University Catalog 2023-2024

Horticultural Science (BS): Production Systems and Entrepreneurship in Horticulture Concentration

To see more about what you will learn in this program, visit the Learning Outcomes website!

The Bachelor of Science in Horticultural Science: Production Systems and Entrepreneurship in Horticulture Concentration is one of the four concentrations offered in by the Department of Horticultural Science. Students are offered a unique look at various aspects of Horticulture.  

The Production Systems and Entrepreneurship in Horticulture Concentration concentration is a menu driven concentration that allows students to direct their education in either ornamental or edible plant production. Students are required to take two Biology courses, Soil Science, General Chemistry, Introduction to Organic Chemistry, Whole Plant Physiology, and a lower level Genetics. The remaining courses for the major are selected from a series of topical menus: Plant Protection Electives, Business Electives, and Advised Electives. 

Students can follow paths toward nursery or greenhouse operations, vegetable or fruition production, and entrepreneurship or pursue a graduate degree.


Dr. Helen Kraus
Director of Undergraduate Programs and Associate Professor
Department of Horticultural Science
114 Kilgore Hall, Campus Box 7609
North Carolina State University
Raleigh, NC 27695-7609

Plan Requirements

ALS 103Freshman Transitions and Diversity in Agriculture & Life Sciences1
or ALS 303 Transfer Transitions and Diversity in Agriculture & Life Sciences
Public Speaking
Interpersonal Communication
Small Group Communication
Mathematics & Sciences
MA 107Precalculus I3
And one of the following:
MA 114Introduction to Finite Mathematics with Applications3
or MA 121 Elements of Calculus
or MA 131 Calculus for Life and Management Sciences A
or ST 311 Introduction to Statistics
BIO 181Introductory Biology: Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity4
BIO 183Introductory Biology: Cellular and Molecular Biology4
or PB 200 Plant Life
CH 101Chemistry - A Molecular Science3
CH 102General Chemistry Laboratory1
CH 220Introductory Organic Chemistry3
CH 222Organic Chemistry I Lab1
or PY 131 Conceptual Physics
ARE 201Introduction to Agricultural & Resource Economics3
or EC 201 Principles of Microeconomics
or EC 205 Fundamentals of Economics
Foundational Courses
HS 201The World of Horticulture: Principles and Practices3
HS 290Horticulture: Careers and Opportunities1
ANS/HS 215Agricultural Genetics3
or CS 211 Plant Genetics
SSC 200Soil Science3
SSC 201Soil Science Laboratory1
HS 301Plant Propagation4
PB 321Introduction to Whole Plant Physiology3
HS 451Plant Nutrition3
AEC 360Ecology4
or PB 360 Ecology
Select one of the following Career Experience courses:3
Horticulture Internship
Research Experience in Horticultural Science
Teaching Experience in Horticultural Science
Environmental Elective3
Plant Protective Elective 6
Business Electives (must choose at least one Entrepreneurship and one Management Elective)9
Broad-Scope Electives3
Advised Electives 316
GEP Courses
ENG 101Academic Writing and Research 14
GEP Humanities6
GEP Social Sciences3
GEP Health and Exercise Studies2
GEP US Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion3
GEP Interdisciplinary Perspectives2
GEP Global Knowledge (verify requirement)
Foreign Language Proficiency (verify requirement)
Free Electives
Free Electives (12 Hr S/U Lmt) 26
Total Hours120

A grade of C- or higher is required.


Students should consult their academic advisors to determine which courses fill this requirement.


19 credits minimum; At least 3 credits from Broad Scope; Remaining 16 credits from can be from Broad-Scope, Ornamental, or Edible Plant Electives

Environmental Electives

AEC 380Water Resources: Global Issues in Ecology, Policy, Management, and Advocacy3
or CS 224 Seeds, Biotechnology and Societies
or ES 200 Climate Change and Sustainability
or IDS 201 Environmental Ethics

Plant Protective Electives

CS 414Weed Science4
CS 415Integrated Pest Management3
ENT 425General Entomology3
or FOR 402 Forest Entomology
PP 315Principles of Plant Pathology4
or FOR 318 Forest Pathology
or PP 318 Forest Pathology

Business Electives

Entrepreneurship Electives
ACC 280Survey of Financial and Managerial Accounting3
ARE 215Small Business Accounting3
ARE 321Agricultural Financial Management3
BUS 370Operations and Supply Chain Management3
MIE 201Introduction to Business Processes3
MIE 310Introduction to Entrepreneurship3
MIE 413New Venture Planning3
Management Electives
ARE 303Farm Management3
ARE 304Agribusiness Management3
ARE 306Agricultural Law3
ARE 309Environmental Law & Economic Policy3
ARE 311Agricultural Markets3
ARE 312Agribusiness Marketing3
ARE 332Human Resource Management for Agribusiness3
BUS 360Marketing Methods3

Broad-Scope Electives

AEC 203An Introduction to the Honey Bee and Beekeeping3
ENT 401Honey Bee Biology and Management3
HS 242Introduction to Small Scale Landscape Design3
HS 280Hands-On-Horticulture3
HS 440Greenhouse Management3
HS 471Landscape Ecosystem Management4
HS 476Crop Physiology and Production in Controlled Environments 3
HS 491Sustainable Agriculture Entrepreneurship Study Abroad3
SSC 341Soil Fertility and Nutrient Management3
SSC 342Soil and Plant Nutrient Analysis1
SSC 461Soil Physical Properties and Plant Growth3

Advised Electives

Ornamental Plant Electives
CS 200Introduction to Turfgrass Management4
HS 302Gardening with Herbaceous Perennials3
HS 303Ornamental Plant Identification I3
HS 304Ornamental Plant Identification II3
HS 411Nursery Management3
HS 442Floriculture Crop Production3
PB 220Local Flora3
Edible Plant Electives
BAE 435Precision Agriculture Technology3
CS 230Introduction to Agroecology3
CS 430Advanced Agroecology4
FS 250Basics of Food Safety & Quality3
FS 462Postharvest Physiology3
HS 421Temperate-Zone Tree Fruits: Physiology and Culture3
HS 422Small Fruit Production3
HS 431Vegetable Production4
HS 462Postharvest Physiology3
PB 215Medicinal Plants3
PB 325Culinary Botany3
PB 345Economic Botany3
PB 346Economic Botany Lab1

Semester Sequence

This is a sample.

Plan of Study Grid
First Year
Fall SemesterHours
ALS 103
Freshman Transitions and Diversity in Agriculture & Life Sciences
or Transfer Transitions and Diversity in Agriculture & Life Sciences
BIO 181 Introductory Biology: Ecology, Evolution, and Biodiversity 4
ENG 101 Academic Writing and Research 4
HS 201 The World of Horticulture: Principles and Practices 3
HS 290 Horticulture: Careers and Opportunities 1
MA 107 Precalculus I 3
Spring Semester
BIO 183
Introductory Biology: Cellular and Molecular Biology
or Plant Life
COM 110
Public Speaking
or Interpersonal Communication
or Small Group Communication
GEP Humanities 3
GEP Health and Exercise Studies 1
MA 114
Introduction to Finite Mathematics with Applications
or Elements of Calculus
or Calculus for Life and Management Sciences A
or Introduction to Statistics
Second Year
Fall Semester
Advised Elective 1 3
Environmental Elective 3
ANS/HS 215
Agricultural Genetics
or Plant Genetics
CH 101 Chemistry - A Molecular Science 3
CH 102 General Chemistry Laboratory 1
Spring Semester
Advised Elective 3
ARE 201
Introduction to Agricultural & Resource Economics
or Principles of Microeconomics
or Fundamentals of Economics
CH 220 Introductory Organic Chemistry 3
CH 222
Organic Chemistry I Lab
or Conceptual Physics
GEP Health and Exercise Studies 1
SSC 200 Soil Science 3
SSC 201 Soil Science Laboratory 1
Third Year
Fall Semester
Advised Elective 3
GEP US Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion 3
HS 301 Plant Propagation 4
HS 492
Horticulture Internship (Select one of the following:)
or Research Experience in Horticultural Science
or Teaching Experience in Horticultural Science
Plant Protection Elective 3
Spring Semester
Advised Elective 3
ARE/BUS Elective 3
HS 451 Plant Nutrition 3
PB 321 Introduction to Whole Plant Physiology 3
Plant Protection Elective 3
Fourth Year
Fall Semester
Advised Elective 3
ARE/BUS Elective 3
Free Elective 3
GEP Social Sciences 3
PB/AEC 360 Ecology 4
Spring Semester
Advised Elective 3
ARE/BUS Elective 3
Free Elective 3
GEP Humanities 3
GEP Interdisciplinary Perspectives 3
 Total Hours120

Career Opportunities

Horticulture graduates fill positions in production, processing, sales, service, and outreach. Among these are:

  • County extension agents
  • Vocational agriculture teachers
  • Plant breeders
  • Landscape designers and landscape contractors
  • Floral crop grower or floral designer
  • Fruit and vegetable growers
  • Business owners
  • Orchard, nursery, greenhouse, and garden center managers
  • Research, production, and promotional specialists with commercial seed, fertilizer chemical, and food companies
  • Urban horticulture specialists
  • Garden writers
  • Quality control technologists
  • USDA specialists
  • County and state government planners
  • Leaders in other phases of agricultural and industrial developments
  • Students also prepare for careers in research, teaching or extension in horticulture