannot be given for both 441 and 541.

GN 451 Genome Science 3.
Prerequisite: C- or better in GN 311.

Genomic approaches with a foundation in classical and molecular genetics, including both historical strategies used in early major genome projects, and cutting edge contemporary methods for genomics and systems biology; the sequencing, assembly, and annotation of genomes and transcriptomes; use of genomic methods to tackle problems in epigenetics, metagenomics, and proteomics; application to a wide variety of species and biological questions, including evolution and human health; reading, discussion, and presentation of current scientific literature.

GN 456 Epigenetics, Development, and Disease 3.
Prerequisite: B or better in GN 311.

Scientists are just beginning to fully appreciate how our genes and the environment interact to influence human development and disease. The emerging field of epigenetics offers new insights into these complex connections. Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene expression and phenotypes caused by mechanisms other than changes in the underlying DNA sequence. Topics may include imprinting, mechanisms driving epigenetic modifications, how environmental exposures may influence your grandchildren's health, why identical twins exhibit differences in behavior or disease susceptibility, and epigenetic and environmental bases of diverse diseases. We will also discuss experimental strategies for studying epigenetics.JR standing.

GN 461 Advanced Bioinformatics 3.
Prerequisite:GN 427 and ST 311 with grades of C- or better.

This course provides in-depth experience in applying bioinformatic computing techniques to experimental data with a focus on the genetic and biological sciences. The course will provide experience in genome sequence analysis and assembly, extracting, manipulating and visualizing genetic and molecular data, analysis of macromolecular sequences, and generating and visualizing phylogenetic date. Laptop required.

GN 490 Genetics Colloquium 1.
Prerequisite: GN 421.

This course will involve critical study of research in genetics. Students will evaluate primary research publication on prepared topics assigned by instructor, with emphasis on review of recent and current research.

GN 496 Genetics Research Experience 3.
Minimum of sophomore standing. Limited to Genetics Majors and Genetics Minors. Students must submit required signed course contract prior to registration..

GN 496 provides an opportunity for students to gain real-world experience by conducting independent research in a genetics research program. A minimum of 135 hours must be completed for the three hours credit. The experience must be arranged by the student and approved by the Director of the Undergraduate Genetics Program in advance of beginning the work. To gain approval, students must submit the completed GN 496 Contract, signed by their GN 496 supervisor (Research Mentor) and by their academic advisor. The student is required to write a research paper evaluating the results of their project. In addition to the work described in the contract, students will complete a series of reflective writtenassignments during and at the end of their GN 496 experience.

GN 497 Genetics Teaching Experience 3.
Minimum of sophomore standing. Limited to Genetics Majors and Genetics Minors. Students must submit required signed course contract prior to registration..

GN 497 provides an opportunity for students to gain experience in an aspect of genetics education research and/or developing, implementing, and evaluating the effectiveness of materials for use in the genetics classroom. A minimum of 135 hours must be completed for the three hours credit. The experience must be arranged by the student and approved by the Director of the Undergraduate Genetics Program in advance of beginning the work. To gain approval, students must submit the completed GN 497 Contract, signed by their GN 497 Teaching Mentor and by their academic advisor. The student is required to write a scientific paper evaluating the results of their project. In addition to the work described in the contract, students will complete a series of reflective written assignments during and at the end of their GN 497 experience.

GN 521 Molecular Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311.

Biological macromolecules and their interactions, DNA topology, eukaryotic genome structure, chromatin and chromosome structure, transcription and transcription regulation, epigenetics, RNAi and RNA processing, recombinant DNA technology, genetic transformation and cloning of plants and animals. Bacteria, viruses, plants, animals and fungi as genetic systems. Students cannot receive credit for both GN 421 and GN 521 ');">GN 521.

GN 541 Human and Biomedical Genetics 3.

This course is an in depth study of human and biomedical genetics and the role of genetics in human health and disease. The course will aquaint students with contemporary knowledge of genetics in disease causation and susceptibility, the use of model organisms to inform human biology and contemporary topics in human genetics research like epigenetics, therapeutic cloning, gene therapy, role of genetics in response to drugs and predictive medicine. Credit cannot be given for both 441 and 541.

GN 685 Master's Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

GN 690 Master's Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For students in non-thesis master's programs who have completed all other requirements of the degree except preparing for and taking the final master's exam.

GN 693 Master's Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's Student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

GN 695 Master's Thesis Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's Student.

Thesis Research.

GN 696 Summer Thesis Research 1.
Prerequisite: Master's student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

GN 699 Master's Thesis Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Master's Student.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements and full-time enrollment for the master's degree and are writing and defending their thesis. .

GN 701 Molecular Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311.

A discussion of the structure and function of genetic material at a molecular level. Consideration of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems. The aim to describe genetics in terms of chemical principles.

GN 702 Cellular and Developmental Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 701.

Regulation of genes involved in cellular function, differentiation and development in eukaryotes. Presentation of biological systems and model organisms used to study genetic control of cellular and developmental processes.

GN 703 Population and Quantitative Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311 and ST 512.

Mutation and origin of genetic variation. Measuring genetic variation in natural populations. Gene and genotype frequencies. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Values, means, genetic and environmental variance, heritability of quantitative traits. Random genetic drift and inbreeding. Natural and artifical selection. Theory and tests of models of maintenance of genetic variation. Molecular evolution of genes and proteins. Genome evolution.

GN 708 Genetics of Animal Improvement 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311, ST 512.

Emphasis on the utilization of basic principles of population and quantitative genetics in animal improvement. Factors affecting genic and genotypic frequencies and methods of estimating genetic and nongenetic variance, heritabilities and breeding values. The roles of mating systems and selection procedures in producing superior genetic populations.

GN 713 Quantitative Genetics and Breeding 3.

Quantitative and population genetic theory of breeding problems; partitioning of genetic variance, maternal effects, genotype by environment interaction and genetic correlation; selection indexes; design and analysis of selection experiments; marker-assisted selection.

GN 720 Molecular Biology In Plant Breeding 3.
Prerequisite: CS(GN,HS) 741, GN 701.

Theory and principles of molecular biology applied to plant breeding. Experimental approaches to induce genetic change, cytoplasmic recombination, haploid utilization and potentials of molecular techniques for solving breeding problems.

GN 721 Genetic Data Analysis 3.
Prerequisite: ST 430 and GN 311.

Analysis of discrete data, illustrated with genetic data on morphological characters allozymes, restriction fragment length polymorphisms and DNA sequences. Maximum likelihood estimation, including iterative procedures. Numerical resampling. Development of statistical techniques for characterizing genetic disequilibrium and diversity. Measures of population structure and genetic distance. Construction of phylogenetic trees. Finding alignments and similarities between DNA sequences. Locating genes with markers.

GN 725 Forest Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311.

Application of genetic principles to silviculture, management and wood utilization. Emphasis on variation in wild populations, the bases for selection of desirable qualities and fundamentals of controlled breeding.

GN 730 Fungal Genetics and Physiology 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 451, BO 775, GN 311 or PP 501.

Basic concepts of genetics and physiology of fungi, with emphasis on saprophytic and plant pathogenic mycelial fungi. Current literature on evolution, cell structure, growth and development, gene expression, metabolism, sexual and asexual reproduction and incompatibility systems. Laboratory exercises on mutant isolation, sexual and parasexual analysis, genetic transformation, and RFLP and isozyme analysis.

GN 735 Functional Genomics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 701.

Methodology of experimental genomics; genome sequencing, gene expression arrays, genomic screens, proteomics. Aims and achievements of microbial, plant, animal, human genome projects. Applications of genomics including parasitology, breeding, functional genomics, evolutionary genetics. Interface with bioinformatics, data technology.

GN 740 Evolutionary Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 703.

Genetic basis of evolution. Molecular evolution, molecular population genetics, evolutionary genetics of quantitative characters and the genetics of speciation. Critical reading of original research publications and student seminars.

GN 745 Quantitative Genetics In Plant Breeding 1.
Prerequisite: CS(GN, HS) 741, ST 512, course in quantitative genetics recommended.

Theory and principles of plant quantitative genetics. Experimental approaches of relationships between type and source of genetic variability, concepts of inbreeding, estimations of genetic variance and selection theory.

GN 746 Breeding Methods 2.
Prerequisite: CS (GN, HS) 741, ST 512.

Theory and principles of plant breeding methodology including population improvement, selection procedures, genotypic evaluation, cultivar development and breeding strategies.

GN 750 Developmental Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 701, GN 702.

Action and regulation of genes and gene-products in development and differentiation. Examples from microorganisms, plants and animals. Emphasis on molecular and biochemical aspects of mechanisms controlling gene expression in eukaryotic cell differentiation.

GN 755 Population Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: GN 703.

Theoretical population genetics and its relationship to natural and experimental populations. Single locus and multilocus systems, history of a gene in a population, diffusion approximations, suitability of models to natural and experimental populations.

GN 756 Computational Molecular Evolution 3.
Prerequisite: GN 311 and ST 511.

Phylogenetic analyses of nucleotide and protein sequence data. Sequence alignment, phylogeny reconstruction and relevant computer software. Prediction of protein secondary structure, database searching, bioinformatics and related topics. Project required.

GN 757 Statistics for Molecular Quantitative Genetics 3.
Prerequisite: ST 512 and GN 703 or ST 721.

Genetic mapping data. Linkage map reconstruction, quantitative genetical models. Statistical methods and computer programs for mapping quantitative trait loci and estimating genetic architecture of quantitative traits.

GN 758 Microbial Genetics & Genomics 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 451 or GN 311.

Structure and function in microbial genetics, with emphasis on microbial genome organization, stable maintenance and evolution. DNA mutation and repair pathways, transcriptional and translational regulation, DNA replication and recombination and characterization of recombinant DNA molecules. Applications of genetic and genomic analysis methods to microbial processes, including strain construction, genome manipulation, and enhancement of gene expression.

GN 761 Advanced Molecular Biology Of the Cell 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 553 or BCH 703 or GN 701.

An advanced graduate class involving integrated approaches to complex biological questions at the molecular level, encompassing biochemistry, cell biology and molecular genetics. The course will focus on an important, current area of research in eukaryotic biology using the primary scientific literature, and will involve class discussions, oral presentations, and a written research proposal.

GN 768 Nucleic Acids: Structure and Function 3.
Prerequisite: BCH 701 and 703.

An advanced treatment involving integrated approaches to biological problems at the molecular level, encompassing biochemistry, cell biology and molecular genetics. Broad, multidisciplinary approaches to solving research problems in biology and thecritical study of primary scientific literature, the development of a research proposal, oral presentations and class discussions.

GN 801 Seminar 1.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

Informal group discussion of prepared topics assigned by instructor.

GN 810 Special Topics in Genetics 1-6.

Critical study of selected areas and special topics of current interest in genetics and related fields.

GN 820 Special Problems 1-6.
Prerequisite: Advanced Graduate standing.

Special topics designed for additional experience and research training.

GN 850 Professionalism and Ethics 1.
Prerequisite: Graduate standing.

The course is designed to give students background in professionalism, scientific ethics and responsible conduct of science. Topics include the role of the scientist in society, ethical theory, data acquisition and ownership, scientific midconduct,authorship, peer review, conflicts of interest and commitment, intellectual property, ethics of teaching and mentoring, ethical treatment of animal and human subjects, ethics of genetics research, job hunting and interviewing.

GN 860 Plant Breeding Laboratory 1.
Prerequisite: CS(GN,HS)741.

Visitation of plant breeding projects in the Depts. of CS and HS at NC State, along with commercial seed companies. Discussion and viewing of breeding objectives, methods and equipment and teaching and practice of hybridization methods.

GN 861 Plant Breeding Laboratory 1.
Prerequisite: CS(GN,HS)741.

Visitation of plant breeding projects in the Depts. of CS and HS at NC State, along with commercial seed companies. Discussion and viewing of breeding objectives, methods and equipment and teaching and practice of hybridization methods.

GN 885 Doctoral Supervised Teaching 1-3.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Teaching experience under the mentorship of faculty who assist the student in planning for the teaching assignment, observe and provide feedback to the student during the teaching assignment, and evaluate the student upon completion of the assignment.

GN 890 Doctoral Preliminary Examination 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who are preparing for and taking written and/or oral preliminary exams.

GN 893 Doctoral Supervised Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Instruction in research and research under the mentorship of a member of the Graduate Faculty.

GN 895 Doctoral Dissertation Research 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

Dissertation Research.

GN 896 Summer Dissertation Research 1.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For graduate students whose programs of work specify no formal course work during a summer session and who will be devoting full time to thesis research.

GN 899 Doctoral Dissertation Preparation 1-9.
Prerequisite: Doctoral student.

For students who have completed all credit hour requirements, full-time enrollment, preliminary examination, and residency requirements for the doctoral degree, and are writing and defending their dissertations.